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3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22427, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521769

ABSTRACT

The United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are heterogeneous and interdependent, comprising 169 targets and 231 indicators of sustainable development in such diverse areas as health, the environment, and human rights. Existing efforts to map relationships among SDGs are either theoretical investigations of sustainability concepts, or empirical analyses of development indicators and policy simulations. We present an alternative approach, which describes and quantifies the complex network of SDG interdependencies by applying computational methods to policy and scientific documents. Methods of Natural Language Processing are used to measure overlaps in international policy discourse around SDGs, as represented by the corpus of all existing UN progress reports about each goal (N = 85 reports). We then examine if SDG interdependencies emerging from UN discourse are reflected in patterns of integration and collaboration in SDG-related science, by analyzing data on all scientific articles addressing relevant SDGs in the past two decades (N = 779,901 articles). Results identify a strong discursive divide between environmental goals and all other SDGs, and unexpected interdependencies between SDGs in different areas. While UN discourse partially aligns with integration patterns in SDG-related science, important differences are also observed between priorities emerging in UN and global scientific discourse. We discuss implications and insights for scientific research and policy on sustainable development after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Natural Language Processing , Sustainable Development/trends , COVID-19 , Global Health , Goals , Human Rights , Humans , Public Policy/economics , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development/economics , United Nations
8.
Front Public Health ; 8: 627001, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058478

ABSTRACT

This article tests five major economies of the world, United Kingdom, Japan, Brazil, Chin and lastly, India, for the changes in the monetary policy decisions that have been implemented following the Covid-19 outbreak. The assessment was undertaken in the form of an event study analysis, further substantiated with a regression analysis conducted for exploring the significance of CPI and real GDP in predicting the policy interest rates in the economy. The results of the event study analysis presented that the abnormal changes in the interest rates were statistically significant in the case of the United Kingdom, Brazil, and China, while the abnormal changes were found to be statistically insignificant in the case of India and Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Economics/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/economics , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Policy/economics , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Nature ; 589(7840): 19, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010022
10.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(2): e300225, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-895171

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa as ações do Governo Federal no contexto do combate à Covid-19, estabelecendo seus limites, insuficiências e mesmo os escassos acertos, conforme dados disponíveis até o momento, haja vista o fato de a Emenda Constitucional (EC) nº 106/2020 ter sido recentemente publicada, impossibilitando uma análise real de seus efeitos, razão pela qual se avaliaram seus institutos e possíveis reflexos. Dentre as medidas consideradas estão: Lei nº 13.979/2020, Medida Provisória (MP) nº 924/2020; Portaria nº 395/2020; Plano do Ministério da Economia de R$ 147,3 bilhões; MP nº 296/2020; Decreto nº 10.283/2020; e a EC nº 106/2020. Utiliza-se metodologia de abordagem dedutiva e de inferência, no campo teórico, com métodos de procedimento histórico e legal. Por fim, uma série de conclusões são extraídas, são elas: a continuidade do vínculo entre o Governo Federal e a racionalidade neoliberal, que é parte da sua plataforma política, mesmo quando se analisa a EC nº 106/2020; a necessidade de revogação da EC nº 95/2016, para que se tenha maior margem de atuação na contenção dos danos; e a aferição de que a maior parcela dos recursos injetados pelo Governo Federal neste combate não constituem créditos novos e sim remanejamento e antecipação de valores futuros já previstos, diferindo das posturas estatais internacionais.


Abstract The article analyzes the actions of the Federal Government in the context of combating Covid-19, establishing its limits, shortcomings and even the few successes, according to data available so far, given the fact that Constitutional Amendment (EC) No. 106/2020 recently published, making it impossible to carry out a real analysis of its effects, which is why its institutes and possible reflexes were evaluated. Among the measures considered are: Law No. 13,979/2020, Provisional Measure (MP) No. 924/2020; Ordinance No. 395/2020; Ministry of Economy Plan of R $ 147.3 billion; MP No. 296/2020; Decree No. 10,283/2020; and EC No. 106/2020. A deductive and inference approach methodology is used in the theoretical field, with historical and legal procedure methods. Finally, a series of conclusions are drawn, such as: the continuity of the link between the Federal Government and neoliberal rationality, which is part of its political platform, even when analyzing EC 106/2020; the need to revoke EC No. 95/2016, so that there is greater scope for action to contain damage; and the assessment that the greater part of the resources injected by the Federal Government in this fight do not constitute new credits, but rather the re-management and anticipation of future values already foreseen, differing from international state positions.


Subject(s)
Socioeconomic Factors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Federal Government , Betacoronavirus , Public Expenditures/legislation & jurisprudence , Investments/organization & administration , Policy Making , Public Policy/economics , Unified Health System , Brazil , Capitalism
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240709, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874199

ABSTRACT

At present nearly half of the world's population is under some form of government restriction to curb the spread of COVID-19, an extremely contagious disease. In Bangladesh, in the wake of five deaths and 48 infections from COVID-19, between March 24 and May 30, 2020, the government imposed a nationwide lockdown. While this lockdown restricted the spread of COVID-19, in the absence of effective support, it can generate severe food and nutrition insecurity for daily wage-based workers. Of the 61 million employed labor force in Bangladesh, nearly 35% of them are paid on a daily basis. This study examines the food security and welfare impacts of the COVID-19 induced lockdown on daily wage workers both in the farm and nonfarm sectors in Bangladesh. Using information from more than 50,000 respondents complied with the 2016-17 Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) in Bangladesh, this study estimates daily wage rates as Bangladesh Taka (BDT) 272.2 in the farm sector and BDT 361.5 in the nonfarm sector. Using the estimated daily wage earnings, this study estimates that a one-day complete lockdown generates a US$64.2 million equivalent economic loss only considering the wage loss of the daily wage workers. After estimating the daily per capita food expenditure separately for farm and nonfarm households, this study estimates a minimum compensation package for the daily wage-based farm and nonfarm households around the US $ 1 per day per household to ensure minimum food security for the daily wage-based worker households.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Food Supply , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Policy/economics , Quarantine/economics , Vulnerable Populations , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Family Characteristics , Farms , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poverty , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Surveys and Questionnaires , Unemployment
12.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(1): 160-166, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798158

ABSTRACT

The United States Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) led to creation of the Paycheck Protection Program, as well as an expansion of reimbursements for telemedicine. CARES Act drafters over emphasized maintaining employment and overlooked negative downstream effects the policies had on outpatient clinics. The misalignment between this financial aid package and public health policy is most apparent in the pressure administrators face to maintain clinic operations, without a transition plan to adopt telemedicine and associated best practices. If this continues, the result will be suboptimal clinical practices and an increased risk of COVID-19 infection to both staff and patients. Particularly in times of crisis, financial aid packages should not be evaluated in isolation; policymakers should consider their implications for public health while designing, enacting, and implementing such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy/economics , Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/economics , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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