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1.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 25(2): 335-344, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718744

ABSTRACT

Women present a second peak of incidence of psychosis during the menopausal transition, partially explained by the loss of estrogen protection conferred during the reproductive years. In view of the lack of studies comparing sociodemographic, biological, and clinical variables and neurocognitive performance between women with early onset of psychosis (EOP) and those with late onset of psychosis (LOP), our aim was to characterize both groups in a large sample of 294 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 85 healthy controls (HC). In this cross-sectional study, the participants were interviewed to gather information on sociodemographic variables. We assessed laboratory features of interest and conducted a clinical assessment of psychopathological symptoms and neurocognitive abilities. From the latter, we derived a global cognitive functioning score. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare EOP and LOP groups, and each group with age-comparable HC. EOP women were more frequently single and unemployed than HC age peers. While cholesterol levels in LOP women were higher than those in EOP women, no statistically significant differences were found in leptin levels. Women with LOP presented with less severe negative symptoms and higher cognitive processing speed scores than women with EOP. Cannabis and alcohol use was greater in EOP than in LOP women. Within the total FEP group, there was a history of significantly more recent traumatic events than in the HC group. Women with EOP and LOP show several sociodemographic and clinical differences, which may be valuable for planning personalized treatment.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Psychotic Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology
2.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 56: 92-99, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648886

ABSTRACT

Clozapine, an antipsychotic, is associated with increased susceptibility to infection with COVID-19, compared to other antipsychotics. Here, we investigate associations between clozapine treatment and increased risk of adverse outcomes of COVID-19, namely COVID-related hospitalisation, intensive care treatment, and death, amongst patients taking antipsychotics with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Using the clinical records of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, we identified 157 individuals who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, were taking antipsychotics (clozapine or other antipsychotics) at the time of COVID-19 pandemic in the UK and had a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. The following health outcomes were measured: COVID-related hospitalisation, COVID-related intensive care treatment and death. We tested associations between clozapine treatment and each outcome using logistic regression models, adjusting for gender, age, ethnicity, neighbourhood deprivation, obesity, smoking status, diabetes, asthma, bronchitis and hypertension using propensity scores. Of the 157 individuals who developed COVID-19 while on antipsychotics (clozapine or other antipsychotics), there were 28% COVID-related hospitalisations, 8% COVID-related intensive care treatments and 8% deaths of any cause during the 28 days follow-up period. amongst those taking clozapine, there were 25% COVID-related hospitalisations, 7% COVID-related intensive care treatments and 7% deaths. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, we found no significant association between clozapine and any of the outcomes. Thus, we found no evidence that patients with clozapine treatment at time of COVID-19 infection had increased risk of hospitalisation, intensive care treatment or death, compared to non-clozapine antipsychotic-treated patients. However, further research should be considered in larger samples to confirm this.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Clozapine , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Clozapine/adverse effects , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 36-43, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 infection, depression, anxiety, sleep problems, cigarette, alcohol, drug usage contribute to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) among adolescents during the pandemic. We also aimed to explore whether baseline inflammatory markers or the number of SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms are associated with PLEs, and the latter is mediated by internalizing symptoms. METHODS: Altogether, 684 adolescents aged 12-18 (SARS-CoV-2 group n = 361, control group (CG) n = 323) were recruited. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences-42-Positive Dimension (CAPE-Pos), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were completed by all volunteers using an online survey. C-reactive Protein and hemogram values, and SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms during the acute infection period were recorded in the SARS-CoV-2 group. Group comparisons, correlations, logistic regression, and bootstrapped mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: CAPE-Pos-Frequency/Stress scores were significantly higher, whereas GAD-7-Total and PSQI-Total scores were significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2 than CG. Among the SARS-CoV-2 group, monocyte count and the number of SARS-CoV-2-symptoms were positively correlated with CAPE-Pos-Frequency/Stress scores. Besides SARS-CoV-2, cigarette use, GAD-7, and PHQ-9 scores significantly contributed to the presence of at least one CAPE-Pos "often" or "almost always". PHQ-9 and GAD-7 fully mediated the relationship between the number of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms and CAPE-Pos-Frequency. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show a possible relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and PLEs among adolescents. Depression, anxiety, and cigarette use also contributed to PLEs. The number of SARS-Cov-2-symptoms and PLEs association was fully mediated by internalizing symptoms, but prospective studies will need to confirm this result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 73: 84-100, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the comorbidities, presentations, and outcomes of adults with incident psychosis and a history of COVID-19. METHODS: We completed a descriptive systematic review of case reports according to PRISMA guidelines, including cases of adult patients with incident psychosis and antecedent or concurrent COVID-19. We extracted patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical course, and outcomes, and assessed cases for quality using a standardized tool. RESULTS: Of 2396 articles, we included 40 reports from 17 countries, comprising 48 patients. The mean age of patients was 43.9 years and 29 (60%) were males. A total of 7 (15%) had a documented psychiatric history, 6 (13%) had a substance use history and 11 (23%) had a comorbid medical condition. Delusions were the most common (44 [92%]) psychiatric sign and psychosis lasted between 2 and 90 days. A total of 33 (69%) patients required hospitalization to a medical service and 16 (33%) required inpatient psychiatric admission. The majority (26 [54%]) of cases did not assess for delirium and 15 (31%) cases were judged to be of high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the growing awareness of COVID-19's association with incident psychosis at a population level, cases of COVID-19-associated psychosis often lacked clinically relevant details and delirium was frequently not excluded. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021256746.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adult , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E988-E997, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which heightened distress during the COVID-19 pandemic translated to increases in severe mental health outcomes is unknown. We examined trends in psychiatric presentations to acute care settings in the first 12 months after onset of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a trends analysis of administrative population data in Ontario, Canada. We examined rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for mental health diagnoses overall and stratified by sex, age and diagnostic grouping (e.g., mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders), as well as visits for intentional self-injury for people aged 10 to 105 years, from January 2019 to March 2021. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant inflection points after the onset of the pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: Among the 12 968 100 people included in our analysis, rates of mental health-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits declined immediately after the onset of the pandemic (peak overall decline of 30% [hospitalizations] and 37% [emergency department visits] compared to April 2019) and returned to near prepandemic levels by March 2021. Compared to April 2019, visits for intentional self-injury declined by 33% and remained below prepandemic levels until March 2021. We observed the largest declines in service use among adolescents aged 14 to 17 years (55% decline in hospitalizations, 58% decline in emergency department visits) and 10 to 13 years (56% decline in self-injury), and for those with substance-related disorders (33% decline in emergency department visits) and anxiety disorders (61% decline in hospitalizations). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to expectations, the abrupt decline in acute mental health service use immediately after the onset of the pandemic and the return to near prepandemic levels that we observed suggest that changes and stressors in the first 12 months of the pandemic did not translate to increased service use. Continued surveillance of acute mental health service use is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134803, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516698

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with fatigue and sleep problems long after the acute phase of COVID-19. In addition, there are concerns of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing psychiatric illness; however, evidence of a direct effect is inconclusive. Objective: To assess risk of risk of incident or repeat psychiatric illness, fatigue, or sleep problems following SARS-CoV-2 infection and to analyze changes according to demographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assembled matched cohorts using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, a UK primary care registry of 11 923 499 individuals aged 16 years or older. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 months, from February 1 to December 9, 2020. Individuals with less than 2 years of historical data or less than 1 week follow-up were excluded. Individuals with positive results on a SARS-CoV-2 test without prior mental illness or with anxiety or depression, psychosis, fatigue, or sleep problems were matched with up to 4 controls based on sex, general practice, and year of birth. Controls were individuals who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Data were analyzed from January to July 2021. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined via polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and subsequent psychiatric morbidity (depression, anxiety, psychosis, or self-harm), sleep problems, fatigue, or psychotropic prescribing. Models adjusted for comorbidities, ethnicity, smoking, and body mass index. Results: Of 11 923 105 eligible individuals (6 011 020 [50.4%] women and 5 912 085 [49.6%] men; median [IQR] age, 44 [30-61] years), 232 780 individuals (2.0%) had positive result on a SARS-CoV-2 test. After applying selection criteria, 86 922 individuals were in the matched cohort without prior mental illness, 19 020 individuals had prior anxiety or depression, 1036 individuals had psychosis, 4152 individuals had fatigue, and 4539 individuals had sleep problems. After adjusting for observed confounders, there was an association between positive SARS-CoV-2 test results and psychiatric morbidity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.66-2.02), fatigue (aHR, 5.98; 95% CI, 5.33-6.71), and sleep problems (aHR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.64-3.78). However, there was a similar risk of incident psychiatric morbidity for those with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test results (aHR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.65-1.77) and a larger increase associated with influenza (aHR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.55-5.75). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of individuals registered at an English primary care practice during the pandemic, there was consistent evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of fatigue and sleep problems. However, the results from the negative control analysis suggest that unobserved confounding may be responsible for at least some of the positive association between COVID-19 and psychiatric morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep , Adult , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , England/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21002, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483148

ABSTRACT

COVID19 infection was associated with possible psychiatric manifestations, including psychosis and mania. In addition, psychiatric disorders might be triggered by severe psychological reactions to the pandemic or the measures taken to contain it. This study aimed to assess the trends of new-onset psychosis/mania during the pandemic timeline. Psychiatric emergency department records during January-July 2019 and 2020 of two regional mental health centers were manually examined. Cases of new-onset psychosis or mania were found in 326 out of 5161 records examined. The ratio of these cases increased by 45.5% in 2020 compared to 2019 (189 out of 2367, 137 out of 2479, respectively, p = 0.001). The peak increase was in April 2020 (9.4% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.015). There was no association between the rise of new-onset psychotic or manic episodes and national incidence of COVID19 cases, as observed during Israel 2nd wave. PCR tests were negative, except a single case. In this study, an increase in new-onset psychosis/mania was identified during the initial phase of the pandemic. Though causality could not be directly inferred, lack of infection symptoms, negative PCR testing and temporal distribution incongruent with COVID19 caseload did not support a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2. Alternative explanations are discussed, such as psychological reaction to stress and preventive measures, as well as case-shifting between different mental health settings.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Psychiatric/statistics & numerical data , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Electronic Health Records , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric/trends , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 111: 152274, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased psychological stress among adolescents, and the relation between perceived stress (PS) and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) has been well-established. However, little is known about the role of family functioning (FF) in this relation, especially when adolescents experienced the extended lockdown period with family members. METHODS: A total of 4807 adolescents completed this retrospective paper-and-pencil survey after school reopening between May 14th and June 6th, 2020 in Hunan Province, China. We measured PS with the Perceived stress scale (PSS-10), PLEs with the eight positive items from Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-8), and FF with the Family APGAR scale. We conducted subgroup analysis based on three FF levels (good, moderate, and poor) determined by previous studies. Finally, correlation and moderation analysis were performed to detect the effect of FF in the relation between PS and PLEs after adjusting for demographic variables. RESULTS: Adolescents with poor FF had higher levels of PS and higher prevalence of PLEs compared to those with good FF (both p < 0.001). FF was negatively associated with both PS (r = -0.34, p < 0.001) and PLEs (r = -0.29, p < 0.001). Higher FF significantly attenuated the effect of PS on PLEs after adjusting for sex and age (effect = -0.011, bootstrap 95% CI -0.018, -0.005). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that well-functioned family could protect against stress-induced PLEs among adolescents during this crisis. Thus family system could be an early interventional target for distressing psychotic-like experiences in youngsters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Schizophr Res ; 237: 40-46, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392548

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Lockdown policies during COVID-19 pandemic have potential adverse psychological impacts on youth. However, little is known about their influence on the changes of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) among adolescents, nor about the possible association between changes in PLEs and changes in anxiety/depression symptoms. We investigated these two questions through a longitudinal comparative study. METHODS: In total, 1825 adolescents were surveyed before COVID-19 and after the lockdown in China (T0, October 20th, 2019 and T1, May 18th, 2020). PLEs, anxiety, and depression were measured with paranoia, anxiety and depression subscales of the Mental Health Inventory of Middle school students (MMHI-60). Within-subjects Wilcoxon test, Spearman correlation test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were adopted. RESULTS: Significant increase in adolescent PLEs scores was observed after the lockdown (Wilcoxon's w = 9.302, p < 0.001). We also found positive correlation between changes of PLEs and changes of anxiety/depression (Spearman's rho = 0.59/0.53, both p < 0.001). Furthermore, four PLEs trajectories were identified based on the report of PLEs at two timepoints: 60.4% with no PLEs, 9.3% remitted PLEs, 16.7% new PLEs, and 13.6% persistent PLEs. Significant difference was found in changes of anxiety/depression among four groups (p < 0.001); notably, the group with new-onset PLEs had the greatest exacerbation in anxiety/depression symptoms (both p Bonferroni <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This work is the first to identify increases in adolescent PLEs across the COVID-19 pandemic and suggested a close longitudinal association between PLEs and anxiety/depression. Our findings have implications for adolescent mental health crisis interventions during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114081, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294146

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders presenting to emergency departments (ED) for psychiatric treatment during the first six months of the COVID-19 lockdown in Melbourne. This cross-sectional data-base study included adult patients in the North West Area Mental Health Service's catchment area who had visited two emergency departments (EDs) during the study period (March 16-September 16, 2020) and the control period (March 16-September 16, 2019). Compared to the control period (n = 467), the lockdown period (n = 451) had a 6.8% more psychotic disorders. This increase was particularly noted for schizophrenia and acute transient psychosis. In a sub-analysis of psychotic disorder group alone, compared to the control period, more patients were discharged to the community in the lockdown period. In another sub-analysis, compared to the mood disorder group, psychotic disorder group included more patients in 26-35 and 46-55 age groups, men, emergency triage category, and hospital admissions and higher mean duration of ED stay in the lockdown period. Overall, patients with psychotic disorders had increased ED presentations and appeared to be in an emergency state when they present to ED during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
17.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 58(1): 164-169, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291243

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This article aims to describe distinct vulnerabilities to the psychosocial stress from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on individuals with psychosis and provide practical ways to reduce the vulnerabilities. CONCLUSION: Societal changes and stress have come in the wake of the COVID-19. Individuals with psychosis are more susceptible to stress, cognitive biases, and lack social support. Practitioners working with individuals with psychosis are in a unique position to offer ways to reduce risk. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Care during the pandemic requires practitioners to pay particular attention to magnified risk factors to individuals with psychosis and create a plan to offer adjunct support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(2): 165-171, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288492

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A central objective of early psychosis therapy is to restore social functioning (e.g., through employment and education). Employment and educational outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic were examined in a well-defined cohort of patients receiving care in an early psychosis clinic. METHODS: Data were extracted from the electronic health records of 128 patients receiving care at McLean Hospital's first-episode psychosis (FEP) clinic between January 1 and September 21 in 2019 and 2020. Using a generalized linear model with a Gaussian distribution and robust standard errors, the authors compared the average changes in the weekly employment and education proportions before and after COVID-19 lockdowns with the same changes in 2019. RESULTS: Employment losses among patients with FEP were greater than among the general population and persisted through the end of follow-up. In 2020, average employment after a stay-at-home order was instituted was 33% lower than before the order compared with the change in employment during the same period in 2019. The effect was stronger among men and those who identified as non-White, were age <21 years, or did not have a college education. Although educational engagement recovered in the fall of 2020, it still remained below the 2019 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Employment disruptions were major and persistent among the FEP population, which might affect short- and long-term outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to help patients transition to remote employment, file unemployment claims, and use online hiring platforms to ameliorate the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Employment , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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