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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19336, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118705

ABSTRACT

Recent literature on the mental health consequences of social distancing measures has found a substantial increase in self-reported sleep disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms during lockdown periods. We investigate this issue with data on monthly purchases of psychotropic drugs from the universe of Italian pharmacies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and find that purchases of mental health-related drugs have increased with respect to 2019. However, the excess volumes do not match the massive increase in anxiety and depressive disorders found in survey-based studies. We also study the interplay between mobility, measured with anonymized mobile phone data, and mental health and report no significant effect of mobility restrictions on antidepressants and anxiolytics purchases during 2020. We provide three potential mechanisms that could drive the discrepancy between self-reported mental health surveys and psychotropic drugs prescription registries: (1) stockpiling practices in the early phases of the pandemic; (2) the adoption of compensatory behavior and (3) unexpressed and unmet needs due to both demand- and supply-side shortages in healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge regarding the actionable key predictive factors of homelessness in psychiatric populations. Therefore, we used a machine learning model to explore the REHABase database (for rehabilitation database-n = 3416), which is a cohort of users referred to French psychosocial rehabilitation centers in France. METHODS: First, we analyzed whether the different risk factors previously associated with homelessness in mental health were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. In the second step, we used unbiased classification and regression trees to determine the key predictors of homelessness. Post hoc analyses were performed to examine the importance of the predictors and to explore the impact of cognitive factors among the participants. RESULTS: &nbsp;First, risk factors that were previously found to be associated with homelessness were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. Among all the variables studied with a machine learning approach, the most robust variable in terms of predictive value was the nature of the psychotropic medication (sex/sex relative mean predictor importance: 22.8, σ = 3.4). Post hoc analyses revealed that first-generation antipsychotics (15.61%; p < 0.05 FDR corrected), loxapine (16.57%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) and hypnotics (17.56%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) were significantly associated with homelessness. Antidepressant medication was associated with a protective effect against housing deprivation (9.21%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected). CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic medication was found to be an important predictor of homelessness in our REHABase cohort, particularly loxapine and hypnotics. On the other hand, the putative protective effect of antidepressants confirms the need for systematic screening of depression and anxiety in the homeless population.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Homeless Persons , Loxapine , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Machine Learning , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
3.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(35): 5615-5687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a nonapeptide synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Historically, this molecule has been involved as a key factor in the formation of infant attachment, maternal behavior and pair bonding and, more generally, in linking social signals with cognition, behaviors and reward. In the last decades, the whole oxytocin system has gained a growing interest as it was proposed to be implicated in etiopathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: With the main goal of an in-depth understanding of the oxytocin role in the regulation of different functions and complex behaviors as well as its intriguing implications in different neuropsychiatric disorders, we performed a critical review of the current state of the art. We carried out this work through the PubMed database up to June 2021 with the search terms: 1) "oxytocin and neuropsychiatric disorders"; 2) "oxytocin and neurodevelopmental disorders"; 3) "oxytocin and anorexia"; 4) "oxytocin and eating disorders"; 5) "oxytocin and obsessive- compulsive disorder"; 6) "oxytocin and schizophrenia"; 7) "oxytocin and depression"; 8) "oxytocin and bipolar disorder"; 9) "oxytocin and psychosis"; 10) "oxytocin and anxiety"; 11) "oxytocin and personality disorder"; 12) "oxytocin and PTSD". RESULTS: Biological, genetic, and epigenetic studies highlighted quality and quantity modifications in the expression of oxytocin peptide or in oxytocin receptor isoforms. These alterations would seem to be correlated with a higher risk of presenting several neuropsychiatric disorders belonging to different psychopathological spectra. Collaterally, the exogenous oxytocin administration has shown to ameliorate many neuropsychiatric clinical conditions. CONCLUSION: Finally, we briefly analyzed the potential pharmacological use of oxytocin in a patient with severe symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and immunoregulatory properties.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , DNA-Binding Proteins , Female , Humans , Infant , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Psychotropic Drugs/pharmacology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 306, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have had significant mental health consequences for military personnel, which is a population already exposed to psychological stress. To assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed the dispensing of three classes of psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antidepressants) among French military personnel. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the individualized medico-administrative data of persons insured by the National Military Social Security Fund from the National Health Data System. All active French military personnel aged 18-64 who received outpatient care and to whom drugs were dispensed between January 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021, were included from the French national health database. Rate ratios of dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics and antidepressants (based on drug reimbursement) were estimated from negative binomial regressions before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-one thousand seven hundred eleven individuals were included. Overall, 45,148 military personnel were reimbursed for anxiolytics, 10,637 for hypnotics, and 4328 for antidepressants. Drugs were dispensed at a higher rate in 2020 and 2021 than in 2019. There was a notable peak at the beginning of the first lockdown followed by a decrease limited to the duration of the first lockdown. During the first lockdown only, there were temporary phenomena including a brief increase in drug dispensing during the first week followed by a decrease during the rest of lockdown, possibly corresponding to a stocking-up effect. For the study period overall, while there was a significant downward trend in psychotropic drug dispensing before the occurrence of COVID-19 (p < 0.001), the pandemic period was associated with an increase in dispensed anxiolytics (rate ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04, p < 0.05), hypnotics (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.16, p < 0.001) and antidepressants (rate ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.13, p < 0.001) in the military population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has probably had a significant impact on the mental health of French military personnel, as suggested by the trends in dispensed psychotropic drugs. The implementation of mental health prevention measures should be investigated for this population.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Military Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 32(7): 408-414, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017634

ABSTRACT

Objective: Increased mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted psychotropic medication use. This study describes trends in monthly psychotropic medications before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with mental health disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using the 2019-2020 IQVIA™ prescription and medical commercial claims data to estimate the proportion of children and adolescents with any psychotropic prescription in the month out of all with any mental health-related medical or prescription services in the month and the year-over-year percent change. We assessed monthly proportions of youth who filled a psychotropic prescription overall and by psychotropic class, stratified by age and gender. Results: Of the 8,896,713 children and adolescents in the sample, 24.7% received psychotropic medication during the study period. The proportion of the cohort prescribed a psychotropic medication in a given month averaged 27%-28% from January 2019 to February 2020, peaked at 36.9% in April 2020, and gradually declined to 28.7% in September 2020. The largest year-over-year percent change was in April for antipsychotic (41.9%) and antidepressant (37.9%) medication, which remained higher in September 2020 compared to September 2019, particularly among ages 6 years or older and females. Conclusion: The proportion of youth with a psychotropic prescription increased at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, later returning to prepandemic levels. However, antipsychotics and antidepressants remained higher than prepandemic, highlighting the need to further understand the long-lasting effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
6.
Br J Psychiatry ; 221(6): 748-757, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns were predicted to have a major impact on mental health, however current studies have produced contradictory findings with limited longitudinal data. AIMS: Nine years of linked, individual-level administrative data were used to examine changes in psychotropic medication uptake before and during the pandemic. METHOD: Medication data from a population-wide prescribing database were linked to demographic and socioeconomic indicators from healthcare registration records (n = 1 801 860). Monthly prescription uptake was split (pre-restrictions: January 2012 to February 2020 and during restrictions: March to October 2020). Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were trained in R taking into consideration trends and seasonal effects. Forecast ('expected') monthly values were compared with 'actual' values, stratified by demographic factors. RESULTS: Over the study period 38.5% of the study population were in receipt of ≥1 psychotropic medication. Uptake of these medications have been following a strong upward trend since January 2012. In March 2020 uptake of all medications increased beyond expected values, returning to expected trends from May 2020 for antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In the 8 months during restrictions uptake of hypnotic medication was 12% higher than expected among those <18 years, and anxiolytic medication higher than expected in those >65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest an initial 'stockpiling' of medications in March 2020 before trends mostly returned to expected levels. The anticipated tsunami of mental ill health is not yet manifest in psychotropic medication uptake. There are indications of increased anxiety and sleep difficulties in some subgroups, although these conditions may resolve as we emerge from the pandemic without need for psychiatric intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Cohort Studies , Research Design , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
7.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 146(4): 381-383, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961463
8.
Drugs Aging ; 39(8): 657-669, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medicine utilisation in older adults continues to be of interest because of overuse and concerns surrounding its safety and efficacy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterise the utilisation of psychotropic medicines in older people in New Zealand. METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis of national dispensing data from 1 January, 2005 to 31 December, 2019. We defined utilisation using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification defined daily dose system. Utilisation was measured in terms of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 older people per day (TOPD). RESULTS: Overall, the utilisation of psychotropic medicines increased marginally by 0.42% between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation increased for antidepressants (72.42 to 75.21 DDD/TOPD) and antipsychotics (6.06-19.04 DDD/TOPD). In contrast, the utilisation of hypnotics and sedatives (53.74-38.90 DDD/TOPD) and anxiolytics decreased (10.20-9.87 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of atypical antipsychotics increased (4.06-18.72 DDD/TOPD), with the highest percentage change in DDD/TOPD contributed by olanzapine (520.6 %). In comparison, utilisation of typical antipsychotics was relatively stable (2.00-2.06 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of venlafaxine increased remarkably by 5.7 times between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation of zopiclone was far greater than that of other hypnotics in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: There was only a marginal increase in psychotropic medicines utilisation from 2005 to 2019 in older adults in New Zealand. There was a five-fold increase in the utilisation of antipsychotic medicines. Continued monitoring of psychotropic medicine utilisation will be of interest to understand the utilisation of antidepressants and antipsychotic medicines during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic year.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , New Zealand , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
9.
Drugs Aging ; 39(6): 467-475, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into nursing homes, restrictive measures and social distancing were implemented; however, these caused an increase in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety and an alteration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is expected that prescription trends of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the pandemic may have changed significantly. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic to those of the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in geriatric units and psychogeriatric units in seven nursing homes in Gipuzkoa, Spain. On 1 March, 2020, data regarding 511 residents in geriatric units and 163 in psychogeriatric units were recorded. This study examined utilization percentages for psychotropic drugs before the pandemic (April 2018-March 2020) and during the pandemic (April 2020-March 2021) in light of projected usage based on previous years. Following the Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical Classification System, four therapeutic groups were analyzed: antipsychotics (N05A), benzodiazepines (N05B and N05C), antidepressants (N06A), and antiepileptic drugs (N03A). RESULTS: In the case of geriatric units, a downward trend of prescription was reversed for antipsychotics (-0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.41, 0.60). Benzodiazepine use also decreased less than expected (-2.00; 95% CI -3.00, -1.00). Antidepressant use increased more than predicted (0.02; 95% CI -0.97, 1.01), as did antiepileptic drug use (2.93; 95% CI 2.27, 3.60). In the psychogeriatric units, the drop in antipsychotic utilization was less than expected (-2.31; 95% CI -3.68, -0.93). Although it was expected that the prescription of benzodiazepines would decrease, usage remained roughly the same (-0.28; 95% CI -2.40, 2.34). Utilization of antidepressants (8.57; 95% CI 6.89, 10.24) and antiepileptic drugs (6.10; 95% CI 3.20, 9.00) increased significantly, which was expected, based on the forecast. CONCLUSIONS: For all categories, usage of psychotropic drugs was higher than anticipated based on the forecast; this increase might be related to the worsening of emotional and behavioral disorders caused by the restrictive measures of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
10.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(8): 1359-1365, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794611

ABSTRACT

AIM: Psychotropic medication prescribing among children with developmental-behavioural and mental health problems appears to be rising globally. We aim to examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and rapid introduction of telehealth consultations on the prescribing trends and medication change in a large paediatric public hospital developmental-behavioural outpatient service. METHODS: Data for developmental-behavioural outpatient encounters from 23 March 2019 to 22 March 2021 were extracted from the electronic medical record; representing the 12 months following the conversion to telehealth consultations during the onset of COVID-19 pandemic and the 12 months prior to this change. Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences were used to calculate percentages and logistic regression to compare psychotropic prescribing trends during both periods. RESULTS: During the pandemic, there were a total of 3201 encounters (92.0% telehealth), compared with 2759 encounters (1.6% telehealth) during the previous year. Despite the higher number of encounters during the pandemic, the rates of encounters with psychotropic medication prescriptions reduced compared to the previous 12 months (19.8% vs. 29.3%). Prescriptions made during COVID-19 were more likely to be provided at review visits, patients ≥12 years and during consultant led encounters. The reduction in prescriptions involved both new and follow-up psychotropic medications. The majority of follow-up medication dosages were left unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic prescribing rates were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Fewer new medications were commenced and most medication dosages were unchanged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Drug Prescriptions , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792673

ABSTRACT

Delirium and psychomotor agitation are relevant clinical conditions that may develop during COVID-19 infection, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. The psychopharmacological management of these conditions is receiving increasing interest in psychiatry, considering hyperkinetic delirium as one of the most common neuropsychiatries acute consequences in COVID-19 recovery patients. However, there are no actual internationally validated guidelines about this topic, due to the relatively newly introduced clinical condition; in addition, a standardized psychopharmacologic treatment of these cases is a complex goal to achieve due to the risk of both drug-drug interactions and the vulnerable conditions of those patients. The aim of this systematic review and case series is to evaluate and gather the scientific evidence on pharmacologic handling during delirium in COVID-19 patients to provide practical recommendations on the optimal management of psychotropic medication in these kinds of patients. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were reviewed to identify studies, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. At the end of the selection process, a total of 21 studies (n = 2063) were included. We also collected a case series of acute psychomotor agitation in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ICU. Our results showed how the symptom-based choice of the psychotropic medication is crucial, and even most of the psychotropic drug classes showed good safety, one must not underestimate the possible drug interactions and also the possible decrease in vital functions which need to be strictly monitored especially during treatment with some kinds of molecules. We believe that the evidence-based recommendations highlighted in the present research will enhance the current knowledge and could provide better management of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delirium/drug therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Psychomotor Agitation , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771199

ABSTRACT

The new Dutch Care and Coercion Act aims to better regulate the use of psychotropic drugs for challenging behaviour in people with an intellectual disability. This study explores experiences of intellectual disability physicians (IDPs) in prescribing psychotropic drugs and investigates how the Act and the new multidisciplinary guideline on challenging behaviour affects their practice. A qualitative study was conducted, consisting of nine semi-structured in-depth interviews with IDPs, followed by a thematic analysis. It was found that IDPs experienced the new Act and guideline as supportive of their work as guardians of the appropriate use of psychotropic drugs. The multidisciplinary character of the guideline was experienced positively. However, IDPs are faced with organisational barriers and time constraints, as such, they question the feasibility of implementing the Act. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the Care and Coercion Act may support the existing shift towards the appropriate use of psychotropic drugs if required conditions can be met.


Subject(s)
Intellectual Disability , Physicians , Coercion , Drug Prescriptions , Humans , Intellectual Disability/drug therapy , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 221(1): 417-424, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected people with mental health conditions. AIMS: We investigated the association between receiving psychotropic drugs, as an indicator of mental health conditions, and COVID-19 vaccine uptake. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of the Northern Ireland adult population using national linked primary care registration, vaccination, secondary care and pharmacy dispensing data. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses investigated the association between anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and hypnotic use and COVID-19 vaccination status, accounting for age, gender, deprivation and comorbidities. Receiving any COVID-19 vaccine was the primary outcome. RESULTS: There were 1 433 814 individuals, of whom 1 166 917 received a COVID-19 vaccination. Psychotropic medications were dispensed to 267 049 people. In univariable analysis, people who received any psychotropic medication had greater odds of receiving COVID-19 vaccination: odds ratio (OR) = 1.42 (95% CI 1.41-1.44). However, after adjustment, psychotropic medication use was associated with reduced odds of vaccination (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.89-0.91). People who received anxiolytics (ORadj = 0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.65), antipsychotics (ORadj = 0.75, 95% CI 0.73-0.78) and hypnotics (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.93) had reduced odds of being vaccinated. Antidepressant use was not associated with vaccination (ORadj = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found significantly lower odds of vaccination in people who were receiving treatment with anxiolytic and antipsychotic medications. There is an urgent need for evidence-based, tailored vaccine support for people with mental health conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Adult , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Vaccination
14.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(3): 804-812, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated an increase in mental health emergencies among youth seen in ambulatory and emergency room settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates rates of mental health-related consultation and markers of illness severity since the start of the pandemic. METHODS: We evaluated all pediatric patients admitted to a single children's hospital from March 2019 to March 2021 who received psychiatry and/or psychology consults. We report the absolute number of these patients, as well as the proportion of all study site admissions who received such consults. Severity of psychiatric illness was described in terms of LOS, disposition, and use of restraints and psychotropic medications. RESULTS: The number and proportion of pediatric patients receiving psychiatry and/or psychology consults rose during the pandemic. Participants also became proportionally more female and older. The study population had higher odds of requiring restraints and antipsychotics during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: More pediatric inpatients at the study site have required psychiatric care during the pandemic. The severity of mental illness in this population appears to have worsened based on increased utilization of as-needed psychotropic medications and restraints. These findings highlight the changes experienced by patients and providers during the pandemic and merit further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychiatry , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 90, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721498

ABSTRACT

The acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)/ceramide system may provide a useful framework for better understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection and the repurposing of psychotropic medications functionally inhibiting the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system (named FIASMA psychotropic medications) against COVID-19. We examined the potential usefulness of FIASMA psychotropic medications in patients with psychiatric disorders hospitalized for severe COVID-19, in an observational multicenter study conducted at Greater Paris University hospitals. Of 545 adult inpatients, 164 (30.1%) received a FIASMA psychotropic medication upon hospital admission for COVID-19. We compared the composite endpoint of intubation or death between patients who received a psychotropic FIASMA medication at baseline and those who did not in time-to-event analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric and other medical comorbidity, and other medications. FIASMA psychotropic medication use at baseline was significantly associated with reduced risk of intubation or death in both crude (HR = 0.42; 95%CI = 0.31-0.57; p < 0.01) and primary inverse probability weighting (IPW) (HR = 0.50; 95%CI = 0.37-0.67; p < 0.01) analyses. This association was not specific to one FIASMA psychotropic class or medication. Patients taking a FIASMA antidepressant at baseline had a significantly reduced risk of intubation or death compared with those taking a non-FIASMA antidepressant at baseline in both crude (HR = 0.57; 95%CI = 0.38-0.86; p < 0.01) and primary IPW (HR = 0.57; 95%CI = 0.37-0.87; p < 0.01) analyses. These associations remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses. Our results show the potential importance of the ASM/ceramide system framework in COVID-19 and support the continuation of FIASMA psychotropic medications in these patients and the need of large- scale clinical trials evaluating FIASMA medications, and particularly FIASMA antidepressants, against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Hospitalization , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 34(3): 109-126, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683862

ABSTRACT

Long COVID refers to the lingering symptoms which persist or appear after the acute illness. The dominant long COVID symptoms in the two years since the pandemic began (2020-2021) have been depression, anxiety, fatigue, concentration and cognitive impairments with few reports of psychosis. Whether other symptoms will appear later on is not yet known. For example, dopamine-dependent movement disorders generally take many years before first symptoms are seen. Post-stroke depression and anxiety may explain many of the early long COVID cases. Hemorrhagic, hypoxic and inflammatory damages of the central nervous system, unresolved systematic inflammation, metabolic impairment, cerebral vascular accidents such as stroke, hypoxia from pulmonary damages and fibrotic changes are among the major causes of long COVID. Glucose metabolic and hypoxic brain issues likely predispose subjects with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular or lung problems to long COVID as well. Preliminary data suggest that psychotropic medications may not be a danger but could instead be beneficial in combating COVID-19 infection. The same is true for diabetes medications such as metformin. Thus, a focus on sigma-1 receptor ligands and glucose metabolism is expected to be useful for new drug development as well as the repurposing of current drugs. The reported protective effects of psychotropics and antihistamines against COVID-19, the earlier reports of reduced number of sigma-1 receptors in post-mortem schizophrenic brains, with many antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs being antihistamines with significant affinity for the sigma-1 receptor, support the role of sigma and histamine receptors in neuroinflammation and viral infections. Literature and data in all these areas are accumulating at a fast rate. We reviewed and discussed the relevant and important literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
17.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(3)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia during the step-by-step lifting of restrictions after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, and to describe psychotropic drug use (PDU) throughout the whole first wave. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of nursing home residents with dementia. We measured neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q). From May to August 2020, the NPI-Q was filled in monthly. Psychotropic drug use was retrieved from the electronic prescription system, retrospectively for the months February to April and prospectively for the months May to August. RESULTS: We followed 252 residents with dementia in 19 Dutch nursing homes. Agitation was the most prevalent type of neuropsychiatric symptom at each assessment. Overall, the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression significantly decreased over time. When considering more in detail, we observed that in some residents specific neuropsychiatric symptoms resolved (resolution) while in others specific neuropsychiatric symptoms developed (incidence) during the study period. For the majority of the residents, neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted over time. Psychotropic drug use remained stable over time throughout the whole first wave of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: At group level, lifting the measures appeared to have beneficial effects on the prevalence and severity of agitation and depression in residents with dementia. Nevertheless, on an individual level we observed high heterogeneity in the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms over time. Despite the pressure of the pandemic and the restrictions in social contact imposed, PDU remained stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Cohort Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Psychomotor Agitation/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(12): 1019-1021, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521656
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134803, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516698

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with fatigue and sleep problems long after the acute phase of COVID-19. In addition, there are concerns of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing psychiatric illness; however, evidence of a direct effect is inconclusive. Objective: To assess risk of risk of incident or repeat psychiatric illness, fatigue, or sleep problems following SARS-CoV-2 infection and to analyze changes according to demographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assembled matched cohorts using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, a UK primary care registry of 11 923 499 individuals aged 16 years or older. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 months, from February 1 to December 9, 2020. Individuals with less than 2 years of historical data or less than 1 week follow-up were excluded. Individuals with positive results on a SARS-CoV-2 test without prior mental illness or with anxiety or depression, psychosis, fatigue, or sleep problems were matched with up to 4 controls based on sex, general practice, and year of birth. Controls were individuals who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Data were analyzed from January to July 2021. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined via polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and subsequent psychiatric morbidity (depression, anxiety, psychosis, or self-harm), sleep problems, fatigue, or psychotropic prescribing. Models adjusted for comorbidities, ethnicity, smoking, and body mass index. Results: Of 11 923 105 eligible individuals (6 011 020 [50.4%] women and 5 912 085 [49.6%] men; median [IQR] age, 44 [30-61] years), 232 780 individuals (2.0%) had positive result on a SARS-CoV-2 test. After applying selection criteria, 86 922 individuals were in the matched cohort without prior mental illness, 19 020 individuals had prior anxiety or depression, 1036 individuals had psychosis, 4152 individuals had fatigue, and 4539 individuals had sleep problems. After adjusting for observed confounders, there was an association between positive SARS-CoV-2 test results and psychiatric morbidity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.66-2.02), fatigue (aHR, 5.98; 95% CI, 5.33-6.71), and sleep problems (aHR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.64-3.78). However, there was a similar risk of incident psychiatric morbidity for those with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test results (aHR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.65-1.77) and a larger increase associated with influenza (aHR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.55-5.75). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of individuals registered at an English primary care practice during the pandemic, there was consistent evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of fatigue and sleep problems. However, the results from the negative control analysis suggest that unobserved confounding may be responsible for at least some of the positive association between COVID-19 and psychiatric morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep , Adult , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , England/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
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