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1.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 21(7): 486-487, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921578
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 878225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903224

ABSTRACT

As societies urbanize, their populations have become increasingly dependent on the private sector for essential services. The way the private sector responds to health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic can determine the health and economic wellbeing of urban populations, an effect amplified for poorer communities. Here we present a qualitative document analysis of media reports and policy documents in four low resource settings-Bangladesh, Ghana, Nepal, Nigeria-between January and September 2020. The review focuses on two questions: (i) Who are the private sector actors who have engaged in the COVID-19 first wave response and what was their role?; and (ii) How have national and sub-national governments engaged in, and with, the private sector response and what have been the effects of these engagements? Three main roles of the private sector were identified in the review. (1) Providing resources to support the public health response. (2) Mitigating the financial impact of the pandemic on individuals and businesses. (3) Adjustment of services delivered by the private sector, within and beyond the health sector, to respond to pandemic-related business challenges and opportunities. The findings suggest that a combination of public-private partnerships, contracting, and regulation have been used by governments to influence private sector involvement. Government strategies to engage the private sector developed quickly, reflecting the importance of private services to populations. However, implementation of regulatory responses, especially in the health sector, has often been weak reflecting the difficulty governments have in ensuring affordable, quality private services. Lessons for future pandemics and other health emergencies include the need to ensure that essential non-pandemic health services in the government and non-government sector can continue despite elevated risks, surge capacity to minimize shortages of vital public health supplies is available, and plans are in place to ensure private workplaces remain safe and livelihoods protected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Private Sector , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships
3.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(7): 1657-1664, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794150

ABSTRACT

While preventive and management measures are important to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, strategies like social distancing can have devastating effects on older adults who are already at risk for social isolation and loneliness. In response, two Colleges of Health Professions (Social Work and Nursing) at a large public University leveraged a partnership with a national health and wellbeing company to address social isolation and loneliness in Houston area older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This intergenerational linkage initiative involved 707 older adults and 177 graduate social work and nursing students. This study describes the process of developing a virtual educational opportunity for students while also meeting the needs of vulnerable older adults in Houston, the third largest, and one of the most diverse cities in the U.S. Findings include student/learner outcomes, as well as self-reported improvements in loneliness scores, and unhealthy physical and mental health days among enrolled older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Social Isolation/psychology , Students
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 648593, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775958

ABSTRACT

Surveillance programs supporting the management of One Health issues such as antibiotic resistance are complex systems in themselves. Designing ethical surveillance systems is thus a complex task (retroactive and iterative), yet one that is also complicated to implement and evaluate (e.g., sharing, collaboration, and governance). The governance of health surveillance requires attention to ethical concerns about data and knowledge (e.g., performance, trust, accountability, and transparency) and empowerment ethics, also referred to as a form of responsible self-governance. Ethics in reflexive governance operates as a systematic critical-thinking procedure that aims to define its value: What are the "right" criteria to justify how to govern "good" actions for a "better" future? The objective is to lay the foundations for a methodological framework in empirical bioethics, the rudiments of which have been applied to a case study to building reflexive governance in One Health. This ongoing critical thinking process involves "mapping, framing, and shaping" the dynamics of interests and perspectives that could jeopardize a "better" future. This paper proposes to hybridize methods to combine insights from collective deliberation and expert evaluation through a reflexive governance functioning as a community-based action-ethics methodology. The intention is to empower individuals and associations in a dialogue with society, which operation is carried out using a case study approach on data sharing systems. We based our reasoning on a feasibility study conducted in Québec, Canada (2018-2021), envisioning an antibiotic use surveillance program in animal health for 2023. Using the adaptive cycle and governance techniques and perspectives, we synthesize an alternative governance model rooted in the value of empowerment. The framework, depicted as a new "research and design (R&D)" practice, is linking operation and innovation by bridging the gap between Reflexive, Evaluative, and Deliberative reasonings and by intellectualizing the management of democratizing critical thinking locally (collective ethics) by recognizing its context (social ethics). Drawing on the literature in One Health and sustainable development studies, this article describes how a communitarian and pragmatic approach can broaden the vision of feasibility studies to ease collaboration through public-private-academic partnerships. The result is a process that "reassembles" the One Health paradigm under the perspective of global bioethics to create bridges between the person and the ecosystem through pragmatic ethics.


Subject(s)
Bioethical Issues , One Health , Humans , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Social Responsibility
5.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(1)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744626

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread, meeting the testing needs to control the spread of infection became a major challenge worldwide. In Pakistan, the lack of the requisite infrastructure and training compounded the acute shortage of testing kits and other consumables. Against this backdrop and to urgently improve province-wide access to high-quality COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with rapid turnaround times, the Government of the Sindh (GoS) province of Pakistan entered into a public-private partnership with Indus Hospital & Health Network (IHHN). Under this partnership, the GoS undertook sample collection and Indus Hospital in Karachi, Sindh, centralized testing. We describe the implementation strategies adopted by the partnership, as well as the challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned. Notably, up to 40% and 22% of total COVID-19 PCRs done in Sindh in the first 2 months of the pandemic, respectively, were performed at Indus Hospital in Karachi, though this percentage declined gradually as other centers caught up with their testing capacities. The rapid scaling up was achieved through a combination of mechanisms and factors including building on preexisting partnerships between the GoS and IHHN, pooling resources and harnessing distinct and complementary roles, relocating existing resources, introducing automation and information technology system changes, establishing risk mitigation strategies, and introducing quality measures within testing processes. The primary outcome of the partnership was rapid province-wide access to quality COVID-19 PCR testing with short turnaround times and at no cost to the patient. Furthermore, implementation of the partnership goals established new mechanisms as well as strengthened existing ones to enable rapid response to the future global health security challenges in Sindh, Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Global Health , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
7.
Nature ; 601(7894): 496, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641925

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/trends , Drug Resistance, Viral , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/supply & distribution , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Drug Approval , Drug Combinations , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lactams/administration & dosage , Lactams/pharmacology , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/administration & dosage , Leucine/pharmacology , Leucine/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Mutagenesis , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Proline/administration & dosage , Proline/pharmacology , Proline/therapeutic use , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/economics , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(4): 100592, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525796

ABSTRACT

There has been an increased focus on the opioid epidemic in the United States, yet policy-based interventions such as prescription limits, restrictions on doctor shopping, and notification programs for high-volume prescribers have had no significant impact. In this paper, the authors explore a novel public health policy: a joint public-private partnership between the federal government and hospitals to establish long-term treatment centers for patients admitted to the emergency department after an overdose. These centers would provide medication for opioid use disorder, give individuals the necessary support for recovery, and reduce healthcare expenditures. Similar longitudinal strategies may be used in other areas of public health.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Opioid-Related Disorders , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Humans , Opioid Epidemic , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Public Health , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , United States
11.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv54-iv58, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506617

ABSTRACT

In this article, we examine what the role of the private sector in times of crises is and whether the private sector is, and can be held to be, accountable. COVID-19 has amplified the difficulties with public-private partnerships and this article addresses several aspects concerning business enterprises, in particular transnational corporations, human rights and health sector activities, highlighting the key aspects to understand and address accountability issues. The article also explores accountability for the private sector, the processes to ensure accountability, and the relevance of regulation and self-regulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Private Sector , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Responsibility
13.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(3): 415-417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492920

ABSTRACT

Telehealth has the potential to address health disparities, but not without deliberate choices about how to implement it. To support vulnerable patients, health policy leaders must pursue creative solutions such as public-private partnerships, broadband infrastructure, and value-based payment. Without these initiatives or others like them, health disparities are likely to persist despite telehealth's tantalizing potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Public-Private Sector Partnerships
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): 1963-1973, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467431

ABSTRACT

Given the urgent need for coronavirus disease 2019 therapeutics, early in the pandemic the Accelerating Coronavirus Disease 2019 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) public-private partnership rapidly designed a unique therapeutic agent intake and assessment process for candidate treatments of coronavirus disease 2019. These treatments included antivirals, immune modulators, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibodies, and organ-supportive treatments at both the preclinical and clinical stages of development. The ACTIV Therapeutics-Clinical Working Group Agent Prioritization subgroup established a uniform data collection process required to perform an assessment of any agent type using review criteria that were identified and differentially weighted for each agent class. The ACTIV Therapeutics-Clinical Working Group evaluated over 750 therapeutic agents with potential application for coronavirus disease 2019 and prioritized promising candidates for testing within the master protocols conducted by ACTIV. In addition, promising agents among preclinical candidates were selected by ACTIV to be matched with laboratories that could assist in executing rigorous preclinical studies. Between April 14, 2020, and May 31, 2021, the Agent Prioritization subgroup advanced 20 agents into the Accelerating Coronavirus Disease 2019 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines master protocols and matched 25 agents with laboratories to assist with preclinical testing.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development/organization & administration , Drug Discovery/organization & administration , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1293-1300, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417296

ABSTRACT

Working in an unprecedented time frame, the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV) public-private partnership developed and launched 9 master protocols between 14 April 2020 and 31 May 2021 to allow for the coordinated and efficient evaluation of multiple investigational therapeutic agents for COVID-19. The ACTIV master protocols were designed with a portfolio approach to serve the following patient populations with COVID-19: mild to moderately ill outpatients, moderately ill inpatients, and critically ill inpatients. To facilitate the execution of these studies and minimize start-up time, ACTIV selected several existing networks to launch the master protocols. The master protocols were also designed to test several agent classes prioritized by ACTIV that covered the spectrum of the disease pathophysiology. Each protocol, either adaptive or pragmatic, was designed to efficiently select those treatments that provide benefit to patients while rapidly eliminating those that were either ineffective or unsafe. The ACTIV Therapeutics-Clinical Working Group members describe the process by which these master protocols were designed, developed, and launched. Lessons learned that may be useful in meeting the challenges of a future pandemic are also described.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Protocols , Drug Development/organization & administration , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Humans , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Transfusion ; 61(10): 2814-2824, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402980

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, there were no treatment options for COVID-19. Passive immune therapy including anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG) was a logical candidate for COVID-19 therapeutic trials, given past success treating emerging pathogens with endogenous neutralizing antibodies. We established a plasma collection protocol for persons recovered from COVID-19. To speed recruitment in the first U.S. hotspot, Seattle, Washington, federal and state public health agencies collaborated with Bloodworks Northwest to collect convalescent plasma (CP) for manufacturing hIVIG. During March-December 2020, we identified and recruited prospective CP donors via letters to persons recovered from COVID-19 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prospective donors were pre-screened and administered a medical history survey. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers were classified as qualifying (≥1:80) or non-qualifying (<1:80) for enrollment based on a live virus neutralization assay. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify characteristics of donors associated with qualifying versus nonqualifying NAb titers. Overall, 21,359 letters resulted in 3207 inquiries, 2159 prescreenings with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 573 donors (27% of all pre-screenings with confirmed infection) who provided a screening plasma donation. Of 573 donors screened, 254 (44%) provided plasma with qualifying NAb titers, resulting in 1284 units for hIVIG manufacture. In a multivariable model, after adjusting for other factors, time (60 days) from COVID-19 symptom onset to screening was associated with lower odds of qualifying NAb (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94). The collaboration facilitated a rapid response to develop and provide hIVIG for clinical trials and CP for transfusion. Only 1 in 12 donor inquiries resulted in a qualifying plasma donation. Challenges included recruitment and the relatively low percentage of persons with high NAb titers and limited screening capacity. This resource-intensive collaboration may not be scalable but informs preparedness and response strategies for plasma collection in future epidemics. Operational readiness plans with templates for screening, consent, and data collection forms are recommended.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection , COVID-19/therapy , Public Health , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Yonsei Med J ; 62(9): 777-791, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370980

ABSTRACT

The government of the Republic of Korea (ROK) has established relevant laws and a master plan for infectious disease control and prevention based on their experiences with past epidemics. In addition, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has designed a standard manual for risk management that involves pan-governmental crisis management systems. This national infectious disease management system is constantly being supplemented and developed in face of infectious disease-related crises. In this study, we set out to present directions for infectious disease prevention and flow of management and governance between central and local governments to ensure systematic quarantine activities in the ROK. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, public-private partnerships have been established to collect, provide, process, and disseminate information for effective quarantine. This has enabled the development and rapid approval of test kits, the tracking of cases, and the allocation of appropriate resources for patient treatment. Additionally, the Infectious Disease Control Agency has actively utilized information and communication technology platforms to disclose information necessary in real-time for COVID-19 quarantine and management. Overall, these efforts have played an important role in epidemiological investigations, patient management, and quarantine in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Glob Public Health ; 16(8-9): 1482-1498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364684

ABSTRACT

Digital technologies harnessed through smartphones have been deployed widely to support the response to Covid-19 internationally, often through partnerships between 'Big tech' and telecoms corporations and public health authorities. This paper provides an overview and critical analysis of the rapid rise of such new forms of public-private cooperation, focusing on their manifestation in the European region in the first phase of the pandemic. Drawing on a review of international media and documents, we discuss three main domains of public health action in which private technology companies and public health authorities have converged: contact-tracing, epidemic modelling and public health communication to manage the 'infodemic' of misinformation about the new coronavirus. Critics have raised concerns about how the digital response to Covid-19 may threaten privacy and enable greater state surveillance and control, and the possibility that semi-automated decision-making may exacerbate existing discrimination and inequalities. Our analysis extends such critiques by considering what the digital response to Covid-19 reveals about tech corporations' growing power to influence public health agendas. We discuss how they promote technical solutions to public health challenges that are politically seductive, but that have uncertain effectiveness and societal implications that warrant critical scrutiny.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Smartphone , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digital Technology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health Administration , Public-Private Sector Partnerships/organization & administration
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