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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 738098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775966

ABSTRACT

Objective: Students' perceptions of the educational environment have a significant impact on their behavior and academic progress. This study aims to measure medical graduates' perception of the educational environment within the School of Public Health at Wuhan University in China. Methods: The survey was conducted by emails sent to 119 graduates, and 93 valid questionnaires were returned. The DREEM was used to assess the medical graduates' satisfaction with the educational environment. Results: The average score on the scale was 126.02 (±18.27). The scoring rate of the areas ranged between 61.06 and 67.11%. The area with the highest score was "perception of teachers." The area with the lowest score was "academic self-perception." No difference was found between genders. Except for "perception of atmosphere," the total scores and other areas showed differences in graduation time. Conclusion: The educational environment at the School of Public Health at Wuhan University was satisfactory. The program contributed to the graduates' later careers. The information obtained in this study identified some areas for improvement.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Students, Medical , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Public Health/education , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Hum Resour Health ; 20(1): 14, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705524

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the Indian subcontinent, Master's-level Public Health (MlPH) programmes attract graduates of diverse academic disciplines from health and non-health sciences alike. Considering the current and futuristic importance of the public health cadre, we described them and reviewed their transdisciplinarity status based on MlPH admissibility criteria 1995 to 2021. METHODS: Using a search strategy, we abstracted information available in the public domain on MlPH programmes and their admissibility criteria. We categorized the admission criteria based on specified disciplines into Health science, Non-health science and Non-health non-science categories. We described the MlPH programmes by location, type of institution, course duration, curriculum, pedagogical methods, specializations offered, and nature of admission criteria statements. We calculated descriptive statistics for eligible educational qualifications for MlPH admission. RESULTS: Overall, 76 Indian institutions (Medical colleges-21 and Non-medical coleges-55) offered 92 MlPH programmes (Private-58 and Public-34). We included 89 for review. These programmes represent a 51% increase (n = 47) from 2016 to 2021. They are mostly concentrated in 21 Indian provinces. These programmes stated that they admit candidates of but not limited to "graduation in any life sciences", "3-year bachelor's degree in any discipline", "graduation from any Indian universities", and "graduation in any discipline". Among the health science disciplines, Modern medicine (n = 89; 100%), Occupational therapy (n = 57; 64%) is the least eligible. Among the non-health science disciplines, life sciences and behavioural sciences (n = 53; 59%) and non-health non-science disciplines, humanities and social sciences (n = 62; 72%) are the topmost eligible disciplines for admission in the MPH programmes. CONCLUSION: Our review suggests that India's MlPH programmes are less transdisciplinary. Relatively, non-medical institutions offer admission to various academic disciplines than the medical institutions in their MlPH programmes. India's Master's level public health programmes could be more inclusive by opening to graduates from trans-disciplinary backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Public Health , Humans , India , Public Health/education , Universities
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 745232, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662633

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore whether the institutional presence of public health expertise within colleges and universities was associated with operational plans for the fall semester of 2020. Using cross-sectional data collected by the College Crisis Initiative of Davidson College, six levels of instructional modalities (ranked from least to most restrictive) were compared between Council on Education of Public Health (CEPH)-accredited and non-CEPH-accredited 4-year institutions. Institutions with CEPH-accredited schools and programs were more likely to select some restrictive teaching modalities: 63.8% more likely to use hybrid/hyflex or more restrictive and 66.9% more likely to be primarily online (with some in person) or more restrictive. However, having CEPH-accredited programs did not push institutions to the most restrictive modalities. COVID-19 cases in county, enrollment, and political affiliation of the state governor were also found to be associated with instructional modality selection. While any ecological study has certain limitations, this study suggests that college and university fall plans may have been influenced by the presence of CEPH-accredited schools and programs of public health, and/or the input of their faculty. The influence of relevant faculty expertise on institutional decision-making can help inform college and university responses to future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Faculty , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health/education , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(3): 422-431, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the public's need for quality health information that is understandable. This study aimed to identify (1) the extent to which COVID-19 messaging by state public health departments is understandable, actionable, and clear; (2) whether materials produced by public health departments are easily readable; (3) relationships between material type and understandability, actionability, clarity, and reading grade level; and (4) potential strategies to improve public health messaging around COVID-19. METHODS: Based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention statistics from June 30, 2020, we identified the ten states with the most COVID-19 cases and selected forty-two materials (i.e., webpages, infographics, and videos) related to COVID-19 prevention according to predefined eligibility criteria. We applied three validated health literacy tools (i.e., Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool, CDC Clear Communication Index, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level) to assess material understandability, actionability, clarity, and readability. We also analyzed correlations between scores on the three health literacy tools and material types. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 materials had high understandability and actionability but could be improved in terms of clarity and readability. Material type was significantly correlated with understandability, actionability, and clarity. Infographics and videos received higher scores on all tools. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we recommend public health entities apply a combination of these tools when developing health information materials to improve their understandability, actionability, and clarity. We also recommend using infographics and videos when possible, taking a human-centered approach to information design, and providing multiple modes and platforms for information delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Education/methods , Health Literacy , Health Promotion/methods , Information Dissemination/methods , Public Health/education , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403593

ABSTRACT

Health services quality and sustainability rely mainly on a qualified workforce. Adequately trained public health personnel protect and promote health, avert health disparities, and allow rapid response to health emergencies. Evaluations of the healthcare workforce typically focus on physicians and nurses in curative medical venues. Few have evaluated public health workforce capacity building or sought to identify gaps between the academic training of public health employees and the needs of the healthcare organizations in which they are employed. This project report describes the conceptual framework of "Sharing European Educational Experience in Public Health for Israel (SEEEPHI): harmonization, employability, leadership, and outreach"-a multinational Erasmus+ Capacity Building in Higher Education funded project. By sharing European educational experience and knowledge, the project aims to enhance professionalism and strengthen leadership aspects of the public health workforce in Israel to meet the needs of employers and the country. The project's work packages, each jointly led by an Israeli and European institution, include field qualification analysis, mapping public health academic training programs, workforce adaptation, and building leadership capacity. In the era of global health changes, it is crucial to assess the capacity building of a well-qualified and competent workforce that enables providing good health services, reaching out to minorities, preventing health inequalities, and confronting emerging health challenges. We anticipate that the methods developed and the lessons learned within the Israeli context will be adaptable and adoptable by other countries through local and cultural adjustments.


Subject(s)
Health Workforce , Public Health , Capacity Building , Health Promotion , Humans , Public Health/education , Workforce
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399190

ABSTRACT

Public health education has long been concentrated in a core set of public health disciplines such as epidemiology, biostatistics, and environmental health. Despite leaps forward in our understanding of the myriad influences on public health, little has changed in the organization of our educational systems. One issue brought to the forefront of public consciousness by the COVID-19 pandemic is the importance of leisure experiences, such as nature walks, to mental and physical well-being. In this descriptive best practice article, we discuss our approach to expanding the notion of a school of public health and provide examples of how disciplines and subjects outside of the "norms" of public health education, including leisure studies, can help better prepare students for their future in the field. Leisure studies is just one of many subject areas that can add value to public health pedagogy, and we envision many other subject areas and departments integrating into schools of public health in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health/education , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
8.
Acad Med ; 95(11): 1631-1633, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373678

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted every aspect of the U.S. health care and health professions education systems, creating anxiety, suffering, and chaos and exposing many of the flaws in the nation's public health, medical education, and political systems. The pandemic has starkly revealed the need for a better public health infrastructure and a health system with incentives for population health and prevention of disease as well as outstanding personalized curative health. It has also provided opportunities for innovations in health care and has inspired courageous actions of residents, who have responded to the needs of their patients despite risk to themselves. In this Invited Commentary, the author shares lessons he learned from 3 earlier disasters and discusses needed changes in medical education, health care, and health policy that the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed. He encourages health professions educators to use the experiences of this pandemic to reexamine the current curricular emphasis on the bioscientific model of health and to broaden the educational approach to incorporate the behavioral, social, and environmental factors that influence health. Surveillance for disease, investment in disease and injury prevention, and disaster planning should be basic elements of health professions education. Incorporating innovations such as telemedicine, used under duress during the pandemic, could alter educational and clinical approaches to create something better for students, residents, and patients. He explains that journals such as Academic Medicine can provide rapid, curated, expert advice that can be an important counterweight to the misinformation that circulates during disasters. Such journals can also inform their readers about new training in skills needed to mitigate the ongoing effects of the disaster and prepare the workforce for future disasters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/education , Public Health/trends , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357663

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/education , Public Health/education , Botswana/epidemiology , Capacity Building , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Universities
12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259621

ABSTRACT

In an age of globalisation and hyperconnectivity, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented and sustained impact worldwide. This article discusses issues related to (science) communication at different phases of the COVID-19 epidemic timeline. We consider the role of communication for prevention from the ecological perspective, taking into consideration that many emerging pathogens, including COVID-19, likely arise in part due to anthropogenic changes to natural environments. Communication forms part of the early response setting the scene for public buy-in of public health interventions at the start of an outbreak, as well as to maintain precautions over time. Finally, communication is a key element in increasing acceptance for new tools that require mass uptake to be effective, as seen with roll-out challenges for the COVID-19 vaccines, which faced heightened concerns of efficacy and safety while mired with rampant misinformation. Ultimately, strategies for prevention of viral epidemics such as COVID-19 must include communication strategies at the forefront to reduce the risk of the emergence of new diseases and enhance efforts to control their spread and burden. Despite key themes emerging, what constitutes effective communication strategies for different people and contexts needs to be investigated further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Humans , Public Health/education , Social Media
14.
Acad Med ; 96(9): 1282-1290, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216685

ABSTRACT

The term "health systems science" (HSS) has recently emerged as a unifying label for competencies in health care delivery and in population and community health. Despite strong evidence that HSS competencies are needed in the current and future health care workforce, heretofore the integration of HSS into medical education has been slow or fragmented-due, in part, to a lack of evidence that these curricula improve education or population outcomes. The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the national reckoning with racial inequities in the United States further highlight the time-sensitive imperative to integrate HSS content across the medical education continuum. While acknowledging challenges, the authors highlight the unique opportunities inherent in an HSS curriculum and present an elaborated curricular framework for incorporating health care delivery and population health into undergraduate medical education. This framework includes competencies previously left out of medical education, increases the scope of faculty development, and allows for evidence of effectiveness beyond traditional learner-centric metrics. The authors apply a widely adopted 6-step approach to curriculum development to address the unique challenges of incorporating HSS. Two examples-of a module on quality improvement (health care delivery) and of an introductory course on health equity (population and community health)-illustrate how the 6-step approach can be used to build HSS curricula. The Supplemental Digital Appendix (at http://links.lww.com/ACADMED/B106) outlines this approach and provides specific examples and resources. Adapting these resources within local environments to build HSS curricula will allow medical educators to ensure future graduates have the expertise and commitment necessary to effect health systems change and to advocate for their communities, while also building the much-needed evidence for such curricula.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Delivery of Health Care , Education, Medical/methods , Population Health , Public Health/education , Systems Analysis , Curriculum/standards , Education, Medical/standards , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Program Development/methods , Program Development/standards , Program Evaluation , Social Determinants of Health , United States
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630974, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167384

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus outbreak in the United States continues to pose a serious threat to human lives. Public health measures to slow down the spread of the virus involve using a face mask, social-distancing, and frequent hand washing. Since the beginning of the pandemic, there has been a global campaign on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to curtail the spread of the virus. However, the number of cases, mortality, and hospitalization continue to rise globally, including in the United States. We developed a mathematical model to assess the impact of a public health education program on the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Our simulation showed the prospect of an effective public health education program in reducing both the cumulative and daily mortality of the novel coronavirus. Finally, our result suggests the need to obey public health measures as loss of willingness would increase the cumulative and daily mortality in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Education , Public Health/education , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
17.
Am J Public Health ; 111(4): 582-583, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133751
18.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(3): 403-407, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129325

ABSTRACT

Increasing recognition within the medical literature and by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has been attributed to the need for enhanced resident education on concepts related to public health and health equity. Despite increasing documentation of pervasive inequalities within the scope of radiology, dedicated curricula designed to improve cultural competency and understanding of healthcare disparities among radiology trainees remains sparse. With relatively fewer patient interactions, radiology trainees are particularly susceptible to insufficient contextual awareness of how socioeconomic factors influence patient health and behaviors, physician recommendations, and ultimately clinical outcomes. The purpose of this article is to provide a high-yield background of foundational health equity and disparity concepts for radiology trainees, from which additional educational curricula may be derived. Specifically, this article will discuss the fundamental socioeconomic factors known to contribute to discrepant access and use of imaging services, followed by areas in radiology with well-documented disparities of which trainees should be aware. Lastly, previous and current strategies for addressing disparities in radiology will be discussed with the ultimate goal of stimulating trainee participation and the development of novel approaches.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Radiology , Curriculum , Education, Medical, Graduate , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Public Health/education , Radiology/education
19.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089008

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted many lives worldwide. Training programmes in academic institutions have also been affected by the pandemic. Teaching and learning family medicine and public health medicine in the COVID-19 era require adjustments to training activities. At the University of Botswana, the pandemic presented an opportunity to steer training programmes in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Medicine more towards service-learning. The department collaborated with the Ministry of Health and Wellness as well as the District Health Management teams in the national response to the pandemic as essential service providers. The increased demands for service provision were balanced with educational opportunities for trainees during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Including structured ongoing reflections for trainees involved in the COVID-19 response helps to connect service and the academic curriculum.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family Practice/education , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/education , Botswana/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Curriculum , Humans , Universities/organization & administration
20.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 25(1): 33-40, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding basic epidemiology and public health concepts is essential to the provision of safe care during a pandemic. These basic concepts and terms include containment, mitigation, predictive modeling, latent period, incubation period, reproduction number, case fatality rate, and test sensitivity and specificity. OBJECTIVES: Public health concepts and terms are defined, described in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and specific implications for oncology nursing practice are discussed. METHODS: A review of public health literature and reputable websites with a focus on COVID-19 data. This article defines epidemiologic and public health concepts and uses examples from the pandemic to illustrate oncology nursing implications. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic is changing oncology nursing care delivery. Oncology nurses need to understand these concepts to anticipate and advocate for optimal oncology care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Medical Oncology/education , Nurse Clinicians/education , Oncology Nursing/education , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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