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1.
Nature ; 618(7965): 575-582, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241955

ABSTRACT

Poverty is an important social determinant of health that is associated with increased risk of death1-5. Cash transfer programmes provide non-contributory monetary transfers to individuals or households, with or without behavioural conditions such as children's school attendance6,7. Over recent decades, cash transfer programmes have emerged as central components of poverty reduction strategies of many governments in low- and middle-income countries6,7. The effects of these programmes on adult and child mortality rates remains an important gap in the literature, however, with existing evidence limited to a few specific conditional cash transfer programmes, primarily in Latin America8-14. Here we evaluated the effects of large-scale, government-led cash transfer programmes on all-cause adult and child mortality using individual-level longitudinal mortality datasets from many low- and middle-income countries. We found that cash transfer programmes were associated with significant reductions in mortality among children under five years of age and women. Secondary heterogeneity analyses suggested similar effects for conditional and unconditional programmes, and larger effects for programmes that covered a larger share of the population and provided larger transfer amounts, and in countries with lower health expenditures, lower baseline life expectancy, and higher perceived regulatory quality. Our findings support the use of anti-poverty programmes such as cash transfers, which many countries have introduced or expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, to improve population health.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Developing Countries , Mortality , Poverty , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Child Mortality/trends , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries/economics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/prevention & control , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Life Expectancy , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/methods , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/trends , Mortality/trends
2.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S35-S44, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318634

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was fielded in 2014 and 2017 and is the largest survey of the governmental public health workforce. It captures individual employees' perspectives on key issues such as workplace engagement and satisfaction, intention to leave, training needs, ability to address public health issues, as well as collects demographic information. This article describes the methods used for the 2021 PH WINS fielding. PH WINS: PH WINS 2021 was fielded to a nationally representative sample of staff in State Health Agency-Central Offices (SHA-COs) and local health departments (LHDs) from September 13, 2021, to January 14, 2022. The instrument was revised to assess the pandemic's potential toll on the workforce, including deployment to COVID-19 response roles and well-being, and the country's renewed focus on health equity and "Racism as a Public Health Crisis." PH WINS 2021 had 3 sampling frames: SHAs, Big Cities Health Coalition (BCHC) members, and LHDs. All participating agencies were surveyed using a census approach. PARTICIPATION: Overall, staff lists for 47 SHAs, 29 BCHC members, and 259 LHDs were collected, and the survey was sent to 137 446 individuals. PH WINS received a total of 44 732 responses, 35% of eligible respondents. The nationally representative SHA-CO frame includes a total of 14 957 individuals, and the nationally representative LHD frame includes 26 933 individuals from 439 LHDs (decentralized and nondecentralized). CONSIDERATIONS FOR ANALYSIS: PH WINS now offers a multiyear, nationally representative sample of both SHA-CO and LHD staff. Both practice and academia can use PH WINS to better understand the strengths, needs, and opportunities of the workforce. When using PH WINS for additional data analysis, there are a number of considerations both within the 2021 data set and when conducting multiyear and multiple cross-sectional analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/methods , Job Satisfaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S45-S47, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317095

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, news and nationwide survey efforts have reported harassment and bullying among local health officials, departments, and personnel, concurrent to a shortage of public health staff in the United States. We examined a nationally representative sample of local public health professionals (LPHPs) from the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) data set to explore reported experiences with harassment, threats, and bullying; self-rated mental and emotional well-being; and intent to leave an organization. Results indicated that experience of harassment was negatively associated with ratings of mental and emotional health and positively associated with an intent to leave an organization. We discuss implications and recommendations to mitigate these risks for the nation's local public health workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Public Health/methods , Job Satisfaction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S22-S34, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315811

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Big Cities Health Coalition member health departments (BCHC HDs) serve more than 61 million people across their jurisdictions, nearly 20% of the US population. As such, they have particular challenges and opportunities in how they do their work. This article focuses on BCHC HDs that participated in the 2021 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) and describes workplace perceptions, training needs, COVID-19 efforts, and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To describe key characteristics of the governmental public health workforce among BCHC HDs, including demographics, perceptions, and needs. DESIGN: Using a subsample of data from the 2021 PH WINS that included 29 BCHC HDs, descriptive statistics on many of the topics covered by the 2021 PH WINS were analyzed and compared with the 2017 PH WINS. SETTING: Twenty-nine BCHC HDs in cities across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 7922 of 29 661 staff members (response rate of 27%) from participating BCHC HDs. RESULTS: Most BCHC HD respondents self-identified as a woman (76%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%-77%), and as Black, Indigenous, and people of color (69%, 95% CI: 68%-70%), similar to findings from the 2017 PH WINS (75%, 95% CI: 74%-76%; 67%, 95% CI: 66%-69%, respectively). Most respondents believe that their organization prioritizes diversity, equity, and inclusion (70%, 95% CI: 69%-72%). Thirty percent (95% CI: 29%-32%) intend to leave their organizations within 1 year, and 18% (95% CI: 17%-19%) plan to retire within 5 years. Staff connect their work with agency goals and priorities (86%, 95% CI: 85%-87%) and are determined to give their best effort every day (91%, 95% CI: 90%-91%). CONCLUSION: As the need for an all-encompassing focus on COVID-19 lessons, BCHC HDs should continue to focus on prioritizing staff retention, enhancing communication between senior staff and employees, and fostering an environment where innovation and creativity are rewarded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Female , United States , Humans , Cities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Workforce , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Health/methods
5.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S73-S86, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to examine governmental public health employee experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 5169 responses to a PH WINS 2021 open-ended question were qualitatively coded. The question asked employees to share their experiences during the COVID-19 response. The 15 most common themes are discussed. PARTICIPANTS: Responses from governmental public health employees in state health agencies (SHAs), big cities (Big City Health Coalition or BCHC agencies), and local health departments (LHDs) across all 50 states were included. RESULTS: The most frequently identified theme was pride in public health work and/or the mission of public health (20.8%), followed by leadership (17.2%), burnout or feeling overwhelmed (14%), communication (11.7%), and overtime/extra work (9.7%). Among the top 15 themes identified, comments about pride in public health work and/or the mission of public health (95.9%), teamwork (81.5%), and telework (61%) were predominantly positive. Co-occurring themes for responses that expressed pride in public health work and/or the mission of public health were often countered with explanations of why respondents remain frustrated, including feeling burned out or overwhelmed , disappointment with the community's sense of responsibility or trust in science , and feeling unappreciated either by the community or their agency. All of these co-occurring themes were predominantly negative. CONCLUSIONS: Employees are proud to work in public health and value teamwork but often felt overworked and unappreciated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Reviewing existing emergency preparedness protocols in the context of lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic and listening to employees' experiences with teleworking and task sharing may better prepare agencies for future challenges. Creating channels for clear communication during a period of changing information and guidelines may help employees feel more prepared and valued during an emergency response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Job Satisfaction , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(Suppl 1): S14-S21, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313119

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic and other public health challenges have increased the need for longitudinal data quantifying the changes in the state public health workforce. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the state of governmental public health workforce among state health agency (SHA) staff across the United States and provide longitudinal comparisons to 2 prior fieldings of the survey. DESIGN: State health agency leaders were invited to have their workforce to participate in PH WINS 2021. As in prior fieldings, participating agencies provided staff lists used to send e-mail invitations to employees to participate in this electronic survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: State health agency staff. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PH WINS 2021 maintains the 4 primary domains from 2014 and 2017 (ie, workplace engagement, training needs assessment, emerging public health concepts, and demographics) and includes new questions related to the mental and emotional well-being; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on staff retention; and the workforce's awareness of and confidence in emerging public health concepts. RESULTS: The percentage of SHA staff who self-identify as Black, Indigenous, and people of color increased from 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29%-32%) to 35% (95% CI: 35%-37%) between 2014 and 2021. Staff younger than 31 years accounted for 11% (95% CI: 10%-12%) of the SHA workforce in 2021 compared with 8% in 2014 (95% CI: 8%-9%). From 2014 to 2021, staff who self-identify as a woman increased from 72% (95% CI: 71%-74%) to 76% (95% CI: 75%-77%). Overall, 22% (95% CI: 21%-23%) of the SHA workforce rated their mental health as poor/fair. CONCLUSION: The 2021 PH WINS results represent unique and current perspectives on the SHA workforce and can inform future public health infrastructure investments, research, and field practice to ensure a strong public health system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Workforce , Female , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Workforce , State Government , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Health/methods
7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 38(4): 1030-1037, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Broadcast media is a method to communicate health information to the general public and has previously been used in prior public health emergencies. Despite the current ubiquity of social media, traditional news programming retains relatively large audiences, which increased during the COVID-19 pandemic's early days. Viewership of broadcast media networks' evening news skews toward older groups (age 65 and up) which were vulnerable to health complications related to the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the trends in American broadcast network news media coverage of prevention during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Quantitative content analysis using the Public Health Framework for Prevention was used to analyze three major US media networks' evening news content for thematic trends in COVID-19 coverage during the first US pandemic wave from March to May 2020. SUBJECTS: A total of 117 episodes of the evening news, 39 from each of the three major US media networks, evenly divided among the first 13 weeks of the pandemic in the US. MAIN MEASURES: Outcome variables included average seconds of coverage per episode devoted to prevention strategies, COVID-19 coverage not related to prevention, and non-COVID-19 coverage. KEY RESULTS: The proportion of coverage dedicated to COVID-19 sharply increased in the first 2 weeks of March and decreased in the last 2 weeks of May. Networks focused approximately half the COVID-19 coverage time on prevention issues (288 seconds/episode) compared to non-prevention issues (538 seconds/episode). Prevention coverage varied over time. CONCLUSIONS: Although coverage included COVID-19 prevention content, more of the coverage was on other pandemic-related issues (e.g., economic impacts). Because public network news outlets have broad reach and accessibility, they could be an effective partner for public health agencies disseminating prevention messaging for current and future disease outbreaks and threats to public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Mass Media , Public Health/methods , Disease Outbreaks
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(3): E115-E123, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize US State and Territorial Health Agencies' (S/THA) climate change adaptation activities and priorities to facilitate appropriate investments, skills development, and support that will strengthen health sector capacity in response to a changing climate. DESIGN: In 2021, we conducted an online survey of S/THA staff requesting information on current activities related to climate change and health, the state of climate and health programming, and anticipated needs and priorities for assistance. We analyzed survey results using descriptive statistics. SETTING: US State and Territorial Health Agencies. PARTICIPANTS: We received responses from 41 of 59 S/THAs (69.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Implementation of S/THA climate and health programs (CHPs); engagement in climate and health activities; maintenance of hazard early warning systems and action plans; employment of climate and health communications strategies; capability to assess risks and adaptation needs related to various climate-sensitive conditions; priorities and plans for climate change adaptation in relation to climate-sensitive health risks; climate change adaptation-related partnerships and collaborations; requests of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) for advancing climate change adaptation activities; and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change work. RESULTS: Nineteen S/THAs reported having CHPs, the majority of which are federally funded. On average, S/THAs without CHPs reported engagement in fewer climate and health activities and more early warning activities. The S/THAs reported the highest levels of concerns regarding non-vector-borne infectious disease (66%), vector-borne infectious diseases (61%), and extreme heat (61%) hazards. CONCLUSIONS: As S/THAs with CHPs report substantially greater climate and health capacity than those without, additional federal and state investments (eg, Building Resilience Against Climate Effects [BRACE]) are urgently needed to catalyze climate and health capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Public Health/methods
9.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1112547, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286012

ABSTRACT

Big data technology plays an important role in the prevention and control of public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Current studies on model construction, such as SIR infectious disease model, 4R crisis management model, etc., have put forward decision-making suggestions from different perspectives, which also provide a reference basis for the research in this paper. This paper conducts an exploratory study on the construction of a big data prevention and control model for public health emergencies by using the grounded theory, a qualitative research method, with literature, policies, and regulations as research samples, and makes a grounded analysis through three-level coding and saturation test. Main results are as follows: (1) The three elements of data layer, subject layer, and application layer play a prominent role in the digital prevention and control practice of epidemic in China and constitute the basic framework of the "DSA" model. (2) The "DSA" model integrates cross-industry, cross-region, and cross-domain epidemic data into one system framework, effectively solving the disadvantages of fragmentation caused by "information island". (3) The "DSA" model analyzes the differences in information needs of different subjects during an outbreak and summarizes several collaborative approaches to promote resource sharing and cooperative governance. (4) The "DSA" model analyzes the specific application scenarios of big data technology in different stages of epidemic development, effectively responding to the disconnection between current technological development and realistic needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies , Big Data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Grounded Theory
10.
Public Health ; 218: 21-24, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During times of emergency response, the CDC Foundation leverages partnerships and relationships to better understand the situation and respond rapidly to save lives. As the COVID-19 pandemic began to unfold, an opportunity became clear to improve our work in emergency response through documentation of lessons learned and incorporating them into best practices. STUDY DESIGN: This was a mixed methods study. METHODS: The CDC Foundation Response, Crisis and Preparedness Unit conducted an internal evaluation via an intra-action review to evaluate and rapidly improve emergency response activities to provide effective and efficient response-related program management. RESULTS: The processes developed during the COVID-19 response to conduct timely and actionable reviews of the CDC Foundation's operations led to the identification of gaps in the work and management processes and to creation of subsequent actions to address these issues. Such solutions include surge hiring, establishing standard operating procedures for processes not yet documented, and creating tools and templates to streamline emergency response operations. CONCLUSIONS: The creation of manuals and handbooks, intra-action reviews, and impact sharing for emergency response projects led to actionable items meant to improve processes and procedures and the ability of the Response, Crisis and Preparedness Unit to quickly mobilize resources directed toward saving lives. These products are now open-source resources that can be used by other organizations to improve their own emergency response management systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Public Health/methods , Pandemics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
11.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1038989, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240946

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergency risk communication (ERC) is key to achieving compliance with public health measures during pandemics. Yet, the factors that facilitated ERC during COVID-19 have not been analyzed. We compare ERC in the early stages of the pandemic across four socio-economic settings to identify how risk communication can be improved in public health emergencies (PHE). Methods: To map and assess the content, process, actors, and context of ERC in Germany, Guinea, Nigeria, and Singapore, we performed a qualitative document review, and thematically analyzed semi-structured key informant interviews with 155 stakeholders involved in ERC at national and sub-national levels. We applied Walt and Gilson's health policy triangle as a framework to structure the results. Results: We identified distinct ERC strategies in each of the four countries. Various actors, including governmental leads, experts, and organizations with close contact to the public, collaborated closely to implement ERC strategies. Early integration of ERC into preparedness and response plans, lessons from previous experiences, existing structures and networks, and clear leadership were identified as crucial for ensuring message clarity, consistency, relevance, and an efficient use of resources. Areas of improvement primarily included two-way communication, community engagement, and monitoring and evaluation. Countries with recurrent experiences of pandemics appeared to be more prepared and equipped to implement ERC strategies. Conclusion: We found that considerable potential exists for countries to improve communication during public health emergencies, particularly in the areas of bilateral communication and community engagement as well as monitoring and evaluation. Building adaptive structures and maintaining long-term relationships with at-risk communities reportedly facilitated suitable communication. The findings suggest considerable potential and transferable learning opportunities exist between countries in the global north and countries in the global south with experience of managing outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Public Health/methods , Communication , Disease Outbreaks
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e40308, 2023 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health worldwide and in the United States have been well documented. However, there is limited research examining the long-term effects of the pandemic on mental health, particularly in relation to pervasive policies such as statewide mask mandates and political party affiliation. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine whether statewide mask mandates and political party affiliations yielded differential changes in mental health symptoms across the United States by leveraging state-specific internet search query data. METHODS: This study leveraged Google search queries from March 24, 2020, to March 29, 2021, in each of the 50 states in the United States. Of the 50 states, 39 implemented statewide mask mandates-with 16 of these states being Republican-to combat the spread of COVID-19. This study investigated whether mask mandates were associated differentially with mental health in states with and without mandates by exploring variations in mental health search queries across the United States. In addition, political party affiliation was examined as a potential covariate to determine whether mask mandates had differential associations with mental health in Republican and Democratic states. Generalized additive mixed models were implemented to model associations among mask mandates, political party affiliation, and mental health search volume for up to 7 months following the implementation of a mask mandate. RESULTS: The results of generalized additive mixed models revealed that search volume for "restless" significantly increased following a mask mandate across all states, whereas the search volume for "irritable" and "anxiety" increased and decreased, respectively, following a mandate for Republican states in comparison with Democratic states. Most mental health search terms did not exhibit significant changes in search volume in relation to mask mandate implementation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mask mandates were associated nonlinearly with significant changes in mental health search behavior, with the most notable associations occurring in anxiety-related search terms. Therefore, policy makers should consider monitoring and providing additional support for these mental health symptoms following the implementation of public health-related mandates such as mask mandates. Nevertheless, these results do not provide evidence for an overwhelming impact of mask mandates on population-level mental health in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Pandemics , Mental Health , Public Health/methods , Internet
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234952

ABSTRACT

Despite increased awareness of the essential role of neighborhood characteristics for residents' health and wellbeing, the development of neighborhood-level indicator systems has received relatively little attention to date. To address this gap, we describe the participatory development process of a small-area indicator system that includes information on local health needs in a pilot neighborhood in the German city of Mannheim. To identify relevant indicators, we partnered with representatives of the city's public health department and used an iterative approach that included multiple Plan-Do-Check-Act cycles with ongoing feedback from local key stakeholders. The described process resulted in a web-based indicator system with a total of 86 indicators. Additionally, 123 indicators were perceived as relevant by stakeholders but could not be included due to data unavailability. Overall, stakeholders evaluated the participatory approach as useful. Even though the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the lack of some data elements hindered instrument development, close collaboration with public health partners facilitated the process. To identify and target sub-national health inequalities, we encourage local public health stakeholders to develop meaningful and useful neighborhood-level indicator systems, building on our experiences from the applied development process and considering identified barriers and facilitators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Public Health/methods , Residence Characteristics
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234757

ABSTRACT

The article presents the results of research of public opinion during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia. The study touches on the attitude of citizens to public health, as well as the reaction of social media users to government measures in a crisis situation during a pandemic. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of infodemic and methods of detecting cases of the spread of false and unverified information about diseases. The article demonstrates the application of an interdisciplinary approach using network analysis of texts and sociological research. A model for detecting social stress in the textual communication of social network users using a specially trained neural network and linguistic analysis methods is presented. The validity and validity of the results of the analysis of social network data were verified using a sociological survey. This approach allows us to identify points of tension in matters of public health promotion, during crisis situations to improve interaction between the government and society, and to timely adjust government plans and actions to ensure resilience in emergency situations for public health purposes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200053

ABSTRACT

Health misinformation about nutrition and other health aspects on social media is a current public health concern. Healthcare professionals play an essential role in efforts to detect and correct it. The present study focuses on analyzing the use of competencies associated with training in methodology, health literacy, and critical lecture in order to detect sources of health misinformation that use scientific articles to support their false information. A qualitative study was conducted between 15 and 30 January 2022, wherein the participants were recruited from active users from a nutrition conversation on Twitter, diets, and cancer and defined themselves as healthcare professionals. This study demonstrates that health literacy and critical lecture competencies allow for the detection of more misinformation messages and are associated with a high rate of responses to users that spread the misinformation messages. Finally, this study proposes the necessity of developing actions to improve health literacy and critical lecture competencies between healthcare professionals. However, in order to achieve this, health authorities must develop strategies to psychologically support those healthcare professionals faced with bullying as a result of their activity on social media debunking health hoaxes.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Social Media , Humans , Communication , Public Health/methods , Delivery of Health Care
16.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 29(4): 471-476, 2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205472

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most significant public health challenges for this generation. Governments have been forced to undertake different measures to constrain the spread of the virus and protect the people. Restrictive and other measures have also been taken in correctional facilities to control the epidemiological situation. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this review are: 1) to contribute to knowledge by providing an overview of anti-COVID-19 measures that have been undertaken by the proper authorities in a few selected countries to control the epidemiological situation in prison; 2) to demonstrate proposals made in this respect by international organizations and scientific institutions and 3) to complete the most important bibliographical items for further studies. REVIEW METHODS: A literature review was carried out of international scientific and grey literature published between 30.01.2020 and 30.07.2021 (with some exemptions). In every correctional system in the countries under scrutiny, the proper authorities introduced many measures to control the epidemiological situation from the very beginning of the pandemic. SUMMARY: The COVD - pandemic impacts almost all aspects of social and individual life. Governments were forced to undertake different measures to constrain the spread of the virus. Restrictive and other measures also had to be taken in correctional systems, where more than ten million people are held worldwide. The measures introduced differed regarding details such as time, scope and range, but were generally similar to solutions proposed by organisations such as the WHO or CDC. In most countries, the discussion regarding the reform of the legal system have been observed. One of the most discussed issues was the problem of decarceration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Correctional Facilities , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062624, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152991

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A systematic review was conducted with the aims of identifying sectors mentioned in the public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) literature and mapping the involvement of those sectors in the seven PHEPR cycle domains. SETTING: A detailed search strategy was conducted in Embase and Scopus, covering the period between 1 January 2005 and 1 January 2020. METHODS: Published articles focusing on preparedness for and/or response to public health emergencies of multiple origins on the European continent were included. The frequency with which predetermined sectors were mentioned when describing collaboration during the preparedness and response cycle was determined. RESULTS: The results show that description of the involvement of sectors in PHEPR in general and collaboration during PHEPR is predominantly confined to a limited number of sectors, namely 'Governmental institutions', 'Human health industry', 'Experts' and 'Civil Society'. Description is also limited to only three domains of the PHEPR cycle, namely 'Risk and crisis management', 'Pre-event preparations and governance' and 'Surveillance'. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal preparedness and response require predefined collaboration with a broader scope of partners than currently seems to be the case based on this literature review. We recommend considering these outcomes when planning multisectoral collaboration during preparedness and response, as well as the need to further operationalise the term 'multisectoral collaboration' during PHEPRs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO with registration number 176 331.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Humans , Civil Defense/methods , Public Health/methods
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S129-S137, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162916

ABSTRACT

We documented the contributions of Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) trainees and graduates to global COVID-19 preparedness and response efforts. During February-July 2021, we conducted surveys designed in accordance with the World Health Organization's COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan. We quantified trainee and graduate engagement in responses and identified themes through qualitative analysis of activity descriptions. Thirty-two programs with 2,300 trainees and 7,372 graduates reported near-universal engagement across response activities, particularly those aligned with the FETP curriculum. Graduates were more frequently engaged than were trainees in pandemic response activities. Common themes in the activity descriptions were epidemiology and surveillance, leading risk communication, monitoring and assessment, managing logistics and operations, training and capacity building, and developing guidelines and protocols. We describe continued FETP contributions to the response. Findings indicate the wide-ranging utility of FETPs to strengthen countries' emergency response capacity, furthering global health security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Public Health/methods , Disease Outbreaks , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , Global Health
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e31930, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141353

ABSTRACT

This report aimed to provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 in Morocco and to review the actions carried out as part of the national response to this pandemic. The methodology adopted was based on literature review, interviews with officials and actors in the field, and remote discussion workshops with a multidisciplinary and multisectoral working group. Morocco took advantage of the capacities already strengthened within the framework of the application of the provisions of the International Health Regulations (IHR) of 2005. A SWOT analysis made it possible to note that an unprecedented political commitment enabled all the necessary means to face the pandemic and carry out all the response activities, including a campaign of relentless communication. Nevertheless, and despite the efforts made, the shortage of human resources, especially those qualified in intensive care and resuscitation, has been the main drawback to be addressed. The main lesson learned is a need to further strengthen national capacities to prepare for and respond to possible public health emergencies and to embark on a process overhaul of the health system, including research into innovative tools to ensure the continuity of the various disease prevention and control activities. In addition, response to a health crisis is not only the responsibility of the health sector but also intersectoral collaboration is needed to guarantee an optimal coordinated fight. Community-oriented approaches in public health have to be strengthened through more participation and involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society in operational and strategic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Morocco/epidemiology , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/standards , Workforce/standards
20.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143712

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases must be understood at the individual and community levels to improve public health decision-making for real-time and integrated community-based control strategies. Herein, we explore the epidemiological characteristics for assessing the impact of public health interventions in the community setting and their applications. Computational statistical methods could advance research on infectious disease epidemiology and accumulate scientific evidence of the potential impacts of pharmaceutical/nonpharmaceutical measures to mitigate or control infectious diseases in the community. Novel public health threats from emerging zoonotic infectious diseases are urgent issues. Given these direct and indirect mitigating impacts at various levels to different infectious diseases and their burdens, we must consider an integrated assessment approach, 'One Health', to understand the dynamics and control of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health/methods
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