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3.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 171, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 syndrome typically consists of respiratory symptoms and other general nonspecific symptoms. Psychotic manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 attributable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are seldom reported. We report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 in a young West African male who had no known risk factors of psychiatric illness or past history of psychiatric disease presenting with acute psychosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient, who was a young West African male, presented without the typical respiratory symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 and also without a background history of psychiatric illness or any other significant stressors in his past or present social history. He had acute onset of psychotic symptoms consisting of visual and auditory hallucinations, delusions of persecution, and lack of insight. He was admitted and managed with antipsychotic medication and mood stabilizer. His laboratory workup was normal except for positive coronavirus disease 2019 polymerase chain reaction and his liver enzymes, which showed elevated gamma glutamyl transferase, a finding consistent with coronavirus disease 2019. His head computed tomography scan was also normal. The patient made a gradual recovery from his psychotic symptoms, with gain of insight 7 weeks after onset of symptoms, at which time his coronavirus disease 2019 test came back negative along with other laboratory parameters. He returned to work 12 weeks after his presentation and has been performing well. CONCLUSION: Psychosis can be a primary presenting symptom in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, including those without respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hallucinations/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology
4.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 72: 103099, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773084

ABSTRACT

Acute exacerbations of psychosis have been reported with COVID-19 infection and medications used for its treatment. Terms "psychosis", "psychotic", "COVID-19″ and "coronavirus" were searched on "PubMed" and "GOOGLE SCHOLAR", yielding 84 articles. 14 case reports were selected based on pre-defined criteria and analyzed. Among selected articles,10 attributed psychosis to COVID-19 infection. In 3 articles, psychosis was diagnosed despite concurrent delirium. In 8 and 3 articles respectively, a clear temporal demarcation of psychosis and COVID-19 infection and steroid use was not described. Psychosis can occur secondary to GMC, or exposure to medication. Due process should be followed to ascertain the same. INTRODUCTION: Neurotropic coronavirus infection is associated with numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Such presentations before, during and after the infection have been reported. Among these presentations, acute exacerbations of psychosis have been reportedly linked with COVID-19 infection and medications used for its treatment. METHODOLOGY: Search engines "PubMed" AND "GOOGLE SCHOLAR" were searched using specific search terms during June 2021. Out of 84 articles that came up, we selected 14 articles based on pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Selected articles were analysed and discussed in the departmental journal club. RESULTS: In 10 articles, diagnosis of psychosis was attributed to COVID-19 infection. In 3 of those articles, despite reporting concurrent delirium like presentation, diagnosis was still reported as psychosis. In 8 articles, the temporal correlation between onset of psychosis, onset of COVID-19 was not clearly demarcated. In 3 articles, clear demarcation between psychosis associated with steroid use and with a general medical condition (COVID-19) was not clearly presented. Only 2 articles did mention using a structured diagnostic system. In patients (3/17) with prior history of psychiatric illness, diagnosis was reported as relapse of psychosis (2/17), without specifying the criteria used for diagnosing a relapse. CONCLUSION: Acute exacerbation of psychosis can occur secondary to a general medical condition (GMC), or after exposure to a medication. However, due process should be followed to ascertain that the psychosis is indeed secondary to a GMC, or a medication, and not a de-novo presentation, or delirium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Psychotic Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/etiology , Humans , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Recurrence , Steroids
5.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936028, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND SARS-CoV-2 infection presents with a variety of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic courses to prolonged hospitalizations with severe systemic inflammatory responses and multiorgan failure. One particular sequela of the disease that has gained wider attention over the past year is the sudden onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the weeks following recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia. While the pathophysiology for the development of this condition is uncertain, symptoms ranging from mild confusion and anxiety to florid psychosis with manic delusions and auditory and visual hallucinations have been rarely, but increasingly, reported in the literature. The acute development of such symptoms in the post-recovery period can be devastating for patients, their caregivers, and clinicians who may be unaware of effective management options. CASE REPORT In this case report, we present a 23-year old man who developed psychotic symptoms, including acute mania, delusions of grandeur, and auditory and visual hallucinations, 1 week following an extended hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was admitted to our psychiatric unit and treated with a combination of antipsychotic and mood stabilizer medications. After 2 weeks of treatment, the patient's psychotic and mood-related symptoms resolved, with normal mental status maintained at last follow-up 1 month following discharge from our unit. CONCLUSIONS The acute development of neuropsychiatric symptoms is a rare but increasingly recognized sequela of COVID-19. Despite the severity of initial presentation, patients can be successfully treated with short courses of typical antipsychotic medications with complete return to baseline, unimpaired functioning, and no lingering psychiatric sequela.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adult , Hallucinations/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Riv Psichiatr ; 57(1): 40-43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686217

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is an infective respiratory illness caused by a novel virus, which might present different degrees of severity: from mild or even asymptomatic carriers to severe pneumonia, requiring intubation and intensive care unit (ICU) management. SARS-CoV-2 may cause also central nervous system involvement, including psychiatric manifestations. Some cases of psychosis apparently covid-related have been reported since the start of the pandemic; we will briefly review some of them here, then we will report a case concerning a patient with emerging psychosis during the disease caused by the virus. Our case describes a man with no prior personal or familiar psychiatric history, who developed delusion and a post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) which required hospitalization in a psychiatric unit. The patient was treated with antipsychotic medications and underwent a brief follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 56: 92-99, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648886

ABSTRACT

Clozapine, an antipsychotic, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection with COVID-19, compared to other antipsychotics. Here, we investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of adverse outcomes of COVID-19, namely COVID-related hospitalisation, intensive care treatment, and death, amongst patients taking antipsychotics with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using the clinical records of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, we identified 157 individuals who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, were taking antipsychotics (clozapine or other antipsychotics) at the time of COVID-19 pandemic in the UK and had a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. The following health outcomes were measured: COVID-related hospitalisation, COVID-related intensive care treatment and death. We tested associations between clozapine treatment and each outcome using logistic regression models, adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, neighbourhood deprivation, obesity, smoking status, diabetes, asthma, bronchitis and hypertension using propensity scores. Of the 157 individuals who developed COVID-19 while on antipsychotics (clozapine or other antipsychotics), there were 28% COVID-related hospitalisations, 8% COVID-related intensive care treatments and 8% deaths of any cause during the 28 days follow-up period. amongst those taking clozapine, there were 25% COVID-related hospitalisations, 7% COVID-related intensive care treatments and 7% deaths. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, we found no significant association between clozapine and any of the outcomes. Thus, we found no evidence that patients with clozapine treatment at time of COVID-19 infection had increased risk of hospitalisation, intensive care treatment or death, compared to non-clozapine antipsychotic-treated patients. However, further research should be considered in larger samples to confirm this.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Clozapine , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/adverse effects , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607266

ABSTRACT

The rising tide of antibacterial drug resistance has given rise to the virtual elimination of numerous erstwhile antibiotics, intensifying the urgent demand for novel agents. A number of drugs have been found to possess potent antimicrobial action during the past several years and have the potential to supplement or even replace the antibiotics. Many of these 'non-antibiotics', as they are referred to, belong to the widely used class of neuroleptics, the phenothiazines. Another chemically and pharmacologically related class is the thioxanthenes, differing in that the aromatic N of the central phenothiazine ring has been replaced by a C atom. Such "carbon-analogues" were primarily synthesized with the hope that these would be devoid of some of the toxic effects of phenothiazines. Intensive studies on syntheses, as well as chemical and pharmacological properties of thioxanthenes, were initiated in the late 1950s. Although a rather close parallelism with respect to structure activity relationships could be observed between phenothiazines and thioxanthenes; several thioxanthenes were synthesized in pharmaceutical industries and applied for human use as neuroleptics. Antibacterial activities of thioxanthenes came to be recognized in the early 1980s in Europe. During the following years, many of these drugs were found not only to be antibacterial agents but also to possess anti-mycobacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV and anti-SARS-CoV-2) and anti-parasitic properties. Thus, this group of drugs, which has an inhibitory effect on the growth of a wide variety of microorganisms, needs to be explored for syntheses of novel antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this review is to summarize the neuroleptic and antimicrobial properties of this exciting group of bioactive molecules with a goal of identifying potential structures worthy of future exploration.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Thioxanthenes/pharmacology , Animals , Humans , Microbiota
10.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 23(6)2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574646

ABSTRACT

Despite several reports of the neuropsychiatric effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in older adults, only a few cases of COVID-related psychosis have been reported in young patients. This case-based review compares the clinical presentations of 2 previously published cases of adolescent patients who developed psychosis in the context of COVID-related complications with a new case of a male adolescent who developed post-COVID psychosis. A discussion to raise clinicians' awareness of COVID-related psychosis in young patients as well as the need for cautious use of antipsychotic medications in this highly vulnerable age group is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adolescent , Aged , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134803, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516698

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with fatigue and sleep problems long after the acute phase of COVID-19. In addition, there are concerns of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing psychiatric illness; however, evidence of a direct effect is inconclusive. Objective: To assess risk of risk of incident or repeat psychiatric illness, fatigue, or sleep problems following SARS-CoV-2 infection and to analyze changes according to demographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assembled matched cohorts using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, a UK primary care registry of 11 923 499 individuals aged 16 years or older. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 months, from February 1 to December 9, 2020. Individuals with less than 2 years of historical data or less than 1 week follow-up were excluded. Individuals with positive results on a SARS-CoV-2 test without prior mental illness or with anxiety or depression, psychosis, fatigue, or sleep problems were matched with up to 4 controls based on sex, general practice, and year of birth. Controls were individuals who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Data were analyzed from January to July 2021. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined via polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and subsequent psychiatric morbidity (depression, anxiety, psychosis, or self-harm), sleep problems, fatigue, or psychotropic prescribing. Models adjusted for comorbidities, ethnicity, smoking, and body mass index. Results: Of 11 923 105 eligible individuals (6 011 020 [50.4%] women and 5 912 085 [49.6%] men; median [IQR] age, 44 [30-61] years), 232 780 individuals (2.0%) had positive result on a SARS-CoV-2 test. After applying selection criteria, 86 922 individuals were in the matched cohort without prior mental illness, 19 020 individuals had prior anxiety or depression, 1036 individuals had psychosis, 4152 individuals had fatigue, and 4539 individuals had sleep problems. After adjusting for observed confounders, there was an association between positive SARS-CoV-2 test results and psychiatric morbidity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.66-2.02), fatigue (aHR, 5.98; 95% CI, 5.33-6.71), and sleep problems (aHR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.64-3.78). However, there was a similar risk of incident psychiatric morbidity for those with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test results (aHR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.65-1.77) and a larger increase associated with influenza (aHR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.55-5.75). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of individuals registered at an English primary care practice during the pandemic, there was consistent evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of fatigue and sleep problems. However, the results from the negative control analysis suggest that unobserved confounding may be responsible for at least some of the positive association between COVID-19 and psychiatric morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep , Adult , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , England/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 548, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter medication overdose is a difficult diagnostic challenge for many physicians as common drug screening assays cannot detect these substances. We present a case of acute psychosis, serotonin syndrome, and anticholinergic overdose-like properties in the setting of Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold tablets, known by their street name Triple-C. This is the first case report we are aware of involving a patient presenting with these symptoms and requiring critical-care-level support. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old African American female with a past medical history of anxiety, childhood asthma, previous methamphetamine abuse, and coronavirus disease 2019 infection in August 2020 was brought to the emergency department by the local police department with altered mental status. Initial blood work, including extended drug screens, were unremarkable for a definitive diagnosis. This patient required critical-care-level support and high sedation because of her symptoms. Collateral history revealed the patient regularly consumed Triple-C daily for the 6 weeks prior to admission. A trial off sedation was attempted after 24 hours with no complications. The patient admitted to regular Triple-C consumption and auditory hallucinations since adolescence. She was discharged safely after 48 hours back into the community. She was lost to follow-up with psychiatry and internal medicine; however, she was evaluated in the emergency room 1 month later with a similar psychiatric presentation. CONCLUSION: Overdose of Triple-C should be kept in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a triad of psychosis, serotonin syndrome, and anticholinergic overdose, in the setting of unknown substance ingestion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Psychotic Disorders , Serotonin Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Drug Overdose/complications , Drug Overdose/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serotonin Syndrome/chemically induced , Serotonin Syndrome/diagnosis
14.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(2): 152-156, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-Cov-2 infection has multiple neurologic manifestations including encephalitis in multiple cases reported, however the psychosis as principal manifestation of this condition is infrequently. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 who developed paranoid and self-referential ideas with behavioural alteration and multiple findings on mental examination. Encephalitis associated with Covid-19 was suspected due to the neurological clinical presentation (persistent despite resolve hypoxaemia and systemic symptoms) and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) that showed asymmetric hippocampal hyperintensities, although cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram (EEG) were normal. The patient received medical treatment with methylprednisolone for 5 days with complete resolution of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has neurological complications either by direct involvement or by para-infectious or post-infectious phenomena. Encephalitis occurs in a small proportion of the cases, while psychiatric symptoms have been described in a variable percentage of the events. However, a psychotic picture such as the one reported in our case is unusual. MRI, cerebrospinal fluid and EEG are important for the diagnostic evaluation of these patients but not obligatory to the diagnosis. The treatment of this condition with corticosteroids has been successful even in cases associated with Anti-NMDA. Our case is the second reported in Colombia, the first to be associated with psychosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Psychotic Disorders , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids/therapeutic use
16.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292182

ABSTRACT

The widespread prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) means that inpatient psychiatric units will necessarily manage patients who have COVID-19 that is comorbid with acute psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of recurrence of respiratory symptoms and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in a patient on an inpatient psychiatric unit occurring 42 days after the initial positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, 38 days after initial symptom resolution, and 30 days after the first of 3 negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests. Over the course of the admission, the patient was safely initiated on clozapine. Recent literature on COVID-19's potential recurrence and neuropsychiatric effects is reviewed and implications for the management of COVID-19 on inpatient psychiatric units are discussed. In the era of COVID-19 and our still-developing understanding of this illness, psychiatrists' role as advocates and collaborators in our patients' physical health care has become even more critical.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Clozapine , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Male , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Suicide, Attempted
17.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 131-136, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291391

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 Coronavirus (SARS-2-CoV). Although most prominently associated with pulmonary manifestations, COVID-19 is increasingly implicated in neuropsychiatric complications, including delirium and psychosis. There is a potential causal link between COVID-19 infection and psychotic symptoms; however, case reports to date have been incomplete, as the patients described had known psychiatric histories or other plausible medical causes for altered mental status. We present a longitudinal case of COVID-19 psychosis in a patient who underwent comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. This case is a contribution to the inchoate characterization of neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 infection. CASE REPORT: We present a case of late-onset psychosis in a middle-aged man with no psychiatric history who tested positive for COVID-19 on admission following a recently resolved upper respiratory illness. His acute presentation-characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thought and behavior, for which he required inpatient medical admission and subsequent inpatient psychiatric hospitalization-was successfully treated. During his hospitalization, he underwent comprehensive medical and neurological workup (including neuroimaging; electroencephalography; and serum and cerebrospinal fluid testing) that was grossly unremarkable. DISCUSSION: Despite myriad potential causes of the patient's psychosis, this patient's diagnostic workup was largely unrevealing, apart from his nasopharyngeal SARS-2-CoV reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. As such, psychosis secondary to COVID-19 infection emerged as the presumptive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Acute Disease , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Risperidone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Br J Psychiatry ; 219(1): 357-358, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282281

ABSTRACT

Clozapine is under-used in the UK, and Casetta et al's recent paper in the BJPsych adds to a growing number of small studies that support the use of intramuscular clozapine to initiate and maintain treatment with oral clozapine. However, intramuscular clozapine remains unlicensed and, because of the risks associated with its administration, it should be used only cautiously before it can be adopted more widely into mainstream clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Clozapine , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/adverse effects , Humans , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
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