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1.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(3): 8-10, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093440
2.
Lancet ; 397(10270): 186, 2021 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093256
3.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 18(70): 68-74, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089443

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease similar form of pneumonia/ SARS-CoV-2- impacting deadly globally. The main objective of this article is to analyze the studies and gather of the current information aimed at COVID-19 and analyze the situation of Nepal. We summarized the published articles from the web pages, Journals, Google search engine. It is declared as a public health emergency. However, why COVID-19 does not register in developing counties (Nepal) rather than China, Europe and North America it is unknown. Nepal has lower experiences of the COVID-19 where only 49 death cases registered and total cases 19,237 cases throughout the country (till 08/1/2020). Nepalese health services need to maintain up than today and follow lockdown, isolation, social distance and an advance screening test kit around the country.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Public Health , Quarantine
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e042898, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aim to estimate the impact of various mitigation strategies on COVID-19 transmission in a US jail beyond those offered in national guidelines. DESIGN: We developed a stochastic dynamic transmission model of COVID-19. SETTING: One anonymous large urban US jail. PARTICIPANTS: Several thousand staff and incarcerated individuals. INTERVENTIONS: There were four intervention phases during the outbreak: the start of the outbreak, depopulation of the jail, increased proportion of people in single cells and asymptomatic testing. These interventions were implemented incrementally and in concert with one another. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The basic reproduction ratio, R 0 , in each phase, as estimated using the next generation method. The fraction of new cases, hospitalisations and deaths averted by these interventions (along with the standard measures of sanitisation, masking and social distancing interventions). RESULTS: For the first outbreak phase, the estimated R 0 was 8.44 (95% credible interval (CrI): 5.00 to 13.10), and for the subsequent phases, R 0,phase 2 =3.64 (95% CrI: 2.43 to 5.11), R 0,phase 3 =1.72 (95% CrI: 1.40 to 2.12) and R 0,phase 4 =0.58 (95% CrI: 0.43 to 0.75). In total, the jail's interventions prevented approximately 83% of projected cases, hospitalisations and deaths over 83 days. CONCLUSIONS: Depopulation, single celling and asymptomatic testing within jails can be effective strategies to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in addition to standard public health measures. Decision makers should prioritise reductions in the jail population, single celling and testing asymptomatic populations as additional measures to manage COVID-19 within correctional settings.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , United States
5.
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25734, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a fast-evolving public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple pieces of relevant information can be posted sequentially on a social media platform. The interval between subsequent posting times may have a different impact on the transmission and cross-propagation of the old and new information that results in a different peak value and a final size of forwarding users of the new information, depending on the content correlation and whether the new information is posted during the outbreak or quasi-steady-state phase of the old information. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help in designing effective communication strategies to ensure information is delivered to the maximal number of users. METHODS: We developed and analyzed two classes of susceptible-forwarding-immune information propagation models with delay in transmission to describe the cross-propagation process of relevant information. A total of 28,661 retweets of typical information were posted frequently by each opinion leader related to COVID-19 with high influence (data acquisition up to February 19, 2020). The information was processed into discrete points with a frequency of 10 minutes, and the real data were fitted by the model numerical simulation. Furthermore, the influence of parameters on information dissemination and the design of a publishing strategy were analyzed. RESULTS: The current epidemic outbreak situation, epidemic prevention, and other related authoritative information cannot be timely and effectively browsed by the public. The ingenious use of information release intervals can effectively enhance the interaction between information and realize the effective diffusion of information. We parameterized our models using real data from Sina Microblog and used the parameterized models to define and evaluate mutual attractiveness indexes, and we used these indexes and parameter sensitivity analyses to inform optimal strategies for new information to be effectively propagated in the microblog. The results of the parameter analysis showed that using different attractiveness indexes as the key parameters can control the information transmission with different release intervals, so it is considered as a key link in the design of an information communication strategy. At the same time, the dynamic process of information was analyzed through index evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our model can carry out an accurate numerical simulation of information at different release intervals and achieve a dynamic evaluation of information transmission by constructing an indicator system so as to provide theoretical support and strategic suggestions for government decision making. This study optimizes information posting strategies to maximize communication efforts for delivering key public health messages to the public for better outcomes of public health emergency management.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Education , Information Dissemination , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Opinion , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Disease Outbreaks , Government , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors
7.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 33-40, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding basic epidemiology and public health concepts is essential to the provision of safe care during a pandemic. These basic concepts and terms include containment, mitigation, predictive modeling, latent period, incubation period, reproduction number, case fatality rate, and test sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVES: Public health concepts and terms are defined, described in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and specific implications for oncology nursing practice are discussed. METHODS: A review of public health literature and reputable websites with a focus on COVID-19 data. This article defines epidemiologic and public health concepts and uses examples from the pandemic to illustrate oncology nursing implications. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic is changing oncology nursing care delivery. Oncology nurses need to understand these concepts to anticipate and advocate for optimal oncology care.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/education , Nurse Clinicians/education , Oncology Nursing/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , United States/epidemiology
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(2): e4-e5, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083812
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1001, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082056

ABSTRACT

Stringent nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as lockdowns and border closures are not currently recommended for pandemic influenza control. New Zealand used these NPIs to eliminate coronavirus disease 2019 during its first wave. Using multiple surveillance systems, we observed a parallel and unprecedented reduction of influenza and other respiratory viral infections in 2020. This finding supports the use of these NPIs for controlling pandemic influenza and other severe respiratory viral threats.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , /prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , /isolation & purification
11.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081915

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic is not the first time New South Wales prisons have faced contagion. This paper examines the current responses in New South Wales prisons to the threat of COVID-19 to prisoner health, by contrasting contemporary activities with actions and policy developed during two historical epidemics: the influenza epidemic of 1860 and pandemic of 1919. Method: Epidemiological information relating to cases of disease in NSW prisons during the 1860 and 1919 influenza epidemics was obtained from the Comptroller-General's reports for the specific outbreak years and for the preceding and succeeding five-year periods. Additional archival sources such as digitised newspaper reports and articles available through the National Library of Australia were analysed for closer detail. The management of these outbreaks was compared to current strategies to mitigate against risk from the COVID-19 pandemic in the NSW prison system. Results: Interesting similarities were discovered in relation to the management of the historic influenza outbreaks in NSW prisons and in the management of the current COVID-19 pandemic. An outbreak of influenza in mid-1860 impacted seven penal institutions in Sydney and Parramatta. Infection rates at these institutions were between 3.1% and 100%; the mean rate was 41.8%. The public health measures employed at the time included allowing 'air circulation freely night and day', and treatments that were 'tonical and stimulatory'. Discussion: While the past 100 or more years have brought huge progress in scientific knowledge, public health approaches remain the mainstay of outbreak management in prisons; and, as in 1919, the opportunity for Australia to observe the rest of the world and plan for action has not been wasted. Prisons pose a potential risk for pandemic spread but they also present a unique opportunity for reducing disease risk by ironic virtue of the 'separate system' that was recognised even 100 years ago as characteristic of these institutions.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Influenza, Human/history , Prisons/history , Public Health , Communicable Disease Control/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , New South Wales/epidemiology , Prisons/organization & administration , Prisons/standards
12.
Front Public Health ; 8: 616328, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081274

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have seen an accumulation of theoretical and empirical evidence for the interlinkages between human health and well-being, biodiversity and ecosystem services, and agriculture. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the devastating impacts that an emerging pathogen, of animal origin, can have on human societies and economies. A number of scholars have called for the wider adoption of "One Health integrated approaches" to better prevent, and respond to, the threats of emerging zoonotic diseases. However, there are theoretical and practical challenges that have precluded the full development and practical implementation of this approach. Whilst integrated approaches to health are increasingly adopting a social-ecological system framework (SES), the lack of clarity in framing the key concept of resilience in health contexts remains a major barrier to its implementation by scientists and practitioners. We propose an operational framework, based on a transdisciplinary definition of Socio-Ecological System Health (SESH) that explicitly links health and ecosystem management with the resilience of SES, and the adaptive capacity of the actors and agents within SES, to prevent and cope with emerging health and environmental risks. We focus on agricultural transitions that play a critical role in disease emergence and biodiversity conservation, to illustrate the proposed participatory framework to frame and co-design SESH interventions. Finally, we highlight critical changes that are needed from researchers, policy makers and donors, in order to engage communities and other stakeholders involved in the management of their own health and that of the underpinning ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Public Health , Animals , Biodiversity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Humans , Zoonoses/prevention & control
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22427, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of COVID-19, numerous rumors emerged on the internet in China and caused confusion among the public. However, the characteristics of these rumors in different phases of the epidemic have not been studied in depth, and the official responses to the rumors have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the rumor epidemic and official responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. METHODS: Data on internet rumors related to COVID-19 were collected via the Sina Weibo Official Account to Refute Rumors between January 20 and April 8, 2020, extracted, and analyzed. The data were divided into five periods according to the key events and disease epidemic. Different classifications of rumors were described and compared over the five periods. The trends of the epidemic and the focus of the public at different stages were plotted, and correlation analysis between the number of rumors and the number of COVID-19 cases was performed. The geographic distributions of the sources and refuters of the rumors were graphed, and analyses of the most frequently appearing words in the rumors were applied to reveal hotspots of the rumors. RESULTS: A total of 1943 rumors were retrieved. The median of the response interval between publication and debunking of the rumors was 1 day (IQR 1-2). Rumors in text format accounted for the majority of the 1943 rumors (n=1241, 63.9%); chat tools, particularly WeChat (n=1386, 71.3%), were the most common platform for initial publishing of the rumors (n=1412, 72.7%). In addition to text rumors, Weibo and web pages were more likely to be platforms for rumors released in multimedia formats or in a combination of formats, respectively. Local agencies played a large role in dispelling rumors among social media platforms (1537/1943, 79.1%). There were significant differences in the formats and origins of rumors over the five periods (P<.001). Hubei Province accounted for most of the country's confirmed rumors. Beijing and Wuhan City were the main centers for debunking of disinformation. The words most frequently included in the core messages of the rumors varied by period, indicating shifting in the public's concern. CONCLUSIONS: Chat tools, particularly WeChat, became the major sources of rumors during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, indicating a requirement to establish rumor monitoring and refuting mechanisms on these platforms. Moreover, targeted policy adjustments and timely release of official information are needed in different phases of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communication , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(2): e26392, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, there has been an increasing secular trend in the number of studies on social media and health. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the content and characteristics of TikTok videos that are related to an important aspect of community mitigation-the use of masks as a method for interrupting the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In total, 100 trending videos with the hashtag #WearAMask (ie, a campaign on TikTok), along with 32 videos that were posted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and involved masks in any way (ie, all related WHO videos at the time of this study), were included in our sample. We collected the metadata of each post, and created content categories based on fact sheets that were provided by the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We used these fact sheets to code the characteristics of mask use. RESULTS: Videos that were posted on TikTok and had the hashtag #WearAMask garnered almost 500 million views, and videos that were posted by the WHO garnered almost 57 million views. Although the ratio of the number of trending #WearAMask videos to the number of WHO videos was around 3:1, the #WearAMask videos received almost 10 times as many cumulative views as the WHO videos. In total, 68% (68/100) of the trending #WearAMask videos involved humor and garnered over 355 million cumulative views. However, only 9% (3/32) of the WHO videos involved humor. Furthermore, 27% (27/100) of the trending #WearAMask videos involved dance and garnered over 130 million cumulative views, whereas none of the WHO videos involved dance. CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first to describe how TikTok is being used to mitigate the community spread of COVID-19 by promoting mask use. Due to the platform's incredible reach, TikTok has great potential in conveying important public health messages to various segments of the population.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Health Promotion/methods , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Social Media , /epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Communication/methods , Humans , Public Health , Video Recording
15.
16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(4): 1739-1745, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080067

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of CoVID-19 infection rapidly increases worldwide. Most of the continents affecting from CoVID-19 and still widening its burden disease (Jones DS, 2020; Lai et al., 2020). Along with its fatality rates, CoVID-19 has caused physiological disturbances in the society and termed as "coronophobia". CoVID-19 with renal failure, severe pneumonia and respiratory syndrome patients have been reported to increase the severity of disease conditions (Sevim et al., 2020). Also, CoVID-19 with cancer patients increase the higher risk of infections. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment against CoVID-19 and drug research centres continuously investigating the potential drug against CoVID-19 (Osama and Amer, 2020). For the past 20 years two major coronavirus epidemics have occurred in public includes SARS-CoV approximately 8000 cases and 800 deaths and MERS-CoV 2,500 cases and 800 deaths and these continuing sporadically (Cascella et al., 2020).


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Age Factors , /prevention & control , Comorbidity , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Prevalence , Public Health , Sex Factors
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 212-216, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079855

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is transmitted predominantly by respiratory droplets generated when infected persons cough, sneeze, spit, sing, talk, or breathe. CDC recommends community use of face masks to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of October 22, 2020, statewide mask mandates were in effect in 33 states and the District of Columbia (2). This study examined whether implementation of statewide mask mandates was associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization growth rates among different age groups in 10 sites participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) in states that issued statewide mask mandates during March 1-October 17, 2020. Regression analysis demonstrated that weekly hospitalization growth rates declined by 2.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-5.5) among adults aged 40-64 years during the first 2 weeks after implementing statewide mask mandates. After mask mandates had been implemented for ≥3 weeks, hospitalization growth rates declined by 5.5 percentage points among persons aged 18-39 years (95% CI = 0.6-10.4) and those aged 40-64 years (95% CI = 0.8-10.2). Statewide mask mandates might be associated with reductions in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and might contribute to reductions in COVID-19 hospitalization growth rates, compared with growth rates during <4 weeks before implementation of the mandate and the implementation week. Mask-wearing is a component of a multipronged strategy to decrease exposure to and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reduce strain on the health care system, with likely direct effects on COVID-19 morbidity and associated mortality.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 208-211, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079854

ABSTRACT

Approximately 41% of adults aged 18-24 years in the United States are enrolled in a college or university (1). Wearing a face mask can reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (2), and many colleges and universities mandate mask use in public locations and outdoors when within six feet of others. Studies based on self-report have described mask use ranging from 69.1% to 86.1% among adults aged 18-29 years (3); however, more objective measures are needed. Direct observation by trained observers is the accepted standard for monitoring behaviors such as hand hygiene (4). In this investigation, direct observation was used to estimate the proportion of persons wearing masks and the proportion of persons wearing masks correctly (i.e., covering the nose and mouth and secured under the chin*) on campus and at nearby off-campus locations at six rural and suburban universities with mask mandates in the southern and western United States. Trained student observers recorded mask use for up to 8 weeks from fixed sites on campus and nearby. Among 17,200 observed persons, 85.5% wore masks, with 89.7% of those persons wearing the mask correctly (overall correct mask use: 76.7%). Among persons observed indoors, 91.7% wore masks correctly. The proportion correctly wearing masks indoors varied by mask type, from 96.8% for N95-type masks and 92.2% for cloth masks to 78.9% for bandanas, scarves, and similar face coverings. Observed indoor mask use was high at these six universities with mask mandates. Colleges and universities can use direct observation findings to tailor training and messaging toward increasing correct mask use.


Subject(s)
Masks/statistics & numerical data , Masks/standards , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/psychology , Universities/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , /prevention & control , Humans , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 11, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079792

ABSTRACT

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development promotes the "Leaving no one behind" principle and sets goals in areas of critical importance. This principle has become extraordinarily important during the COVID-19 pandemic, and is especially relevant for fragile populations, such as people experiencing homelessness. Homeless persons live in congregate and poor hygiene settings that may favor virus transmission, often have underling physical and mental comorbidities that place them at high risk of severe forms of COVID-19, and have limited access to public healthcare and social services. In addition, the homeless are often overlooked by safety and health monitoring actions. All of these factors, taken together, place homeless persons at high risk of being left behind. It is therefore of utmost importance to put in place adequate public health measures to limit spread of infection among homeless persons, rapidly identify and isolate asymptomatic and minimally symptomatic subjects, promptly and appropriately treat positive cases, and correctly handle the entire socioeconomic environment of vulnerable people.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Homeless Persons , Housing , /diagnosis , /transmission , Communicable Disease Control , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mass Screening , Patient Isolation , Public Health , Risk Factors , Vatican City
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