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3.
Health Promot J Austr ; 33 Suppl 1: 87-97, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157811

ABSTRACT

ISSUE ADDRESSED: The complexity and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to change training of public health professionals in higher education by shifting from siloed specialisations to interdisciplinary collaboration. At the end of 2020 and 2021, public health professionals collaboratively designed and delivered, a week-long intensive course-Public Health in Pandemics. The aim of this research study was to understand whether the use of systems thinking in the design and delivery of the course enabled students to grasp the interdisciplinary nature of contemporary health promotion and public health practice. RESEARCH METHODS: Two focus group interviews (n = 5 and 3/47) and a course opinion survey (n = 11/47) were utilised to gather information from students regarding experiences and perceptions of course design and delivery, and to determine if students felt better able to understand the complex nature of pandemics and pandemic responses. MAJOR FINDINGS: Students provided positive feedback on the course and believed that the course design and delivery assisted in understanding the complex nature of health problems and the ways in which health promotion and public health practitioners need to work across sectors with diverse disciplines for pandemic responses. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an integrated interdisciplinary approach to course design and delivery enabled students used systems thinking to understand the complexity in preparing for and responding to a pandemic. This approach may have utility in preparing an agile, iterative and adaptive health promotion and public health workforce more capable of facing the challenges and complexity in public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students , Public Health/education , Systems Analysis , Curriculum
4.
Acta Biomed ; 93(5): e2022311, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156029
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062624, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was conducted with the aims of identifying sectors mentioned in the public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) literature and mapping the involvement of those sectors in the seven PHEPR cycle domains. SETTING: A detailed search strategy was conducted in Embase and Scopus, covering the period between 1 January 2005 and 1 January 2020. METHODS: Published articles focusing on preparedness for and/or response to public health emergencies of multiple origins on the European continent were included. The frequency with which predetermined sectors were mentioned when describing collaboration during the preparedness and response cycle was determined. RESULTS: The results show that description of the involvement of sectors in PHEPR in general and collaboration during PHEPR is predominantly confined to a limited number of sectors, namely 'Governmental institutions', 'Human health industry', 'Experts' and 'Civil Society'. Description is also limited to only three domains of the PHEPR cycle, namely 'Risk and crisis management', 'Pre-event preparations and governance' and 'Surveillance'. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal preparedness and response require predefined collaboration with a broader scope of partners than currently seems to be the case based on this literature review. We recommend considering these outcomes when planning multisectoral collaboration during preparedness and response, as well as the need to further operationalise the term 'multisectoral collaboration' during PHEPRs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO with registration number 176 331.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Humans , Civil Defense/methods , Public Health/methods
6.
Big Data ; 10(S1): S25-S29, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151806

ABSTRACT

Achieving a modern equity-oriented public health system requires the development of a public health workforce with the skills and competencies needed to generate findings and integrate knowledge using diverse data. Yet current workforce capabilities and infrastructure are misaligned with what is needed to harness both new and older forms of data and to translate them into information that is equity contextualized. As with other articles in this supplement, this article builds from a literature review, environmental scan, and deliberations from the National Commission to Transform Public Health Data Systems. The article summarizes some of the challenges around current workforce capabilities and pipeline. The article identifies where the technology and data sectors can contribute skills, expertise, and assets in support of innovative workforce models and augment the development of public health workforce competencies.


Subject(s)
Health Workforce , Public Health , Technology , Workforce
7.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(11): e976-e982, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150893

ABSTRACT

Firearm-related injury is a leading cause of death disproportionately affecting adolescents and young adults across the world, especially in the Americas. Little progress has been made over the past four decades, as inaction and the adoption of ineffective or unevidenced interventions have become commonplace. The COVID-19 pandemic reconfigured health systems towards prevention and harm reduction, sharpened public attention to the burden of preventable deaths, and inspired a fresh ambition of eliminating avertable deaths. In this Viewpoint, we argue that preventing firearm injury should garner bolder action in post-pandemic public health and we present a case for reducing the global burden of firearm injury supported by evidence and international examples. Crucially, we aim to guide policy making in directions that end the cycle of grief, anger, activism, deflection, and inaction and create more peaceful and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Wounds, Gunshot , Adolescent , Young Adult , Humans , United States , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/prevention & control , Public Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control
8.
Elife ; 92020 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155738

ABSTRACT

As of 1 May 2020, there had been 6808 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Australia. Of these, 98 had died from the disease. The epidemic had been in decline since mid-March, with 308 cases confirmed nationally since 14 April. This suggests that the collective actions of the Australian public and government authorities in response to COVID-19 were sufficiently early and assiduous to avert a public health crisis - for now. Analysing factors that contribute to individual country experiences of COVID-19, such as the intensity and timing of public health interventions, will assist in the next stage of response planning globally. We describe how the epidemic and public health response unfolded in Australia up to 13 April. We estimate that the effective reproduction number was likely below one in each Australian state since mid-March and forecast that clinical demand would remain below capacity thresholds over the forecast period (from mid-to-late April).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Forecasting , Geography, Medical , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Young Adult
9.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 148(1): 89-106, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143942

ABSTRACT

Introduction : At the beginning of 2020, a public health emergency was declared in France following the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.Context : Nurses involved in an advanced practice mobilized their specific skills during this health crisis by drawing on the available resources.Objectives : To analyze personal resources used by those nurses in the process of skill mobilization during the pandemic.Method : Sequential mixed research, first quantitative and then qualitative, concerning nurses or students enrolled in an advanced practice curriculum.Results : Our analysis highlighted two groups of activity for those nurses : frontline workers against COVID-19 or coordination. Coordination seemed to present more opportunities to use the specific skills of advance practice nursing.Discussion : Adjustment strategies for stress (coping and hardiness) boost nurses' commitment to their professional practice. Disciplinary knowledge contributes to the enrichment of the knowledge necessary for the mobilization of skills.Conclusion : Future research should explore resources and the mobilization of skills in the implementation of advance practice nursing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Resilience, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , France , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Nurses' , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143712

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases must be understood at the individual and community levels to improve public health decision-making for real-time and integrated community-based control strategies. Herein, we explore the epidemiological characteristics for assessing the impact of public health interventions in the community setting and their applications. Computational statistical methods could advance research on infectious disease epidemiology and accumulate scientific evidence of the potential impacts of pharmaceutical/nonpharmaceutical measures to mitigate or control infectious diseases in the community. Novel public health threats from emerging zoonotic infectious diseases are urgent issues. Given these direct and indirect mitigating impacts at various levels to different infectious diseases and their burdens, we must consider an integrated assessment approach, 'One Health', to understand the dynamics and control of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health/methods
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143131

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused widespread disruption of activities for Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE). In this study we assessed public health perspectives on leveraging the COVID-19 response to advance the goals of EHE. We conducted a qualitative study with 33 public health partners in the Midwestern and Southern United States from October 2020 to February 2022. Participants were asked how the strategies developed for COVID-19 could be applied to the HIV epidemic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and examined using rapid qualitative analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) Rebuilding teams and adapting culture for success in EHE activities; (2) Recognizing and modernizing the role of disease intervention specialists (DIS); (3) Enhanced community awareness of the public health role in disease response and prevention; and (4) Leveraging COVID-19 data systems and infrastructure for EHE activities. The COVID-19 pandemic called attention to the dearth of public health funding and outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure used for HIV activities. It also led to greater public health knowledge, including increased familiarity with partner services and molecular epidemiology of HIV, and opportunities to develop new data systems for surveillance that can be applied to efforts for EHE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , United States , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
12.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 33(2): 157-166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The health sector has long been affected by programs, actions, plans to digitize data and care processes with a view to better protecting individual health, as well as public health, resulting in a slow and uneven development of different and often incompatible national services. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to explore the grounds behind the urgency of turning the digital priority into concrete actions, as acknowledged by political leaders in the Rome Declaration, by explaining the capacity of digital tools to enhance healthcare management and the current obstacles. METHODS: It considers the progressive extension of the EU institutions' scope of action during the pandemic, the related supporting financial strategies launched and some examples of digital contact tracing systems. RESULTS: It emerged that the pandemic highlighted the inadequacy of purely national policies and the advantages of leveraging the digital health data processing for governance, surveillance and response to cross-border and global threats. CONCLUSIONS: Considering what emerged during the pandemic and the solemn commitment of the world's major political leaders, the solution to the still existing technical and organizational interoperability issues will no longer be postponed.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Public Health , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e31968, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that the third wave of COVID-19 incidence is declining, yet variants of concern (VOCs) continue to present public health challenges in Canada. The emergence of VOCs has sparked debate on how to effectively control their impacts on the Canadian population. OBJECTIVE: Provincial and territorial governments have implemented a wide range of policy measures to protect residents against community transmission of COVID-19, but research examining the specific impact of policy countermeasures on the VOCs in Canada is needed. Our study objective was to identify provinces with disproportionate prevalence of VOCs relative to COVID-19 mitigation efforts in provinces and territories in Canada. METHODS: We analyzed publicly available provincial- and territorial-level data on the prevalence of VOCs in relation to mitigating factors, summarized in 3 measures: (1) strength of public health countermeasures (stringency index), (2) the extent to which people moved about outside their homes (mobility index), and (3) the proportion of the provincial or territorial population that was fully vaccinated (vaccine uptake). Using spatial agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (unsupervised machine learning), provinces and territories were grouped into clusters by stringency index, mobility index, and full vaccine uptake. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the prevalence of VOCs (Alpha, or B.1.1.7; Beta, or B.1.351; Gamma, or P.1; and Delta, or B.1.617.2 variants) across the clusters. RESULTS: We identified 3 clusters of vaccine uptake and countermeasures. Cluster 1 consisted of the 3 Canadian territories and was characterized by a higher degree of vaccine deployment and fewer countermeasures. Cluster 2 (located in Central Canada and the Atlantic region) was typified by lower levels of vaccine deployment and moderate countermeasures. The third cluster, which consisted of provinces in the Pacific region, Central Canada, and the Prairies, exhibited moderate vaccine deployment but stronger countermeasures. The overall and variant-specific prevalences were significantly different across the clusters. CONCLUSIONS: This "up to the point" analysis found that implementation of COVID-19 public health measures, including the mass vaccination of populations, is key to controlling VOC prevalence rates in Canada. As of June 15, 2021, the third wave of COVID-19 in Canada is declining, and those provinces and territories that had implemented more comprehensive public health measures showed lower VOC prevalence. Public health authorities and governments need to continue to communicate the importance of sociobehavioural preventive measures, even as populations in Canada continue to receive their primary and booster doses of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Public Health , Vaccination
14.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1412-1415, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141106
15.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140575

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers advised policy makers to make informed decisions towards the adoption of mitigating interventions. Key easy-to-interpret metrics applied over time can measure the public health impact of epidemic outbreaks. We propose a novel method which quantifies the effect of hospitalizations or mortality when the number of COVID-19 cases doubles. Two analyses are used, a country-by-country analysis and a multi-country approach which considers all countries simultaneously. The new measure is applied to several European countries, where the presence of different variants, vaccination rates and intervention measures taken over time leads to a different risk. Based on our results, the vaccination campaign has a clear effect for all countries analyzed, reducing the risk over time. However, the constant emergence of new variants combined with distinct intervention measures impacts differently the risk per country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Administrative Personnel , Europe/epidemiology
16.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 7(1): 45, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139788

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed particular health risks to United Nations peacekeepers, which require prompt responses and global attention. Since the health protection of United Nations peacekeepers against the COVID-19 pandemic is a typical global health problem, strategies from global health perspectives may help address it. From global health perspectives, and referring to the successful health protection of the Chinese Anti-Ebola medical team in Liberia, a conceptual framework was developed for the health protection of United Nations peacekeepers against the COVID-19 pandemic. Within this framework, the features include multiple cross-borders (cross-border risk factors, impact, and actions); multiple risk factors (Social Determinants of Health), multiple disciplines (public health, medicine, politics, diplomacy, and others), and extensive interdepartmental cooperation. These strategies include multiple phases (before-deployment, during-deployment, and post-deployment), multi-level cooperation networks (the United Nations, host countries, troop-contributing countries, the United Nations peacekeeping team, and United Nations peacekeepers), and concerted efforts from various dimensions (medical, psychological, and social).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health , Public Health , United Nations
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(Suppl 1): 126, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139322

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought about safe distancing measures that are unprecedented. This article details the impact of the pandemic across research studies involving older persons in Singapore, and assesses the different strategies used to adapt to their needs in the context of evolving public health measures. The pandemic exposed diverse experiences of vulnerability among older persons, pushing for critical reflections on ethics of participation and social inclusion as the new research normal. We emphasize the importance of practicing flexibility: consideration for differentiated approaches to recruitment and data collection that should be proactively embedded in research designs for older persons during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Inclusion , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , Singapore , Public Health
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1378, 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing (CT) is an important, but resource-intensive tool to control outbreaks of communicable diseases. Under pandemic circumstances, public health services may not have sufficient resources at their disposal to effectively facilitate CT. This may be addressed by giving cases and their contact persons more autonomy and responsibility in the execution of CT by public health professionals, through digital contact tracing support tools (DCTS-tools). However, the application of this approach has not yet been systematically investigated from the perspective of public health practice. Therefore, we investigated public health professionals' perspectives and needs regarding involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools. METHODS: Between October 2020 and February 2021, we conducted online semi-structured interviews (N = 17) with Dutch public health professionals to explore their perspectives and needs regarding the involvement of cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools, in the contact identification, notification, and monitoring stages of the CT-process. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis was performed. RESULTS: Four main themes related to Dutch public health professionals' perspectives and needs regarding involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools emerged from the data: 'Distinct characteristics of CT with DCTS-tools'; 'Anticipated benefits and challenges of CT for COVID-19 with DCTS- tools'; 'Circumstances in CT for COVID-19 that permit or constrain the application of DCTS-tools'; and 'Public health professionals' needs regarding the development and application of DCTS-tools for CT'. Public health professionals seem to have a positive attitude towards involving cases and contact persons through DCTS-tools. Public health professionals' (positive) attitudes seem conditional on the circumstances under which CT is performed, and the fulfilment of their needs in the development and application of DCTS-tools. CONCLUSIONS: Dutch public health professionals seem positive towards involving cases and contact persons in CT for COVID-19 through DCTS-tools. Through adequate implementation of DCTS-tools in the CT-process, anticipated challenges can be overcome. Future research should investigate the perspectives and needs of cases and contact persons regarding DCTS-tools, and the application of DCTS-tools in practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Qualitative Research , Netherlands
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2197, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Points of Entry (POEs) are at the frontline for prevention, detection and response to international spread of diseases. The objective of this assessment was to ascertain the current level of existing International Health Regulations (IHR) core capacities of designated airports, ports and ground crossings in Cameroon and identify critical gaps for capacity building for prevention, early warning and response to public health threats including COVID-19. METHODS: Data were collected from April to May 2020 in 5 designated POEs: Yaounde Nsimalen International Airport (YIA), Douala international Airport (DIA), Douala Autonomous Port (DAP), Garoua-Boulai ground crossing, Kye-Ossi ground crossing which were all selected for their high volume of passenger and goods traffic. The World Health Organization (WHO) assessment tool for core capacity requirements at designated airports, ports and ground crossings was used to collect data on three technical capacities: (i) communication and coordination, (ii) Capacities at all times and (iii) capacities to respond to Public Health Emergencies of International Concern (PHEIC). RESULTS: All the investigated POEs scored below 50% of capacities in place. YIA recorded the highest percentage for all groups of capacities, coordination and communication and for core capacity at all times with a percentage of 42%, 58% and 32% respectively. For core capacity to respond to PHEIC, all the POEs recorded below 50%. The DAP and all ground crossings lacked trained personnel for inspection of conveyances. Only DIA had a public health emergency plan. There is no isolation/quarantine and transport capacity at the POEs. CONCLUSION: All POEs assessed did not meet IHR standards and need significant improvement to fulfill the IHR requirements. Unstructured communication channels between stakeholders make the implementation of IHR challenging. A coordination mechanism, with clear functions and structure, is necessary for well-coordinated response efforts to health emergencies at POEs. This assessment will serve as a baseline to inform planning and IHR implementation at designated POEs in Cameroon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Emergencies , Pandemics/prevention & control
20.
Health Promot Pract ; 23(1_suppl): 174S-184S, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138964

ABSTRACT

Live Well Allegheny: Lifting Wellness for African Americans (LWA2) is a coalition in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) initiative. LWA2 consists of partner organizations addressing chronic disease prevention in six Black communities through nutrition, physical activity, and community-clinical linkage strategies. This analysis focuses on qualitative data exploring the influence of COVID-19 on coalition functioning and communities. We conducted focus groups with residents in REACH communities and collected evaluation reports from partner organizations. Three focus groups assessed awareness of and participation in the REACH initiative, feedback, and the impact of COVID-19 when applicable. An additional focus group included questions related to flu vaccine messaging and the COVID-19 vaccine. These data sources provided insight regarding how COVID-19 affected planned tasks. Evaluation team members analyzed focus groups and collated summaries as part of a larger comprehensive evaluation. Partner organizations experienced an increase in food stamp applications, delays in opening farmers' markets, a shift to virtual preventive health programs, canceled in-person events, and programmatic interruptions that shifted long-term goals. Community resident concerns included difficulty accessing public transportation, decreased physical activity, fear of in-person interactions, and increased wait times for mental health services. Coalition members developed methods to continue functioning and sustaining program activities. Residents were able to engage differently with chronic illness prevention techniques. Reports from the ongoing analysis will be used to adapt coalition functioning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Focus Groups , Pennsylvania , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chronic Disease
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