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1.
Lancet ; 400(10353): 645-646, 2022 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184618
3.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 43, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139312

ABSTRACT

Vancouver, Canada, and Lisbon, Portugal, are both celebrated for their world-leading harm reduction policies and programs and regarded as models for other cities contending with the effects of increasing levels of drug use in the context of growing urban poverty. However, we challenge the notion that internationally celebrated places like Lisbon and Vancouver are meeting the harm reduction needs of young people who use drugs (YPWUD; referring here to individuals between the ages of 14 and 29). In particular, the needs of YPWUD in the context of unstable housing, homelessness, and ongoing poverty-a context which we summarize here as "street involvement"-are not being adequately met. We are a group of community and academic researchers and activists working in Vancouver, Lisbon, and Pittsburgh. Most of us identify as YPWUD and have lived and living experience with the issues described in this comment. We make several calls to action to support the harm reduction needs of YPWUD in the context of street involvement in and beyond our settings.


Subject(s)
Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Harm Reduction , Housing , Humans , Public Policy , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Young Adult
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of COVID-19, public health policies and public opinions changed from stringent preventive measures against spread of COVID-19 to policies accommodating life with continued, diminished risk for contracting COVID-19. Poland is a country that demonstrated severe psychological impact and negative mental health. The study aims to examine psychological impact and changes in levels of depression, anxiety, and stress among three cross-sectional samples of Polish people and COVID-19-related factors associated with adverse mental health. METHODS: In total, 2324 Polish persons participated in repeated cross-sectional studies across three surveys: Survey 1 (22 to 26 March 2020), Survey 2 (21 October to 3 December 2020), and Survey 3 (3 November to 10 December 2021). Participants completed an online survey, including Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), demographics, knowledge, and concerns of COVID-19 and precautionary measures. RESULTS: A significant reduction of IES-R scores was seen across surveys, while DASS-21 scores were significantly higher in Survey 2. There was significant reduction in the frequency of following COVID-19 news, recent COVID-19 testing, and home isolation from Survey 1 to 3. Being emale was significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores in Surveys 1 and 2. Student status was significantly associated with higher DASS-21 across surveys. Chills, myalgia, and fatigue were significantly associated with high IES-R or DASS-21 scores across surveys. Frequency of wearing masks and perception that mask could reduce risk of COVID-19 were significantly associated with higher IES-R and DASS-21 scores. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The aforementioned findings indicate a reduction in the level of the measured subjective distress andin the frequency of checking COVID-19 news-related information across three periods during the pandemic in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Policy
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116262

ABSTRACT

After experiencing many public crisis events, such as SARS in 2003 and COVID-19 in 2020, the Chinese public crisis governance system has been improved from its initial state. The distribution structure and cooperation network among various government departments in China have become more complex. How to accurately clarify the relationship between the various departments in the existing governance system has become an important issue of the Chinese public crisis governance system. Based on the perspective of networked research, this article examines the network relationship between institutions in the Chinese public crisis governance system from the two dimensions of network centrality and network density. Using the bibliometric method to use public policies released in 2003 and 2020 as data samples and the two large-scale institutional reforms in 2003 and 2018 as the time nodes, this paper conducts a comparative analysis of the institutional network relationship of the Chinese public crisis governance system during different periods. The research shows that the network relationship among institutions in the Chinese public crisis governance system has changed from a centralized type to a diverse type; there is a trend of expansion in network relations; the legalization of governance networks is strengthened and the core of the network is transformed into the direct leadership of the Party Committee; and the overall network structure is experiencing a rational evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Policy , China/epidemiology , Leadership
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110113

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic placed the United States of America (U.S.) under enormous strain, leaving it with higher deaths during the first wave of the outbreak compared to all other advanced economies. Blacks and Hispanics were among those hardest hit by the virus-a fact attributed to enduring problems related to the social determinants of health adversely affecting Communities of Color (CoC). In this study, we ask which distinct factors relating to policy stringency and community vulnerability influenced COVID-19 mortality among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics during the first year of the pandemic. To address this question, we utilized a mix of correlational and regression analyses. Findings point to the highly divergent impact of public policy and vulnerability on COVID-19 mortality. Specifically, we observed that state-led measures aimed at controlling the spread of the virus only improved mortality for Whites. However, pre-existing social determinants of health (i.e., population density, epidemiological and healthcare system factors) played a significant role in determining COVID-19 outcomes for CoC, even in the face of stringent containment measures by states. This suggests that state-led policy to address present and/or future public health crises need to account for the particular nature of vulnerability affecting Blacks and Hispanics in the U.S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Whites , Hispanic or Latino , Socioeconomic Factors , Public Policy , Health Policy
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 978991, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089938

ABSTRACT

From 2019 to 2020, the Mexican economy declined for two consecutive years, especially in the last one when it was hit by a decline of 8.4% before the COVID-19 pandemic impacts which was not only one of the worst in the OECD club, but also the deepest economic recession since 1932 in the national history. At the same time, both the number of people in poverty and poverty rate in 2020 have increased compared with those registered in 2018. Through the analysis, we can find that the current Mexican government has increased the intensity and scope of the implementation of social relief policies adhered to the principal of "for the good of all, first the poor (Por el bien de todos, Primero los pobres)." However, in the context of recession caused by the COVID-19, neither the general decrease in residents' income could be avoided, nor the number of people in poverty has been reduced. Besides, in accordance with the benefits obtained by the distinct household deciles based on the income and expenditure survey published by INEGI, it showed that the implementation of government relief measures has relatively reduced the support for the low-income people and further aggravated the deterioration of poverty due to its indifferent application with respect to high-income households and the low-income ones. Therefore, the deficiencies in the response implemented in the face of the epidemic, especially poverty alleviation actions and social relief policies, have further enhanced the poverty problem at least partially. In this sense, recover and improve the economic growth rate as soon as possible will not enough to reduce the poverty, and it should be accompanied by the necessary adjustments in the poverty alleviation measures and social relief policies, especially with a focalized approach inclined to the low-income segments of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , Public Policy
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4125-4130, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079858

ABSTRACT

In this interview, Sonia Guajajara, the executive coordinator of the Brazil's Indigenous Peoples Articulation (APIB), addresses the analyzis and strategies developed by the Indigenous movement to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Among other topics, she highlights some of the movement's strategies concerning communication, surveillance, and the monitoring of COVID-19, as well as its actions to support Indigenous territories, the initiatives carried out in the Legislative and Judiciary realms, the movement's international incidence, and its articulation with academia. Sonia shows the important role played by the Indigenous movement to control the health emergency and to defend the rights of the Indigenous peoples, in the framework of intense conflicts with the federal government and setbacks in public policies.


Nesta entrevista, Sonia Guajajara, coordenadora executiva da Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil (APIB), aborda as análises e estratégias desenvolvidas pelo movimento indígena para o enfrentamento da pandemia da COVID-19. Entre os pontos destacados, estão as estratégias de comunicação, vigilância e monitoramento da COVID-19, o apoio aos territórios indígenas, as iniciativas no Legislativo e no Judiciário, a incidência internacional e a articulação com a academia. Torna-se evidente o importante protagonismo do movimento indígena nas ações de contenção da emergência sanitária e na defesa dos direitos dos povos indígenas, em uma conjuntura de embate com o governo federal e de retrocessos nas políticas públicas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Indigenous Peoples , Female , Humans , Federal Government , Pandemics , Public Policy
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(11): 4203-4212, 2022 Nov.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079852

ABSTRACT

This article aims to analyze the profile of people with disabilities among the cases notified by the COVID-19 panel of Espírito Santo and the possible associations with the positive result of the COVID-19 test. Descriptive cross-sectional study among people with disabilities with positive and negative tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Associations of epidemiological and clinical variables were performed using the chi-square test and logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio. Lethality rate of COVID-19 was 4.9% (175 cases) in the group of people with disabilities, and 3% (3,016) in the group without disabilities. People with disabilities, male (OR=1.34; 95%CI 1.22-1.47), race/black color (OR=1.55; 95%CI 1.09-2.20), and those who were hospitalized (OR=2.27; 95%CI 1.71-3.02) were associated with positive tests for COVID-19. The pandemic emphasizes the need to create specific legal care mechanisms and targeted public policies for this population.


O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o perfil das pessoas com deficiência dentre os casos notificados pelo painel COVID-19 do Espírito Santo e possíveis associações com o resultado positivo do teste COVID-19. Estudo Transversal descritivo entre as pessoas com deficiência com testes positivos e negativos para o diagnóstico de COVID-19. Foram realizadas associações das variáveis epidemiológicas e clínicas, utilizando o teste qui-quadrado e modelos de regressão logística para se estimar o odds ratio. A letalidade por COVID-19 foi de 4,9% (175 casos) no grupo das pessoas com deficiência, e 3% (3.016) no grupo sem deficiência. Pessoas com deficiência do sexo masculino (OR=1,34; IC95% 1,22-1,47), raça/cor preta (OR=1,55; IC95% 1,09-2,20), e as que ficaram internadas (OR=2,27; IC95% 1,71-3,02) apresentaram associação com testes positivos para COVID-19. A pandemia enfatiza a necessidade de criar mecanismos legais de cuidados específicos e políticas públicas focalizadas para essa população.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Male , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Public Policy
12.
New Solut ; 32(3): 201-212, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079283

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, this commentary describes and compares shifting employment and occupational health social protections of low-wage workers, including self-employed digital platform workers. Through a focus on eight advanced economy countries, this paper identifies how employment misclassification and definitions of employees were handled in law and policy. Debates about minimum wage and occupational health and safety standards as they relate to worker well-being are considered. Finally, we discuss promising changes introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic that protect the health of low-wage and self-employed workers. Overall, we describe an ongoing "haves" and a "have not" divide, with on the one extreme, traditional job arrangements with good work-and-health social protections and, on the other extreme, low-wage and self-employed digital platform workers who are mostly left out of schemes. However, during the pandemic small and often temporary gains occurred and are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Employment , Public Policy
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066083

ABSTRACT

Policy is an important support for risk society to prevent and resolve crises. Based on the content analysis of the policy text and PMC-Index model, this paper takes texts of 327 public health emergency response policies (PHERP) at the central level in China from 1989 to 2022 as the analysis object, designs an indicator system, and combines qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the existing policies. The results of content analysis indicate that current policy focuses on emergency rather than preventive control, the main policy-making and issuing authority is the Ministry of Health and policies are mostly issued in the form of notice. The PMC-Index of ten selected policies is all ranked above acceptable, which means that the overall quality of policy text is relatively high. However, the PMC-Surface shows that there is still considerable variability in the scores of the main indicators for each policy. The top three main scoring indicators are policy nature, policy evaluation and policy instrument, while the bottom three are policy time, policy release agency and policy target groups, which reminds us that the design of policy text can still be improved in terms of optimizing policy time, policy issuing institutions and expanding policy target groups. In response to these problems, this paper puts forward six suggestions for optimization.


Subject(s)
Emergencies , Public Health , China , Health Policy , Humans , Policy Making , Public Policy
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16987, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062262

ABSTRACT

Since the very beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, control policies and restrictions have been the hope for containing the rapid spread of the virus. However, the psychological and economic toll they take on society entails the necessity to develop an optimal control strategy. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions aided with mathematical modelling remains a non-trivial issue in terms of numerical conditioning due to the high number of parameters to estimate from a highly noisy dataset and significant correlations between policy timings. We propose a solution to the problem of parameter non-estimability utilizing data from a set of European countries. Treating a subset of parameters as common for all countries and the rest as country-specific, we construct a set of individualized models incorporating 13 different pandemic control measures, and estimate their parameters without prior assumptions. We demonstrate high predictive abilities of these models on an independent validation set and rank the policies by their effectiveness in reducing transmission rates. We show that raising awareness through information campaigns, providing income support, closing schools and workplaces, cancelling public events, and maintaining an open testing policy have the highest potential to mitigate the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2213525119, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050731

ABSTRACT

Behavioral responses influence the trajectories of epidemics. During the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduced pathogen transmission and mortality worldwide. However, despite the global pandemic threat, there was substantial cross-country variation in the adoption of protective behaviors that is not explained by disease prevalence alone. In particular, many countries show a pattern of slow initial mask adoption followed by sharp transitions to high acceptance rates. These patterns are characteristic of behaviors that depend on social norms or peer influence. We develop a game-theoretic model of mask wearing where the utility of wearing a mask depends on the perceived risk of infection, social norms, and mandates from formal institutions. In this model, increasing pathogen transmission or policy stringency can trigger social tipping points in collective mask wearing. We show that complex social dynamics can emerge from simple individual interactions and that sociocultural variables and local policies are important for recovering cross-country variation in the speed and breadth of mask adoption. These results have implications for public health policy and data collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Conditions
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043736

ABSTRACT

Although more than two years have passed since the appearance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), few policies on public transportation have been implemented to reduce its spread. It is common knowledge that public transportation is vulnerable to COVID-19, but it has not been easy to formulate an appropriate public transportation policy based on a valid rationale. In this study, a modified SEIHR model was developed to evaluate the socioeconomic effects of public transportation policies. By applying the developed model to intercity buses in the Seoul metropolitan area, the socioeconomic efficiency of the policy of reducing the number of passengers was evaluated. The analysis showed that the optimal number of passengers decreased as the number of initially infected people increased; in addition, the basic reproduction number R0, illness cost per person, and probability of infection with a single virus were higher. However, depending on these variable conditions, the policy to reduce the number of passengers in a vehicle may not be required, so it is necessary to make an appropriate judgment according to the situation. In particular, the emergence of a new mutant COVID-19 will necessitate the development of appropriate countermeasures by comprehensively examining the change in the number of infected individuals and the fatality rate. This study can guide the development of such countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Public Policy , Seoul/epidemiology , Transportation
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have confirmed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused massive job losses. However, the impact of this loss on food security is not well-understood. Moreover, a paucity of evidence exists regarding social protection grants' countervailing effects against such shocks. This study examined the effects of job loss (labour income loss) on child and household hungers (our two measures food insecurity) during COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. It also ascertained whether these effect were offset by alternative social grant programs to document the protective role of the latter. DATA AND METHODS: We used South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) and the Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) data. These data cover a nationally representative sample of 7073 individuals. We employed a probit model to estimate the effect of job loss and receipts of various social grants on child and households' hungers. We also estimated the double-selection logit model to account for the model's uncertainty surrounding the variable selection and treatment-effects estimation using lasso (Telasso) for causal inference of our analysis. RESULTS: Our analyses showed that households exposed to a labour market shock during the pandemic experienced a significant increase in our measures of food insecurity (child and household hungers). Specifically, we found that compared with households containing employed respondents, households with respondents who lost their jobs due to COVID-19 lockdown were 5.4% more likely to report child hunger and 2.6% more likely to report household hunger in the past seven days A receipt of child support grant reduces the likelihood of reporting child hunger and household hunger by 21.7%and 16.9% respectively among these households. A receipt of old age pension grant reduces the likelihood of reporting household hunger by 24% with no significant effect on child hunger. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown resulted in unprecedent job losses with significant implications for food insecurity. Job loss due to COVID-19 lockdown significantly increased food insecurity in South Africa. Receipts of social grants effectively offset this adverse effect. The protective effect of the social grant is heterogenous across its alternative programs (child support grant and old age pension grant) and food insecurity, suggesting the differences in the size of transfers and motivations for sending these transfers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Food Supply , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
Sociol Health Illn ; 44(9): 1461-1480, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037862

ABSTRACT

We explore messy translations of evidence in policy as a site of 'uncomfortable science'. Drawing on the work of John Law, we follow evidence as a 'fluid object' of its situation, also enacted in relation to a hinterland of practices. Working with the qualitative interview accounts of mathematical modellers and other scientists engaged in the UK COVID-19 response, we trace how models perform as evidence. Our point of departure is a moment of controversy in the public announcement of second national lockdown in the UK, and specifically, the projected daily deaths from COVID-19 presented in support of this policy decision. We reflect on this event to trace the messy translations of "scientific consensus" in the face of uncertainty. Efforts among scientists to realise evidence-based expectation and to manage the troubled translations of models in policy, including via "scientific consensus", can extend the dis-ease of uncomfortable science rather than clean it up or close it down. We argue that the project of evidence-based policy is not so much in need of technical management or repair, but that we need to be thinking altogether differently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Consensus , Communicable Disease Control , Public Policy , Models, Theoretical
19.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 33, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is an infectious virus, which has generated a global pandemic. Israel was one of the first countries to vaccinate its population, inaugurating the program on December 20, 2020. The objective of the current study is to investigate the projected daily COVID19 mortality growth rate with higher median age and population size of cities under two scenarios: with and without the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccination against the SAR-COV2 virus. METHODS: This study employs a panel data-set. We follow the COVID19 mortality growth rate in each of the 173 Israeli cities and towns starting from March 21, 2020 (10 days after the first documentation of COVID19 cases in Israel) until September 21, 2021, where the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccinations were available starting from December 20, 2020. RESULTS: Referring to the median age of municipal residents, findings suggest that the BNT162b2 Pfizer vaccinations attenuate the rise in anticipated daily mortality growth rate for cities and towns in which the median population age is 30 years old (the range in median age among the residents in the municipalities surveyed is 11-41 years). Moreover, referring to population size of cities, findings demonstrate that while under the scenario without vaccination, the daily mortality growth rate is anticipated to rise, under a comparable scenario with vaccination, daily mortality growth rate is anticipated to drop. CONCLUSIONS: In crowded cities, where the median age is high, two perspectives of early and intensive public policy interventions are clearly required. The first perspective is extensive medical treatment, namely, extension of availability of medical physical and online services; dispensing designated medications; expansion of hospitalization facilities and information services particularly to susceptible populations. All measures will be taken with attention to age accessibility of these means. The second perspective is prevention via establishment of testing and vaccination complexes; elevation of dedicated health services, generating selective lockdowns; education for increasing awareness to social distancing, wearing masks and other preventive means.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Population Density , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 953743, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022977

ABSTRACT

Delay discounting refers to the observation that the subjective value of an outcome decreases as the delay to its receipt increases. It is well-established that steep delay discounting is related to various maladaptive behaviors, including poorer health-related choices. One of the current challenges of public health policies that emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic is to encourage preventive behaviors against infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore possible underpinnings of adherence to COVID-19 related public health policy guidelines such as disinfection, distancing, and masks (DDM). Participants completed monetary and health discounting tasks across two outcome amounts in gain and loss conditions, and they provided self-report measures of adherence to the DDM policy. Contrary to the theoretically plausible prediction that higher discounting rates would be negatively associated with adherence to health-related public policy guidelines, we found no compelling evidence to support such statement. We discuss the potential weaknesses of declarative measurements of attitudes toward COVID-19 and consider using behavioral interventions for influencing discounting rates for complementing and enhancing current policy guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delay Discounting , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Public Policy , Reward
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