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4.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1768-1771, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403351

ABSTRACT

Racial disparities and racism are pervasive public health threats that have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is critical and timely for researchers to communicate with policymakers about strategies for reducing disparities. From April through July 2020, across four rapid-cycle trials disseminating scientific products with evidence-based policy recommendations for addressing disparities, we tested strategies for optimizing the reach of scientific messages to policymakers. By getting such research into the hands of policymakers who can act on it, this work can help combat racial health disparities.(Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306404).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Policy , Healthcare Disparities , Public Health Administration , Racism , Scholarly Communication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy Making , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 75-83, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify gaps and challenges in health informatics and health information management during the COVID-19 pandemic. To describe solutions and offer recommendations that can address the identified gaps and challenges. METHODS: A literature review of relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature published from January 2020 to December 2020 was conducted to inform the paper. RESULTS: The literature revealed several themes regarding health information management and health informatics challenges and gaps: information systems and information technology infrastructure; data collection, quality, and standardization; and information governance and use. These challenges and gaps were often driven by public policy and funding constraints. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 exposed complexities related to responding to a world-wide, fast moving, quickly spreading novel virus. Longstanding gaps and ongoing challenges in the local, national, and global health and public health information systems and data infrastructure must be addressed before we are faced with another global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Management , Medical Informatics , Data Accuracy , Data Collection/standards , Humans , Public Health Administration , Public Health Practice/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
6.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1815-1823, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394653

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has a major precedent almost exactly a century ago: the world-famous H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, sometimes known to the general public as the Spanish flu. From a history of medicine perspective, it is possible to underline many potential common traits between the two. In this article, hygiene and prophylaxis strategies are analyzed in a review of the most popular Italian general medical journals at the time of Spanish flu, Il Policlinico being the most representative of them. The analysis included 40 original journal articles as well as important references to the most influential coeval national manuals and international journals. The main issues in the context of public hygiene are prophylaxis with quinine and quinine derivatives, vaccinations, face masks, disinfection, and social distancing. We draw a comparison between these and the most recent international World Health Organization and Italian national guidelines on the topic. Sadly, little has changed since those times in terms of most of the prevention techniques, even with technical improvements, showing how shortsighted doctors and physicians can be when dealing with medical history. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10):1815-1823. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306412).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Pandemics/history , Public Health Administration/history , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(9): 2513-2515, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387735
8.
Public Health Rep ; 136(6): 658-662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378103

ABSTRACT

Public health in the United States has long been challenged by budget cuts and a declining workforce. The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the vulnerabilities left by years of neglecting this crucial frontline defense against emerging infectious diseases. In the early days of the pandemic, the University of Texas Medical Branch and the Galveston County Health District (GCHD) partnered to bolster Galveston County's public health response. We mobilized interprofessional teams of students and provided training to implement projects identified by GCHD as necessary for responding to the pandemic. We provided a safe outlet for students to contribute to their community by creating remote volunteer opportunities when students faced displacement from clinical rotations and in-person didactics converted to virtual formats. As students gradually returned to clinical rotations and didactic demands increased, it became necessary to expand volunteer efforts beyond what had initially been mostly hand-selected student teams. We have passed the initial emergency response phase of COVID-19 in Galveston County and are transitioning into more long-term opportunities as COVID-19 moves from pandemic to endemic. In this case study, we describe our successes and lessons learned.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Administration , Students, Medical , Volunteers , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , United States/epidemiology
9.
Glob Public Health ; 15(7): 1083-1089, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373601

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the critical need to reimagine and repair the broken systems of global health. Specifically, the pandemic demonstrates the hollowness of the global health rhetoric of equity, the weaknesses of a health security-driven global health agenda, and the negative health impacts of power differentials not only globally, but also regionally and locally. This article analyses the effects of these inequities and calls on governments, multilateral agencies, universities, and NGOs to engage in true collaboration and partnership in this historic moment. Before this pandemic spreads further - including in the Global South - with potentially extreme impact, we must work together to rectify the field and practice of global health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Health Care Sector/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cooperative Behavior , Humans , Interinstitutional Relations , Pandemics , Public Health Administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Social Responsibility
10.
Am J Nurs ; 121(9): 19-21, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373672

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed cracks in the nation's public health infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health Administration/economics , Public Health Administration/standards , Budgets , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Workforce
11.
Glob Public Health ; 16(8-9): 1482-1498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364684

ABSTRACT

Digital technologies harnessed through smartphones have been deployed widely to support the response to Covid-19 internationally, often through partnerships between 'Big tech' and telecoms corporations and public health authorities. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the rapid rise of such new forms of public-private cooperation, focusing on their manifestation in the European region in the first phase of the pandemic. Drawing on a review of international media and documents, we discuss three main domains of public health action in which private technology companies and public health authorities have converged: contact-tracing, epidemic modelling and public health communication to manage the 'infodemic' of misinformation about the new coronavirus. Critics have raised concerns about how the digital response to Covid-19 may threaten privacy and enable greater state surveillance and control, and the possibility that semi-automated decision-making may exacerbate existing discrimination and inequalities. Our analysis extends such critiques by considering what the digital response to Covid-19 reveals about tech corporations' growing power to influence public health agendas. We discuss how they promote technical solutions to public health challenges that are politically seductive, but that have uncertain effectiveness and societal implications that warrant critical scrutiny.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Smartphone , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digital Technology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Administration , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/organization & administration
15.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 29(Special Issue): 713-719, 2021 Jun.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335580

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research are to explore foreign experience of interaction of various levels of public authority in federal states in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, to determine the prospects for the development and improvement of the activities of the public authority system in Russia in this part. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regulatory legal acts and the practice of interaction of various levels of public authority during the COVID-19 pandemic in federations (Australia, India, Canada, USA) were research. RESULTS: It has been established that a dual federal system with strict rules for the distribution of powers and responsibilities between the federation and its regions impedes a coordinated national response in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, while various forms of executive federalism serve as the key to successfully countering this threat. The latter can be based on historically strong centralist tendencies, the existing negotiating practices of interaction between the executive branch at all levels, the experience of implementing federal programs and the work of emergency intergovernmental mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: It has been substantiated that the optimal organization of managerial decision-making in the context of countering a pandemic presupposes a complex interagency approach with a strong federal presence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Pandemics , State Government , Australia , Canada , Health Policy , Humans , India , Public Health Administration , Russia , United States
16.
Healthc Q ; 24(2): 7-11, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for a robust and nimble public health data infrastructure. ICES - a government-sponsored, independent, non-profit research institute in Ontario, Canada - functions as a key component of a resilient information infrastructure and an enabler of data co-production, contributing to Ontario's response to the COVID-19 pandemic as part of a learning health system. Linked data on the cumulative incidence of infection and vaccination at the neighbourhood level revealed disparate uptake between areas with low versus high risk of COVID-19. These data were leveraged by the government, service providers, media and the public to inform a more efficient and equitable vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Learning Health System/organization & administration , Public Health Administration , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Health Equity/organization & administration , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Learning Health System/methods , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/organization & administration , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
18.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 396-400, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319038

ABSTRACT

Fourteen months into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we identify key lessons in the global and national responses to the pandemic. The World Health Organization has played a pivotal technical, normative and coordinating role, but has been constrained by its lack of authority over sovereign member states. Many governments also mistakenly attempted to manage COVID-19 like influenza, resulting in repeated lockdowns, high excess morbidity and mortality, and poor economic recovery. Despite the incredible speed of the development and approval of effective and safe vaccines, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants means that all countries will have to rely on a globally coordinated public health effort for several years to defeat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Global Health , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Global Health/history , Global Health/trends , Government , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , Public Health/history , Public Health/methods , Public Health/trends , Public Health Administration/methods , Public Health Administration/standards , Public Health Administration/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Rev Med Interne ; 42(8): 583-590, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318949

ABSTRACT

The present article details the publication process and the vicissitudes of three articles about SARS-CoV-2 and its related disease (COVID-19). The three articles were published one month apart between March and May 2020. Their mediatization led French health authorities to intervene. Our article does not focus on and does not assess the scientific quality of the articles presented, but only aims to open the reflection on medical publication. Beyond the description of these three specific cases, this article raises issues about article retraction, peer-reviewing, preprints, authorship and the dissemination of scientific medical information, including through the mass media. It discusses new publishing modes and the dissemination of published information in clinical research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communications Media , Information Dissemination , Public Opinion , Publishing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Accuracy , Decision Making , France/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health Administration/standards , Publications/standards , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Publishing/standards , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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