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1.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 43(4): 313-319, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated public health measures have shifted the way people access health care. We aimed to study the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychotropic medication adherence. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy Manitoba Population Research Data Repository was conducted. Outpatients who received at least 1 prescription for an antidepressant, antipsychotic, anxiolytic/sedative-hypnotic, cannabinoid, lithium, or stimulants from 2015 to 2020 in Manitoba, Canada, were included. Adherence was measured using the proportion of individuals with a mean possession ratio of ≥0.8 over each quarter. Each quarter of 2020 after COVID-19-related health measures were implemented was compared with the expected trend using autoregression models for time series data plus indicator variables. Odds ratio of drug discontinuation among those previously adherent in 2020 was compared with each respective quarter of 2019. RESULTS: There were 1,394,885 individuals in the study population in the first quarter of 2020 (mean [SD] age, 38.9 [23.4] years; 50.3% female), with 36.1% having a psychiatric diagnosis in the preceding 5 years. Compared with the expected trend, increases in the proportions of individuals adherent to antidepressants and stimulants were observed in the fourth quarter (October-December) of 2020 (both P < 0.001). Increases in the proportions of individuals with anxiolytic and cannabinoid adherence were observed in the third quarter (July-September) of 2020 (both P < 0.05), whereas a decrease was seen with stimulants in the same quarter ( P < 0.0001). No significant changes were observed for antipsychotics. All drug classes except lithium had decreases in drug discontinuation in previously adherent patients during the pandemic compared with 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Improved adherence to most psychotropic medications in the 9 months after public health restrictions were enacted was observed. Patients who were already adherent to their psychotropic medications were less likely to discontinue them during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Retrospective Studies , Lithium , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 325: 115248, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318896

ABSTRACT

The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic saw a decline in psychotropic medication use; however, little is known about how this trend evolved as the pandemic progressed and how it varied across different payers in the United States. Using a national multi-payer pharmacy claims database and adopting a quasi-experimental research design, this study examines trends in psychotropic medication prescriptions dispensed from July 2018 - June 2022. The study finds that the number of patients with dispensed psychotropic medications and the number of psychotropic medications dispensed declined during the early months of the pandemic but experienced a statistically significant growth in later periods compared to the pre-pandemic rate. Average days supply of psychotropic medications dispensed increased significantly throughout the pandemic. Commercial insurance remained the primary payer for psychotropic medication during the pandemic, but there was a significant increase in the number of prescription fills covered under Medicaid. This implies that public insurance programs played an increasing role in financing psychotropic medication use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Medicaid
4.
Med J Aust ; 219(1): 18-25, 2023 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine longitudinal patterns of dispensing of antidepressant, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, psychostimulant, and hypnotic/sedative medications to children and adolescents in Australia during 2013-2021. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study; analysis of 10% random sample of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) dispensing data. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING: People aged 18 years or younger dispensed PBS-subsidised psychotropic medications in Australia, 2013-2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Population prevalence of dispensing of psychotropic medications to children and adolescents, by psychotropic class, gender, and age group (0-6, 7-12, 13-18 years). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic dispensing to children and adolescents was 33.8 per 1000 boys and 25.2 per 1000 girls in 2013, and 60.0 per 1000 boys and 48.3 per 1000 girls in 2021. The prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy was 5.4 per 1000 boys and 3.7 per 1000 girls in 2013, and 10.4 per 1000 boys and 8.3 per 1000 girls in 2021. Prevalent dispensing during 2021 was highest for psychostimulants (boys, 44.0 per 1000; girls, 17.4 per 1000) and antidepressants (boys, 20.4 per 1000; girls, 33.8 per 1000). During 2021, the prevalence of dispensing was higher than predicted by extrapolation of 2013-2019 data for many classes, including antidepressants (boys: +6.1%; 95% CI, 1.1-11.1%; girls: +22.2%; 95% CI, 17.4-26.9%), and psychostimulants (boys: +14.5%; 95% CI, 8.0-21.1%; girls: +27.7%; 95% CI, 18.9-36.6%). The increases were greatest for girls aged 13-18 years (antidepressants: +20.3%; 95% CI, 16.9-23.7%; psychostimulants: +39.0%; 95% CI, 27.9-50.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both psychotropic dispensing and psychotropic polypharmacy for children and adolescents were twice as high in 2021 as in 2013. The reasons and appropriateness of the marked increases in psychotropic dispensing during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly to adolescent girls, should be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 494, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spain as multiple other countries has been experiencing an increasing and sustained trend in the use of psychotropic medications since the mid 90s. Recent studies show public health measures implemented to control SARS-Cov2, such as mobility restrictions and the shutdown of nonessential activities increased mental suffering, even contributing to a higher number of anxiety, depression and insomnia disorders that could lead to an increase in the consumption of psychotropics. The aims were: 1) Evaluate the temporal trend in psychotropic consumption by pharmacological subgroup, sex, and age group 2) Estimate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in the use of psychotropic drugs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study, retrieving all prescriptions of anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives, and antidepressants dispensed in pharmacies of Asturias (Northern Spain) for Primary Care patients for the period 2018-2021. We presented the data expressed in Daily Defined Doses (DDDs) for 1000 persons/day (DHD). To estimate changes in DHDs by year and age group we conducted two multiple linear regressions (one for males and one for females) for every pharmacological subgroup studied. Changes were considered statistically significant when the regression coefficient was p < 0.05. We used the Software R 4.1.0. RESULTS: For the studied period, the highest DHDs are for antidepressants, although all of the subgroups experienced an increase in consumption rates. Women consumed more psychotropic drugs than men. In 2021, 372 out of every 1000 women were taking daily 1 DDD of these drugs versus 184 out of every 1000 men. Consumption rates for all psychotropic drugs progressively increases with age. Conversely, the biggest increases in consumption were among the youngest age groups (0-14 and 15-29 years) for women, while for men there is more variability. The regression models suggest an upward trend in psychotropic consumption during all the period, especially remarkable from 2020, for both genders and all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: - The consumption of psychotropic drugs has gradually increased over the last 4 years, with a significant boost starting in 2020 for both sexes, matching the start of the SARS-COV2 pandemic and the implementation of strict Public Health measures to contain it. - The increase observed on children and adolescents is a matter of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Male , Spain/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 34(3): 109-126, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283526

ABSTRACT

Long COVID refers to the lingering symptoms which persist or appear after the acute illness. The dominant long COVID symptoms in the two years since the pandemic began (2020-2021) have been depression, anxiety, fatigue, concentration and cognitive impairments with few reports of psychosis. Whether other symptoms will appear later on is not yet known. For example, dopamine-dependent movement disorders generally take many years before first symptoms are seen. Post-stroke depression and anxiety may explain many of the early long COVID cases. Hemorrhagic, hypoxic and inflammatory damages of the central nervous system, unresolved systematic inflammation, metabolic impairment, cerebral vascular accidents such as stroke, hypoxia from pulmonary damages and fibrotic changes are among the major causes of long COVID. Glucose metabolic and hypoxic brain issues likely predispose subjects with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular or lung problems to long COVID as well. Preliminary data suggest that psychotropic medications may not be a danger but could instead be beneficial in combating COVID-19 infection. The same is true for diabetes medications such as metformin. Thus, a focus on sigma-1 receptor ligands and glucose metabolism is expected to be useful for new drug development as well as the repurposing of current drugs. The reported protective effects of psychotropics and antihistamines against COVID-19, the earlier reports of reduced number of sigma-1 receptors in post-mortem schizophrenic brains, with many antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs being antihistamines with significant affinity for the sigma-1 receptor, support the role of sigma and histamine receptors in neuroinflammation and viral infections. Literature and data in all these areas are accumulating at a fast rate. We reviewed and discussed the relevant and important literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 84(3)2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268475

ABSTRACT

Importance: "Psychotropic" drugs have widespread reach and impact throughout the brain and body. Thus, many of these drugs could be repurposed for non-psychiatric indications of high public health impact.Observations: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluvoxamine was shown efficacious as a COVID-19 treatment based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and a benefit of other antidepressants has been posited based on observational and preclinical studies. In this review, we illuminate features of SSRIs and other psychiatric drugs that make them candidates to repurpose for non-psychiatric indications. We summarize research that led to fluvoxamine's use in COVID-19 and provide guidance on how to use it safely. We summarize studies suggestive of benefit of other antidepressants versus COVID-19 and long COVID. We also describe putative mechanisms of psychiatric drugs in treating long COVID, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and other conditions.Conclusion and Relevance: There is a potentially great clinical and public health impact of psychotropic drug repurposing. Challenges exist to such repurposing efforts, but solutions exist for researchers, regulators, and funders that overcome these challenges.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Mental Disorders , Neoplasms , Psychotropic Drugs , COVID-19/complications , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Humans , Animals , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/complications , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome/drug therapy
9.
J Psychosom Res ; 167: 111199, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a bidirectional association between COVID-19 disease and psychiatric disorders. We aimed to assess whether exposure to psychotropic medications prior to hospitalization was associated with mortality or discharge within 30 days after hospital admission. METHODS: In this prospective study, we included all individuals with a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to the Bologna University Hospital between 1st March 2020 and 31st January 2021. We collected data about pre-existing psychiatric disorders and the use of psychotropic medications at the admission. As univariate analyses, we estimated cumulative incidence functions for 30-day mortality and discharge stratifying by exposure to each of the psychotropic medication classes. Finally, we fitted Cox regression models to estimate cause-specific Hazard Ratios (HR) of 30-day mortality and discharge. Results were adjusted for sociodemographic (age, sex), clinically relevant variables (comorbidity, c-reactive protein levels, severity of disease at presentation, history of smoking, study period), and psychiatric variables (psychiatric disorder diagnosis, number of psychotropic medications). RESULTS: Out of a total of 1238 hospitalized patients, 316 were prescribed psychotropic medications at the time of admission. Among these, 45 (3.6%) were taking a first-generation antipsychotics (FGA) and 66 (5.3%) a second generation antipsychotic (SGA). Exposure to SGA was associated with increased rates of 30-day mortality (HR = 2.01, 95%CI = 1.02-3.97) and exposure to FGA was associated with decreased rates of 30-day discharge (HR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.90). CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 infection exposed to FGA and SGA may have worse COVID-19 infection outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Prospective Studies , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals
10.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 15(1): 5, 2023 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia and psychotropic medications are discussed as risk factors for severe/lethal outcome of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to explore the associations between the presence of dementia and medication use with mortality in the hospitalized and discharged patients who suffered from COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an open-cohort observational study based on electronic patient records from nine geriatric care clinics in the larger Stockholm area, Sweden, between February 28, 2020, and November 22, 2021. In total, we identified 5122 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19, out of which 762 (14.9%) patients had concurrent dementia and 4360 (85.1%) were dementia-free. Patients' age, sex, baseline oxygen saturation, comorbidities, and medication prescription (cardiovascular and psychotropic medication) were registered at admission. The hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of in-hospital, 30-day, 90-day, 365-day post-discharge, and overall mortality during the follow-up were obtained. Then, the associations of dementia and medication use with mortality were determined using proportional hazards regression with time since entry as a time scale. RESULTS: After adjustment, dementia was independently associated with 68% higher in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients compared to patients who were dementia-free at admission [HRs (95% CI) 1.68 (1.37-2.06)]. The increase was consistent post-discharge, and the overall mortality of dementia patients was increased by 59% [1.59 (1.40-1.81)]. In addition, the prescription of antipsychotic medication at hospital admission was associated with a 70% higher total mortality risk [1.70 (1.47-1.97)]. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical co-occurence of dementia and COVID-19 increases the short- and long-term risk of death, and the antipsychotics seem to further the risk increase. Our results may help identify high-risk patients in need of more specialized care when infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 80(2): 176-180, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157660

ABSTRACT

Importance: The direct and indirect implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with the mental health of children and adolescents, but it is uncertain whether these implications have been associated with changes in prescribing and diagnosis patterns. Objective: To examine psychotropic medication use and rates of psychiatric disorders in Danish children, adolescents, and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based, descriptive register-based cohort study included all Danish individuals aged 5 to 24 years from January 1, 2017, until June 30, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of filled prescriptions of psychotropic medications, including antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants, and psychostimulants, and all inpatient and outpatient contacts with mental and behavioral disorders. Rates of new (incident) and total (prevalent) psychotropic medication use and psychiatric diagnoses were estimated. Rate ratios (RRs) were assessed between observed and expected numbers of incident psychotropic medication use or psychiatric diagnoses from March 2020 to June 30, 2022, comparing observed numbers with expected numbers predicted from the modeled prepandemic trend. Results: The study identified 108 840 (58 856 female individuals [54%]; median [IQR] age, 18 [14-22] years) incident psychotropic medication users. From March 2020 (first national lockdown) to June 2022, the rate of incident users of any psychotropic medication showed a relative increase of 18% (RR, 1.18; CI, 1.17-1.20) compared with expected numbers, which was primarily associated with an increase among those aged 12 to 17 years of 37% (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.34-1.41). Similarly, there was an overall relative increase of incident psychiatric disorders of 5% (incidence rate, 1.05; CI, 1.04-1.07) (incident cases, 114 048 [58 708 female individuals (51%)]), which was associated with an increase in hyperkinetic disorders (RR, 1.13; CI, 1.09-1.18) and anxiety disorders (RR, 1.04; CI, 1.02-1.06). Prevalence patterns showed similar trends of an overall increase in psychotropic medication use and psychiatric disorders. One of 3 new users of an individual drug group had filled a prescription for a drug from another psychotropic medication group within the prior 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that Danish youths experienced an increase in rates of psychotropic treatment and psychiatric disorder diagnoses during the COVID-19 pandemic, which was most pronounced among those aged 12 to 17 years. The increase was observed for children and adolescents with and without a psychiatric history within the last 5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19336, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118705

ABSTRACT

Recent literature on the mental health consequences of social distancing measures has found a substantial increase in self-reported sleep disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms during lockdown periods. We investigate this issue with data on monthly purchases of psychotropic drugs from the universe of Italian pharmacies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and find that purchases of mental health-related drugs have increased with respect to 2019. However, the excess volumes do not match the massive increase in anxiety and depressive disorders found in survey-based studies. We also study the interplay between mobility, measured with anonymized mobile phone data, and mental health and report no significant effect of mobility restrictions on antidepressants and anxiolytics purchases during 2020. We provide three potential mechanisms that could drive the discrepancy between self-reported mental health surveys and psychotropic drugs prescription registries: (1) stockpiling practices in the early phases of the pandemic; (2) the adoption of compensatory behavior and (3) unexpressed and unmet needs due to both demand- and supply-side shortages in healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge regarding the actionable key predictive factors of homelessness in psychiatric populations. Therefore, we used a machine learning model to explore the REHABase database (for rehabilitation database-n = 3416), which is a cohort of users referred to French psychosocial rehabilitation centers in France. METHODS: First, we analyzed whether the different risk factors previously associated with homelessness in mental health were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. In the second step, we used unbiased classification and regression trees to determine the key predictors of homelessness. Post hoc analyses were performed to examine the importance of the predictors and to explore the impact of cognitive factors among the participants. RESULTS: &nbsp;First, risk factors that were previously found to be associated with homelessness were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. Among all the variables studied with a machine learning approach, the most robust variable in terms of predictive value was the nature of the psychotropic medication (sex/sex relative mean predictor importance: 22.8, σ = 3.4). Post hoc analyses revealed that first-generation antipsychotics (15.61%; p < 0.05 FDR corrected), loxapine (16.57%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) and hypnotics (17.56%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) were significantly associated with homelessness. Antidepressant medication was associated with a protective effect against housing deprivation (9.21%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected). CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic medication was found to be an important predictor of homelessness in our REHABase cohort, particularly loxapine and hypnotics. On the other hand, the putative protective effect of antidepressants confirms the need for systematic screening of depression and anxiety in the homeless population.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Ill-Housed Persons , Loxapine , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Ill-Housed Persons/psychology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Machine Learning , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
14.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(35): 5615-5687, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a nonapeptide synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Historically, this molecule has been involved as a key factor in the formation of infant attachment, maternal behavior and pair bonding and, more generally, in linking social signals with cognition, behaviors and reward. In the last decades, the whole oxytocin system has gained a growing interest as it was proposed to be implicated in etiopathogenesis of several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: With the main goal of an in-depth understanding of the oxytocin role in the regulation of different functions and complex behaviors as well as its intriguing implications in different neuropsychiatric disorders, we performed a critical review of the current state of the art. We carried out this work through the PubMed database up to June 2021 with the search terms: 1) "oxytocin and neuropsychiatric disorders"; 2) "oxytocin and neurodevelopmental disorders"; 3) "oxytocin and anorexia"; 4) "oxytocin and eating disorders"; 5) "oxytocin and obsessive- compulsive disorder"; 6) "oxytocin and schizophrenia"; 7) "oxytocin and depression"; 8) "oxytocin and bipolar disorder"; 9) "oxytocin and psychosis"; 10) "oxytocin and anxiety"; 11) "oxytocin and personality disorder"; 12) "oxytocin and PTSD". RESULTS: Biological, genetic, and epigenetic studies highlighted quality and quantity modifications in the expression of oxytocin peptide or in oxytocin receptor isoforms. These alterations would seem to be correlated with a higher risk of presenting several neuropsychiatric disorders belonging to different psychopathological spectra. Collaterally, the exogenous oxytocin administration has shown to ameliorate many neuropsychiatric clinical conditions. CONCLUSION: Finally, we briefly analyzed the potential pharmacological use of oxytocin in a patient with severe symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and immunoregulatory properties.


Subject(s)
Anti-Obesity Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , DNA-Binding Proteins , Female , Humans , Infant , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Psychotropic Drugs/pharmacology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 306, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have had significant mental health consequences for military personnel, which is a population already exposed to psychological stress. To assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed the dispensing of three classes of psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antidepressants) among French military personnel. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the individualized medico-administrative data of persons insured by the National Military Social Security Fund from the National Health Data System. All active French military personnel aged 18-64 who received outpatient care and to whom drugs were dispensed between January 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021, were included from the French national health database. Rate ratios of dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics and antidepressants (based on drug reimbursement) were estimated from negative binomial regressions before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-one thousand seven hundred eleven individuals were included. Overall, 45,148 military personnel were reimbursed for anxiolytics, 10,637 for hypnotics, and 4328 for antidepressants. Drugs were dispensed at a higher rate in 2020 and 2021 than in 2019. There was a notable peak at the beginning of the first lockdown followed by a decrease limited to the duration of the first lockdown. During the first lockdown only, there were temporary phenomena including a brief increase in drug dispensing during the first week followed by a decrease during the rest of lockdown, possibly corresponding to a stocking-up effect. For the study period overall, while there was a significant downward trend in psychotropic drug dispensing before the occurrence of COVID-19 (p < 0.001), the pandemic period was associated with an increase in dispensed anxiolytics (rate ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04, p < 0.05), hypnotics (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.16, p < 0.001) and antidepressants (rate ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.13, p < 0.001) in the military population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has probably had a significant impact on the mental health of French military personnel, as suggested by the trends in dispensed psychotropic drugs. The implementation of mental health prevention measures should be investigated for this population.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Military Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
16.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 32(7): 408-414, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017634

ABSTRACT

Objective: Increased mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted psychotropic medication use. This study describes trends in monthly psychotropic medications before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with mental health disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using the 2019-2020 IQVIA™ prescription and medical commercial claims data to estimate the proportion of children and adolescents with any psychotropic prescription in the month out of all with any mental health-related medical or prescription services in the month and the year-over-year percent change. We assessed monthly proportions of youth who filled a psychotropic prescription overall and by psychotropic class, stratified by age and gender. Results: Of the 8,896,713 children and adolescents in the sample, 24.7% received psychotropic medication during the study period. The proportion of the cohort prescribed a psychotropic medication in a given month averaged 27%-28% from January 2019 to February 2020, peaked at 36.9% in April 2020, and gradually declined to 28.7% in September 2020. The largest year-over-year percent change was in April for antipsychotic (41.9%) and antidepressant (37.9%) medication, which remained higher in September 2020 compared to September 2019, particularly among ages 6 years or older and females. Conclusion: The proportion of youth with a psychotropic prescription increased at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, later returning to prepandemic levels. However, antipsychotics and antidepressants remained higher than prepandemic, highlighting the need to further understand the long-lasting effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 221(6): 748-757, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns were predicted to have a major impact on mental health, however current studies have produced contradictory findings with limited longitudinal data. AIMS: Nine years of linked, individual-level administrative data were used to examine changes in psychotropic medication uptake before and during the pandemic. METHOD: Medication data from a population-wide prescribing database were linked to demographic and socioeconomic indicators from healthcare registration records (n = 1 801 860). Monthly prescription uptake was split (pre-restrictions: January 2012 to February 2020 and during restrictions: March to October 2020). Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were trained in R taking into consideration trends and seasonal effects. Forecast ('expected') monthly values were compared with 'actual' values, stratified by demographic factors. RESULTS: Over the study period 38.5% of the study population were in receipt of ≥1 psychotropic medication. Uptake of these medications have been following a strong upward trend since January 2012. In March 2020 uptake of all medications increased beyond expected values, returning to expected trends from May 2020 for antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In the 8 months during restrictions uptake of hypnotic medication was 12% higher than expected among those <18 years, and anxiolytic medication higher than expected in those >65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest an initial 'stockpiling' of medications in March 2020 before trends mostly returned to expected levels. The anticipated tsunami of mental ill health is not yet manifest in psychotropic medication uptake. There are indications of increased anxiety and sleep difficulties in some subgroups, although these conditions may resolve as we emerge from the pandemic without need for psychiatric intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Cohort Studies , Research Design , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
18.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 146(4): 381-383, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961463
19.
Drugs Aging ; 39(8): 657-669, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medicine utilisation in older adults continues to be of interest because of overuse and concerns surrounding its safety and efficacy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterise the utilisation of psychotropic medicines in older people in New Zealand. METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis of national dispensing data from 1 January, 2005 to 31 December, 2019. We defined utilisation using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification defined daily dose system. Utilisation was measured in terms of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 older people per day (TOPD). RESULTS: Overall, the utilisation of psychotropic medicines increased marginally by 0.42% between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation increased for antidepressants (72.42 to 75.21 DDD/TOPD) and antipsychotics (6.06-19.04 DDD/TOPD). In contrast, the utilisation of hypnotics and sedatives (53.74-38.90 DDD/TOPD) and anxiolytics decreased (10.20-9.87 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of atypical antipsychotics increased (4.06-18.72 DDD/TOPD), with the highest percentage change in DDD/TOPD contributed by olanzapine (520.6 %). In comparison, utilisation of typical antipsychotics was relatively stable (2.00-2.06 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of venlafaxine increased remarkably by 5.7 times between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation of zopiclone was far greater than that of other hypnotics in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: There was only a marginal increase in psychotropic medicines utilisation from 2005 to 2019 in older adults in New Zealand. There was a five-fold increase in the utilisation of antipsychotic medicines. Continued monitoring of psychotropic medicine utilisation will be of interest to understand the utilisation of antidepressants and antipsychotic medicines during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic year.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , New Zealand , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
20.
Drugs Aging ; 39(6): 467-475, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into nursing homes, restrictive measures and social distancing were implemented; however, these caused an increase in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety and an alteration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is expected that prescription trends of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the pandemic may have changed significantly. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic to those of the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in geriatric units and psychogeriatric units in seven nursing homes in Gipuzkoa, Spain. On 1 March, 2020, data regarding 511 residents in geriatric units and 163 in psychogeriatric units were recorded. This study examined utilization percentages for psychotropic drugs before the pandemic (April 2018-March 2020) and during the pandemic (April 2020-March 2021) in light of projected usage based on previous years. Following the Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical Classification System, four therapeutic groups were analyzed: antipsychotics (N05A), benzodiazepines (N05B and N05C), antidepressants (N06A), and antiepileptic drugs (N03A). RESULTS: In the case of geriatric units, a downward trend of prescription was reversed for antipsychotics (-0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.41, 0.60). Benzodiazepine use also decreased less than expected (-2.00; 95% CI -3.00, -1.00). Antidepressant use increased more than predicted (0.02; 95% CI -0.97, 1.01), as did antiepileptic drug use (2.93; 95% CI 2.27, 3.60). In the psychogeriatric units, the drop in antipsychotic utilization was less than expected (-2.31; 95% CI -3.68, -0.93). Although it was expected that the prescription of benzodiazepines would decrease, usage remained roughly the same (-0.28; 95% CI -2.40, 2.34). Utilization of antidepressants (8.57; 95% CI 6.89, 10.24) and antiepileptic drugs (6.10; 95% CI 3.20, 9.00) increased significantly, which was expected, based on the forecast. CONCLUSIONS: For all categories, usage of psychotropic drugs was higher than anticipated based on the forecast; this increase might be related to the worsening of emotional and behavioral disorders caused by the restrictive measures of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
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