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1.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(4): 677-682, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616893

ABSTRACT

A series of denialist state laws thwart efficacious public health emergency response efforts despite escalating impacts of the spread of the Delta variant during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(4): 564-579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616889

ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the Supreme Court's "shadow docket" Free Exercise cases relating to COVID-19. The paper highlights the decline of deference, the impact of exemptions, and the implications of the new doctrine for vaccine and other public health laws.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Supreme Court Decisions , United States
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613813

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has triggered an accelerated pace in all research domains, including reliable diagnostics methodology. Molecular diagnostics of the virus and its presence in biological samples relies on the RT-PCR method, the most used and validated worldwide. Nonconventional tests with improved parameters that are in the development stages will be presented, such as droplet digital PCR or CRISPR-based assays. These molecular tests were followed by rapid antigen testing along with the development of antibody tests, whether based on ELISA platform or on a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Less-conventional methods of testing antibodies (e.g., lateral flow immunoassay) are presented as well. Left somewhere in the backstage of COVID-19 research, immune cells and, furthermore, immune memory cells, are gaining the spotlight, more so in the vaccination context. Recently, methodologies using flow-cytometry evaluate circulating immune cells in infected/recovered patients. The appearance of new virus variants has triggered a surge for tests improvement. As the pandemic has entered an ongoing or postvaccination era, all methodologies that are used to monitor public health focus on diagnostic strategies and this review points out where gaps should be filled in both clinical and research settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoassay , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E244-E255, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review changes in public health finance since the 2012 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "For the Public's Health: Investing in a Healthier Future." DESIGN: Qualitative study involving key informant interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of US public health practitioners, leaders, and academics expected to be knowledgeable about the report recommendations, public health practice, and changes in public health finance since the report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Qualitative feedback about changes to public health finance since the report. RESULTS: Thirty-two interviews were conducted between April and May 2019. The greatest momentum toward the report recommendations has occurred predominantly at the state and local levels, with recommendations requiring federal action making less progress. In addition, much of the progress identified is consensus building and preparation for change rather than clear changes. Overall, progress toward the recommendations has been slow. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the achievements reported by respondents were characterized as increased dialogue and individual state or local progress rather than widespread, identifiable policy or practice changes. Participants suggested that public health as a field needs to achieve further consensus and a uniform voice in order to advocate for changes at a federal level. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Slow progress in achieving 2012 IOM Finance Report recommendations and lack of a cohesive voice pose threats to the public's health, as can be seen in the context of COVID-19 emergency response activities. The pandemic and the nation's inadequate response have highlighted deficiencies in our current system and emphasize the need for coordinated and sustained core public health infrastructure funding at the federal level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Healthcare Financing , Humans , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
5.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 60-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify potential strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in a Utah meat-processing facility and surrounding community. DESIGN/SETTING: During March-June 2020, 502 workers at a Utah meat-processing facility (facility A) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Using merged data from the state disease surveillance system and facility A, we analyzed the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and worker demographics, work section, and geospatial data on worker residence. We analyzed worker survey responses to questions regarding COVID-19 knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors at work and home. PARTICIPANTS: (1) Facility A workers (n = 1373) with specimen collection dates and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results; (2) residential addresses of all persons (workers and nonworkers) with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test (n = 1036), living within the 3 counties included in the health department catchment area; and (3) facility A workers (n = 64) who agreed to participate in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: New cases over time, COVID-19 attack rates, worker characteristics by SARS-CoV-2 test results, geospatially clustered cases, space-time proximity of cases among workers and nonworkers; frequency of quantitative responses, crude prevalence ratios, and counts and frequency of coded responses to open-ended questions from the COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in race (P = .01), linguistic group (P < .001), and work section (P < .001) were found between workers with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Geographically, only 6% of cases were within statistically significant spatiotemporal case clusters. Workers reported using handwashing (57%) and social distancing (21%) as mitigation strategies outside work but reported apprehension with taking COVID-19-associated sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigating COVID-19 outbreaks among workers in congregate settings requires a multifaceted public health response that is tailored to the workforce. IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE: Tailored, multifaceted mitigation strategies are crucial for reducing COVID-19-associated health disparities among disproportionately affected populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meat , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Utah/epidemiology
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1328: 99-121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607382

ABSTRACT

Common cold is known as a serious clinical problem worldwide. Coronaviruses have long been identified as respiratory pathogens causing "common cold" in healthy people. The pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus as a serious public health problem and concern has resulted in severe illness and death especially in the elderly. COVID-19 is picking up pace around the world and has spread to more than 219 countries. Due to the very easy spread of COVID-19 and its lack of recognized appropriate treatments and vaccines as well as potential therapeutic effects of several traditional herbal remedies, we decided to gather, evaluate, and compare the potential pharmacological effects of medicinal herbs from Avicenna's perspective and modern medicine with antiviral properties which may lead to the discovery of suitable traditional treatments to prevent or reduce the adverse symptoms of common cold.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Aged , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057127, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine SARS-CoV-2 vaccine confidence, attitudes and intentions in Australian adults as part of the iCARE Study. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional online survey conducted when free COVID-19 vaccinations first became available in Australia in February 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1166 Australians from general population aged 18-90 years (mean 52, SD of 19). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: responses to question 'If a vaccine for COVID-19 were available today, what is the likelihood that you would get vaccinated?'.Secondary outcome: analyses of putative drivers of uptake, including vaccine confidence, socioeconomic status and sources of trust, derived from multiple survey questions. RESULTS: Seventy-eight per cent reported being likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Higher SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions were associated with: increasing age (OR: 2.01 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.77)), being male (1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.72)), residing in least disadvantaged area quintile (2.27 (95% CI 1.53 to 3.37)) and a self-perceived high risk of getting COVID-19 (1.52 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.14)). However, 72% did not believe they were at a high risk of getting COVID-19. Findings regarding vaccines in general were similar except there were no sex differences. For both the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and vaccines in general, there were no differences in intentions to vaccinate as a function of education level, perceived income level and rurality. Knowing that the vaccine is safe and effective and that getting vaccinated will protect others, trusting the company that made it and vaccination recommended by a doctor were reported to influence a large proportion of the study cohort to uptake the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Seventy-eight per cent reported the intent to continue engaging in virus-protecting behaviours (mask wearing, social distancing, etc) postvaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Most Australians are likely to receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Key influencing factors identified (eg, knowing vaccine is safe and effective, and doctor's recommendation to get vaccinated) can inform public health messaging to enhance vaccination rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccines , Adult , Attitude , Australia , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Male , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 768091, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604464

ABSTRACT

The success of public health interventions is highly dependent on the compliance of the general population. State authorities often implement policies without consulting representatives of faith-based communities, thereby overlooking potential implications of public health measures for these parts of society. Although ubiquitous, these challenges are more readily observable in highly religious states. Romania serves as an illustrative example for this, as recent data identify it as the most religious country in Europe. In this paper, we discuss the contributions of the Romanian Orthodox Church (ROC), the major religious institution in the country, to the national COVID-19 mitigation efforts. We present not only the positive outcomes of productive consultations between public health authorities and religious institutions but also the detrimental impact of unidirectional communication. Our work highlights that an efficient dialogue with faith-based communities can greatly enhance the results of public health interventions. As the outlined principles apply to a variety of contexts, the lessons learned from this case study can be generalized into a set of policy recommendations for the betterment of future public health initiatives worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Romania , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599437

ABSTRACT

Charity organizations positively impact our societies but charity misconduct impairs people's willingness to contribute to charity and functional health systems on public health issues. This study investigates the impact of charity misconduct on people's willingness to offer help on public health issues and possible ways of reducing the negative impact brought by charity misconduct news through four studies (Ntotal = 1269). Results showed that charity misconduct on public health issues significantly reduced individuals' willingness to offer help via both the charity involved with the misconduct and any charity they prefer (Study 1 and 2). Furthermore, news on charity misconduct reduced people's general willingness to help in contexts that did not involve charity (Study 3). Finally, presenting charity nonmisconduct news after charity misconduct news increases individuals' willingness to offer help via the nonmisconduct charity (Study 4), suggesting a potential way to nudge people to provide help in the fight against the negative impact brought by charity misconduct news. The findings show the backfire of reporting charity misconduct news and have important implications for potential ways to facilitate people to offer help.


Subject(s)
Charities , Public Health , Humans
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e28318, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become one of the most critical public health problems worldwide. Because many COPD patients are using video-based social media to search for health information, there is an urgent need to assess the information quality of COPD videos on social media. Recently, the short-video app TikTok has demonstrated huge potential in disseminating health information and there are currently many COPD videos available on TikTok; however, the information quality of these videos remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the information quality of COPD videos on TikTok. METHODS: In December 2020, we retrieved and screened 300 videos from TikTok and collected a sample of 199 COPD-related videos in Chinese for data extraction. We extracted the basic video information, coded the content, and identified the video sources. Two independent raters assessed the information quality of each video using the DISCERN instrument. RESULTS: COPD videos on TikTok came mainly from two types of sources: individual users (n=168) and organizational users (n=31). The individual users included health professionals, individual science communicators, and general TikTok users, whereas the organizational users consisted of for-profit organizations, nonprofit organizations, and news agencies. For the 199 videos, the mean scores of the DISCERN items ranged from 3.42 to 4.46, with a total mean score of 3.75. Publication reliability (P=.04) and overall quality (P=.02) showed significant differences across the six types of sources, whereas the quality of treatment choices showed only a marginally significant difference (P=.053) across the different sources. CONCLUSIONS: The overall information quality of COPD videos on TikTok is satisfactory, although the quality varies across different sources and according to specific quality dimensions. Patients should be selective and cautious when watching COPD videos on TikTok.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Social Media , Humans , Information Dissemination , Public Health , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Video Recording
12.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S533-S536, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at (1) describing the local wisdom Poda Na Lima 'Five Advices of Cleanliness' for community health, and (2) analyzing the local women's activities in preserving the local wisdom Poda Na Lima 'Five Advices of Cleanliness' for the community health in Toba Batak. METHOD: The research method employed in this study was qualitative paradigm with interactive model in four interactive steps. After data collection, there were three steps of analysis, namely data display, data condensation and conclusion drawing/verification. The interactive model of the research method was conducted with anthropolinguistic approach. RESULTS: Toba Batak has inherited and practiced local community Poda Na Lima 'Five Advices of Cleanliness' for community health, which is very important to be continuously practiced to keep healthy such as on this Covid-19 pandemic. Toba Batak women conduct healthy activities to ask and guide people to keep clean and stay healthy. CONCLUSION: Women play a significant role to preserve local wisdom Poda Na Lima 'Five Advices of Cleanliness' for keeping clean and stay healthy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lakes , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ethics Hum Res ; 44(1): 2-17, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597364

ABSTRACT

In this article, we analyze legal and ethical issues raised in Big Data health research projects in the Covid-19 era and consider how these issues might be addressed in ways that advance positive values (e.g., furtherance of respect for persons and accordance with relevant legal frameworks) while mitigating or eliminating any negative aspects (e.g., exacerbation of social inequality and injustice). We apply this analysis specifically to UK-REACH (The United Kingdom Research Study into Ethnicity and Covid-19 Outcomes in Healthcare Workers), a project with which we are involved. We argue that Big Data projects like UK-REACH can be conducted in an ethically robust manner and that funders and sponsors ought to encourage similar projects to drive better evidence-based public policy in public health. As part of this, we advocate that a Big Data ethics-by-design approach be undertaken when such projects are constructed. This principle extends the work of those who advocate ethics by design by addressing prominent issues in Big Data health research projects; it holds that ethical values and principles in Big Data health research projects are best adhered to when they are already integrated into the project aims and methods at the design stage. In advocating this principle, we present a unique perspective regarding pressing ethical problems around large-scale, data-driven Covid-19 research, as well as legal issues associated with processing ostensibly anonymized health data.


Subject(s)
Big Data , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595434

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships of food safety knowledge, attitude and eating behavior of consumers during national lockdowns in the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 157 respondents completed the online survey using a structured questionnaire worldwide. Overall, the respondents exhibited good attitude and good knowledge towards public health including food safety especially on the importance of social distancing, mask wearing, well-balanced diet, physical exercise and personal hygiene, such as hand washing during the pandemic lockdowns. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among food safety knowledge, attitude and behavior under the pandemic conditions. Results showed that attitude towards food safety under the coronavirus pandemic and lockdowns positively affected the eating behavior of the respondents, which exhibited a high ß (0.686) among the variables tested (p<0.05). Food safety knowledge was apparently not affected by the food safety behavior of the respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Global Health , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594409

ABSTRACT

Although declines in intent to vaccinate had been identified in international surveys conducted between June and October 2020, including in the United States, some individuals in the United States who previously expressed reluctance said, in spring 2021, that they were willing to vaccinate. That change raised the following questions: What factors predicted an increased willingness to inoculate against COVID-19? And, to what extent was the change driven by COVID-specific factors, such as personal worry about the disease and COVID-specific misinformation, and to what extent by background (non-COVID-specific) factors, such as trust in medical authorities, accurate/inaccurate information about vaccination, vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance? This panel study of more than 8,000 individuals found that trust in health authorities anchored acceptance of vaccination and that knowledge about vaccination, flu vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance played a more prominent role in shifting individuals from vaccination hesitance to acceptance than COVID-specific factors. COVID-specific conspiracy beliefs did play a role, although a lesser one. These findings underscore the need to reinforce trust in health experts, facilitate community engagement with them, and preemptively communicate the benefits and safety record of authorized vaccines. The findings suggest, as well, the need to identify and deploy messaging able to undercut health-related conspiracy beliefs when they begin circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior , Communication , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , United States , Vaccination/ethics , Young Adult
19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(1): 5-6, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591776

Subject(s)
Tigers , Animals , Humans , Public Health
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591384

ABSTRACT

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Decision Making , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Hydraulic Fracking/legislation & jurisprudence , Federal Government , Government Regulation , Humans , New Mexico/ethnology , Public Health
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