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2.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 863-867, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763253

ABSTRACT

With multiple virus epicenters, COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Consequently, many countries have implemented different policies to manage this crisis including curfew and lockdown. However, the efficacy of individual policies remains unclear with respect to COVID-19 case development. We analyzed available data on COVID-19 cases of eight majorly affected countries, including China, Italy, Iran, Germany, France, Spain, South Korea, and Japan. Growth rates and doubling time of cases were calculated for the first 6 weeks after the initial cases were declared for each respective country and put into context with implemented policies. Although the growth rate of total confirmed COVID-19 cases in China has decreased, those for Japan have remained constant. For European countries, the growth rate of COVID-19 cases considerably increased during the second time interval. Interestingly, the rates for Germany, Spain, and France are the highest measured in the second interval and even surpass the numbers in Italy. Although the initial data in Asian countries are encouraging with respect to case development at the initial stage, the opposite is true for European countries. Based on our data, disease management in the 2 weeks following the first reported cases is of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , World Health Organization
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 517, 2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655570

ABSTRACT

Changing collective behaviour and supporting non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important component in mitigating virus transmission during a pandemic. In a large international collaboration (Study 1, N = 49,968 across 67 countries), we investigated self-reported factors associated with public health behaviours (e.g., spatial distancing and stricter hygiene) and endorsed public policy interventions (e.g., closing bars and restaurants) during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic (April-May 2020). Respondents who reported identifying more strongly with their nation consistently reported greater engagement in public health behaviours and support for public health policies. Results were similar for representative and non-representative national samples. Study 2 (N = 42 countries) conceptually replicated the central finding using aggregate indices of national identity (obtained using the World Values Survey) and a measure of actual behaviour change during the pandemic (obtained from Google mobility reports). Higher levels of national identification prior to the pandemic predicted lower mobility during the early stage of the pandemic (r = -0.40). We discuss the potential implications of links between national identity, leadership, and public health for managing COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Conformity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Health Behavior , Humans , Leadership , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Identification
10.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-8, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574179

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting disease COVID-19 has killed over 2 million people as of 22 January 2021. We have used a modified susceptible, infected, recovered epidemiological model to predict how the spread of the virus in France will vary depending on the public health strategies adopted, including anti-COVID-19 vaccination. Our prediction model indicates that the French authorities' adoption of a gradual release from lockdown could lead in March 2021 to a virus prevalence similar to that before lockdown. However, a massive vaccination campaign initiated in January 2021 and the continuation of public health measures over several months could curb the spread of virus and thus relieve the load on hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Health Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
13.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 452021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524942

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: With COVID-19 affecting millions of people around the globe, quarantine of international arrivals is a critical public health measure to prevent further disease transmission in local populations. This measure has also been applied in the repatriation of citizens, undertaken by several countries as an ethical obligation and legal responsibility. This article describes the process of planning and preparing for the repatriation operation in South Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interagency collaboration, development of a COVID-19 testing and quarantining protocol, implementing infection prevention and control, and building a specialised health care delivery model were essential aspects of the repatriation operational planning, with a focus on maintaining dignity and wellbeing of the passengers as well as on effective prevention of COVID-19 transmission. From April 2020 to mid-February 2021, more than 14,000 international arrivals travellers have been repatriated under the South Australian repatriation operations. This paper has implications to inform ongoing repatriation efforts in Australia and overseas in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control/methods , International Health Regulations , Pandemics , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/methods , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Australia/epidemiology , Travel
15.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 14, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493970

ABSTRACT

Some states seek to limit health officials' powers to act in disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Infection Control/standards , Politics , Public Health Nursing , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , State Government , COVID-19 , Federal Government , Humans , United States
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 113999, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492523

ABSTRACT

This study assesses for the impact of Covid-19 public health quarantine measures on acute care psychiatric admissions, by comparing admission data from the quarantine period to a comparator period. A chart review was conducted for all admissions to an urban acute care psychiatric centre from Mar 22 - June 5 2020 (quarantine) and January 5 - Mar 21 2020 (comparator). Data was collected on the number of admissions, demographics, patients' psychiatric history, characteristics of admissions, discharge information, patients' substance use and social factors. Data was analyzed using a student's t-test for continuous variables and Chi squared analyses for categorical variables. Results demonstrated 185 admissions during quarantine and 190 during the comparator, with no significant differences in the distribution of admissions across time periods. There was a significantly greater frequency of admissions in the 35-44 age bracket and admissions involving substance use during quarantine. Additionally, admissions during quarantine were significantly shorter, with increased frequency of involuntary status and use of seclusion. The data suggests a vulnerability specific to individuals in their 30-40s during quarantine and demonstrates a need to better understand factors impacting this group. It also suggests that quarantine is associated with changes to substance use, potentiating high acuity illness requiring admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nova Scotia/epidemiology , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
18.
Med Law Rev ; 29(3): 468-496, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437837

ABSTRACT

Beginning from the first reports of COVID-19 out of China, this article provides a commentary on the actions taken by the Government of New Zealand in terms of nine themes-a national response with an elimination goal, speed, and comprehensiveness of the initial response; an evidence-based, science-led approach, prioritised on protecting lives; effective communication; leadership style which appealed to collective responsibility and attempted to de-politicise the Government's response to the virus; flexibility of response characterised by 'learning as you go'; oversight of coercive state powers, including a pragmatic response which attempted to defuse conflict and reserved use of 'hard power' to a last resort; deployment of public health interventions, and health system adaptations; the impact on Maori and marginalised communities; and economic protection and stimulus-to identify factors that might help explain why New Zealand's pandemic response was successful and those which could have been managed better. The partially successful legal challenge brought to the four-and-a half week lockdown, the most stringent in the world, in Borrowdale v Director-General of Health, is also considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Government , Health Policy , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Communication , Humans , Leadership , New Zealand/epidemiology , Politics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30460, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The UK National Health Service (NHS) classified 2.2 million people as clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) during the first wave of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, advising them to "shield" (to not leave home for any reason). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the determinants of shielding behavior and associations with well-being in a large NHS patient population for informing future health policy. METHODS: Patients contributing to an ongoing longitudinal participatory epidemiology study (Longitudinal Effects on Wellbeing of the COVID-19 Pandemic [LoC-19], n=42,924) received weekly email invitations to complete questionnaires (17-week shielding period starting April 9, 2020) within their NHS personal electronic health record. Question items focused on well-being. Participants were stratified into four groups by self-reported CEV status (qualifying condition) and adoption of shielding behavior (baselined at week 1 or 2). The distribution of CEV criteria was reported alongside situational variables and univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Longitudinal trends in physical and mental well-being were displayed graphically. Free-text responses reporting variables impacting well-being were semiquantified using natural language processing. In the lead up to a second national lockdown (October 23, 2020), a follow-up questionnaire evaluated subjective concern if further shielding was advised. RESULTS: The study included 7240 participants. In the CEV group (n=2391), 1133 (47.3%) assumed shielding behavior at baseline, compared with 633 (13.0%) in the non-CEV group (n=4849). CEV participants who shielded were more likely to be Asian (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI 1.49-2.76), female (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.45), older (OR per year increase 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02), living in a home with an outdoor space (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70) or three to four other inhabitants (three: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94; four: OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), or solid organ transplant recipients (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.18-3.77), or have severe chronic lung disease (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.30-2.04). Receipt of a government letter advising shielding was reported in 1115 (46.6%) CEV participants and 180 (3.7%) non-CEV participants, and was associated with adopting shielding behavior (OR 3.34, 95% CI 2.82-3.95 and OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.04-3.99, respectively). In CEV participants, shielding at baseline was associated with a lower rating of mental well-being and physical well-being. Similar results were found for non-CEV participants. Concern for well-being if future shielding was required was most prevalent among CEV participants who had originally shielded. CONCLUSIONS: Future health policy must balance the potential protection from COVID-19 against our findings that shielding negatively impacted well-being and was adopted in many in whom it was not indicated and variably in whom it was indicated. This therefore also requires clearer public health messaging and support for well-being if shielding is to be advised in future pandemic scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mental Health/trends , Public Health/trends , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Middle Aged , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1066-1073, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a severe respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In Brazil the highest infection rates are associated with socially vulnerable populations. This study therefore sought to analyze the spatial distribution of the disease and its relation with geographic, socioeconomic and public health policy characteristics associated with quilombola communities in Salvaterra municipality, state of Pará, for the period of March to September, 2020. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional and ecological study used data from the Disease Notification System and the National Registry of Health Establishments of the Ministry of Health, the Income Transfer Registry of the Ministry of Citizenship and the 2010 census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Statistical and spatial analysis of the data was done through percentages of cases and Flow and Kernel map techniques. RESULTS: Seventy-five notified cases of COVID-19 distributed among 7 quilombola communities in the municipality were analyzed. The epidemiological profile followed a national trend, with a higher percentage of cases among persons who were female, adults with low schooling levels, working as family farmers and with an outcome ending in recovery. The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogenous and showed clusters of cases and high incidence rates, especially in communities close to the municipal seat or to highways. CONCLUSIONS: The use of data analysis techniques was satisfactory for providing an understanding of the socioeconomic production of the disease in the areas studied. Accordingly, the need for intensifying epidemiological survey actions in the quilombola communities of the municipality is emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , Spatial Analysis
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