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6.
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1267-1272, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350205

ABSTRACT

Both the 1918 influenza pandemic and the 2019‒2021 COVID-19 pandemic are among the most disastrous infectious disease emergences of modern times. In addition to similarities in their clinical, pathological, and epidemiological features, the two pandemics, separated by more than a century, were each met with essentially the same, or very similar, public health responses, and elicited research efforts to control them with vaccines, therapeutics, and other medical approaches. Both pandemics had lasting, if at times invisible, psychosocial effects related to loss and hardship. In considering these two deadly pandemics, we ask: what lessons have we learned over the span of a century, and how are we applying those lessons to the challenges of COVID-19?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/pathology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/history , Public Health/history
8.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341553

ABSTRACT

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Forests , Pandemics/history , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Poverty , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Indians, South American , Public Health/history , Cities , Influenza, Human/etiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission
9.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 396-400, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319038

ABSTRACT

Fourteen months into the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we identify key lessons in the global and national responses to the pandemic. The World Health Organization has played a pivotal technical, normative and coordinating role, but has been constrained by its lack of authority over sovereign member states. Many governments also mistakenly attempted to manage COVID-19 like influenza, resulting in repeated lockdowns, high excess morbidity and mortality, and poor economic recovery. Despite the incredible speed of the development and approval of effective and safe vaccines, the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants means that all countries will have to rely on a globally coordinated public health effort for several years to defeat this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Global Health , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Global Health/history , Global Health/trends , Government , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics/history , Public Health/history , Public Health/methods , Public Health/trends , Public Health Administration/methods , Public Health Administration/standards , Public Health Administration/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
JCI Insight ; 5(6)2020 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228932

ABSTRACT

Lessons from history underline the importance of having direct lines of communication to and from public health officials, who must remain free from policital bias in times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , Public Health/history , Truth Disclosure , History, 20th Century , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 290-301, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide tragedy of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic vividly demonstrates just how inadequate mitigation and control of the spread of infectious diseases can be when faced with a new microorganism with unknown pathogenic effects. Responses by governments in charge of public health, and all other involved organizations, have proved largely wanting. Data infrastructure and the information and communication systems needed to deal with the pandemic have likewise not been up to the task. Nevertheless, after a year of the worldwide outbreak, hope arises from this being the first major pandemic event in history where genomic and related biosciences - relying on biomedical informatics - have been essential in decoding the viral sequence data and producing the mRNA and other biotechnologies that unexpectedly rapidly have led to investigation, design, development, and testing of useful vaccines. Medical informatics may also help support public health actions and clinical interventions - but scalability and impact will depend on overcoming ingrained human shortcomings to deal with complex socio-economic, political, and technological disruptions together with the many ethical challenges presented by pandemics. OBJECTIVES: The principal goal is to review the history of biomedical information and healthcare practices related to past pandemics in order to illustrate just how exceptional and dependent on biomedical informatics are the recent scientific insights into human immune responses to viral infection, which are enabling rapid antiviral vaccine development and clinical management of severe cases - despite the many societal challenges ahead. METHODS: This paper briefly reviews some of the key historical antecedents leading up to modern insights into epidemic and pandemic processes with their biomedical and healthcare information intended to guide practitioners, agencies, and the lay public in today's ongoing pandemic events. CONCLUSIONS: Poor scientific understanding and excessively slow learning about infectious disease processes and mitigating behaviors have stymied effective treatment until the present time. Advances in insights about immune systems, genomes, proteomes, and all the other -omes, became a reality thanks to the key sequencing technologies and biomedical informatics that enabled the Human Genome Project, and only now, 20 years later, are having an impact in ameliorating devastating zoonotic infectious pandemics, including the present SARS-CoV-2 event through unprecedently rapid vaccine development. In the future these advances will hopefully also enable more targeted prevention and treatment of disease. However, past and present shortcomings of most of the COVID-19 pandemic responses illustrate just how difficult it is to persuade enough people - and especially political leaders - to adopt societally beneficial risk-avoidance behaviors and policies, even as these become better understood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/history , Vaccines/history , Biomedical Research/history , COVID-19/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Communicable Diseases/history , Epidemiology/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Public Health/history
14.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 44, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152162

ABSTRACT

How can we explain the divergence of social commitment to mass masking as public health measures in the global response to COVID-19? Rather than searching for deep-rooted cultural norms, this essay views the contemporary practice as a reenactment of multiple layers of accumulated socio-material conditions. This perspective will allow us to pursue a comparative study of the social history of mask-wearing around the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Health Policy/history , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health/history , Republic of Korea
18.
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090328

ABSTRACT

Many have referred to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis and intertwined issues of structural racism as "twin pandemics". As healthcare workers in Newark, New Jersey, a city heavily affected by the twin pandemics, we recognize that health workforce changes must be grounded in our community's recent history. The objective of this essay is to briefly describe the relationship between organized medicine, state and local leaders, and the people of Newark. We begin with a discussion of Newark in the 1950s and 1960s: its people experienced poor socioeconomic conditions, terrible medical care, and the many sequelae of abhorrent racism. Plans to establish a New Jersey Medical School in Newark's Central Ward also threatened to displace many residents from their homes. We then describe the Newark Agreements of 1968, which formalized a social contract between the state, business leaders, and people of Newark. In part, the Medical School committed to indefinitely promoting public health in Newark. We share progress towards this goal. Finally, we document key healthcare administrative decisions facing our community today. Stakeholder opinions are shared. We conclude that the Newark Agreements set an important standard for communities across the country. Creative solutions to healthcare policy may be realized through extensive community collaboration.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion/history , Public Health/history , Schools, Medical , Cities , Delivery of Health Care/history , Health Policy/history , History, 20th Century , Humans , New Jersey , Racism , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(3): 151-167, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082903

ABSTRACT

Before the 20th century many deaths in England, and most likely a majority, were caused by infectious diseases. The focus here is on the biggest killers, plague, typhus, smallpox, tuberculosis, cholera, typhoid, dysentery, childhood infections, pneumonia, and influenza. Many other infectious diseases including puerperal fever, relapsing fever, malaria, syphilis, meningitis, tetanus and gangrene caused thousands of deaths. This review of preventive measures, public health interventions and changes in behavior that reduced the risk of severe infections puts the response to recent epidemic challenges in historical perspective. Two new respiratory viruses have recently caused pandemics: an H1N1 influenza virus genetically related to pig viruses, and a bat-derived coronavirus causing COVID-19. Studies of infectious diseases emerging in human populations in recent decades indicate that the majority were zoonotic, and many of the causal pathogens had a wildlife origin. As hunter-gatherers, humans contracted pathogens from other species, and then from domesticated animals and rodents when they began to live in settled communities based on agriculture. In the modern world of large inter-connected urban populations and rapid transport, the risk of global transmission of new infectious diseases is high. Past and recent experience indicates that surveillance, prevention and control of infectious diseases are critical for global health. Effective interventions are required to control activities that risk dangerous pathogens transferring to humans from wild animals and those reared for food.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/history , Communicable Diseases/history , Animals , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Public Health/history
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