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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(3): 713-715, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964253

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has led to an increased incidence of fungal infections. However, pulmonary infections are rare. COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported; however, there is no prior report of tracheobronchial aspergillosis with endobronchial aspergilloma as per the authors' literature search. We report such a case of a 65-year-old male with radiology and biopsy-proven endobronchial aspergilloma upon a background of tracheobronchial and pulmonary aspergillosis after having recovered clinically from severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 900522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903024

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) still cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Recent data suggest a benefit of checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We report the case of a diabetic patient with refractory IFD following a SARSCoV-2 infection treated by ICI and interferon-gamma associated with antifungal treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/drug therapy
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(4): 851-863, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The risk factors and clinical impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remain controversial, and no data have been reported in Korea. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and importance of CAPA diagnostic efforts and to identify the predictors of CAPA and the impacts on clinical outcomes. METHODS: Between January 2020 and May 2021, data of severely to critically ill COVID-19 patients were extracted from seven hospitals of the Catholic Medical Center through a clinical data warehouse. Corticosteroid use was subcategorized into total cumulative dose, early 7-day dose, mean daily dose, and duration of use. RESULTS: A total of 2,427 patients were screened, and 218 patients were included. CAPA was diagnosed in 4.6% (10/218) of all hospitalized and 11.2% (10/89) of intensive care unit patients. Total cumulative dose (over 1,000 mg as methylprednisolone) and daily high-dose corticosteroid use (over 60 mg/day) were independent predictors but not early 7-day high-dose corticosteroid use (over 420 mg/week) (odds ratio [OR], 1.731; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.350 to 8.571) nor prolonged use (OR, 2.794; 95% CI, 0.635 to 13.928). In-hospital overall mortality was 11.9% (26 of 218). CAPA itself did not affect the outcome; rather, daily high-dose steroid use significantly increased the 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 5.645; 95% CI, 1.225 to 26.091). CONCLUSION: CAPA was not uncommon, especially in critically ill patients. Daily high-dose corticosteroid use was the predictor of CAPA and associated with high mortality rates. High-dose corticosteroids use after early inflammatory phase should be avoided, and active surveillance methods for CAPA are essential for those high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mycoses ; 65(7): 724-732, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between 18 November 2020 and 24 April 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
APMIS ; 130(7): 397-403, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807020

ABSTRACT

Aspergillomas are found in pre-existing cavities in pulmonary parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, aspergilloma has not previously been reported in COVID-19-associated pulmonary architecture distortion combined with barotrauma from invasive mechanical ventilation therapy. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman, who suffered from severe COVID-19 in the summer of 2020 with no suspicion of infection with Aspergillus in the acute phase. Ten months after discharge from her COVID-related admission, she developed bilateral aspergillomas diagnosed by image diagnostics, bronchoscopy, and blood samples, and she now receives antifungal therapy. We would like to raise awareness on aspergilloma in post-COVID-19 patients, since it is an expected long-term complication to COVID-19 patients with pulmonary architectural distortion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(3): e0216921, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799236

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) remains unclear especially in nonimmunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate seven mycological criteria and their combination in a large homogenous cohort of patients. All successive patients (n = 176) hospitalized for COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation and who clinically worsened despite appropriate standard of care were included over a 1-year period. Direct examination, culture, Aspergillus quantitative PCR (Af-qPCR), and galactomannan testing were performed on all respiratory samples (n = 350). Serum galactomannan, ß-d-glucan, and plasma Af-qPCR were also assessed. The criteria were analyzed alone or in combination in relation to mortality rate. Mortality was significantly different in patients with 0, ≤2, and ≥3 positive criteria (log rank test, P = 0.04) with death rate of 43.1, 58.1, and 76.4%, respectively. Direct examination, plasma qPCR, and serum galactomannan were associated with a 100% mortality rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) galactomannan and positive respiratory sample culture were often found as isolated markers (28.1 and 34.1%) and poorly repeatable when a second sample was obtained. Aspergillus DNA was detected in 13.1% of samples (46 of 350) with significantly lower quantitative cycle (Cq) when associated with at least one other criterion (30.2 versus 35.8) (P < 0.001). A combination of markers and/or blood biomarkers and/or direct respiratory sample examination seems more likely to identify patients with CAPA. Af-qPCR may help identifying false-positive results of BAL galactomannan testing and culture on respiratory samples while quantifying fungal burden accurately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Mannans/analysis , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784373

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) incidence varies depending on the country. Serum galactomannan quantification is a promising diagnostic tool since samples are easy to obtain with low biosafety issues. A multicenter prospective study was performed to evaluate the CAPA incidence in Argentina and to assess the performance of the lateral flow assay with digital readout (Sona Aspergillus LFA) as a CAPA diagnostic and screening tool. The correlation between the values obtained with Sona Aspergillus LFA and Platelia® EIA was evaluated. In total, 578 serum samples were obtained from 185 critically ill COVID patients. CAPA screening was done weekly starting from the first week of ICU stay. Probable CAPA incidence in critically ill patients was 10.27% (19/185 patients when LFA was used as mycological criteria) and 9% (9/100 patients when EIA was used as mycological criteria). We found a very good correlation between the two evaluated galactomannan quantification methods (overall agreement of 92.16% with a Kappa statistic value of 0.721). CAPA diagnosis (>0.5 readouts in LFA) were done during the first week of ICU stay in 94.7% of the probable CAPA patients. The overall mortality was 36.21%. CAPA patients' mortality and length of ICU stay were not statistically different from for COVID (non-CAPA) patients (42.11 vs 33.13% and 29 vs 24 days, respectively). These indicators were lower than in other reports. LFA-IMMY with digital readout is a reliable tool for early diagnosis of CAPA using serum samples in critically ill COVID patients. It has a good agreement with Platelia® EIA. LAY SUMMARY: The incidence of COVID-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in critically-ill Argentinian patients was established (10.27%). Serum galactomannan quantification was useful as a screening tool for this mycosis. A good agreement between Platelia® EIA and Sona Aspergillus LFA is reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , Argentina/epidemiology , Aspergillus , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Mannans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 18(2): 106-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766194

ABSTRACT

A 52-year-old female was admitted to our hospital in April 2021 with dyspnea. She was discharged from the hospital 3 weeks ago due to the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Physical examination revealed an oxygen desaturation of 82%. The patient underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) that showed a ground-glass pattern and a giant left atrial appendage ( Figure 1A ). Film array respiratory panel was negative, and pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed after bronchoscopy. Cardiac magnetic resonance corroborated the huge left atrial appendage ( Figure 1B ). No other structural or functional heart abnormalities were diagnosed. A giant left atrial appendage is a rare cardiac anomaly that can be congenital or acquired. In the literature, it is called a left atrial appendage aneurysm. The dilatation can be generalized or focused. Although it can occur in all age groups, it is predominant in patients in their 30s to 50s and most common in females.1 Patients can be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, or dyspnea. A number of recent cases in the literature have highlighted the diagnostic utility of CTA.2 While there is no standard treatment for this condition, surgical resection is the most frequent therapy. Another option reported in the literature is anticoagulant treatment for select cases.3 Closure of the left atrial appendage is a more recent and emerging intervention that can be considered. In our patient, we initiated anticoagulant therapy to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events; however, we recommended left atrial appendage occlusion or surgical resection after completing the treatment for pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , COVID-19 , Heart Aneurysm , Heart Defects, Congenital , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Anticoagulants , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Heart Aneurysm/surgery , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0229821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759280

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), which impacts their chances of survival. Whether positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mycological tests can be used as a survival proxy remains unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of a previous multicenter, multinational observational study with the aim of assessing the differential prognostic impact of BALF mycological tests, namely, positive (optical density index of ≥1.0) BALF galactomannan (GM) and positive BALF Aspergillus culture alone or in combination for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Of the 592 critically ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in the main study, 218 were included in this post hoc analysis, as they had both test results available. CAPA was diagnosed in 56/218 patients (26%). Most cases were probable CAPA (51/56 [91%]) and fewer were proven CAPA (5/56 [9%]). In the final multivariable model adjusted for between-center heterogeneity, an independent association with 90-day mortality was observed for the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture in comparison with both tests negative (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 5.02; P = 0.008). The other independent predictors of 90-day mortality were increasing age and active malignant disease. In conclusion, the combination of positive BALF GM and positive BALF Aspergillus culture was associated with increased 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Additional study is needed to explore the possible prognostic value of other BALF markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Mycology , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753505

ABSTRACT

As the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to plague healthcare systems, it has become clear that opportunistic pathogens cause a considerable proportion of SARS-CoV-2-associated mortality and morbidity cases. Of these, Covid-Associated Pulmonary Aspergilliosis (CAPA) is a major concern with evidence that it occurs in the absence of traditional risk factors such as neutropenia and is diagnostically challenging for the attending physician. In this review, we focus on the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 and how this potentiates CAPA through dysregulation of local and systemic immunity as well as the unintended consequences of approved COVID treatments including corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors. Finally, we will consider how knowledge of the above may aid in the diagnosis of CAPA using current diagnostics and what treatment should be instituted in probable and confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Treatment Outcome
17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(7): 2202-2209, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify studies systematically that describe the incidence and outcome of COVID-19-related pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: We searched ScienceDirect, PubMed, CNKI, and MEDLINE (OVID) from December 31, 2019 to November 20, 2021 for all eligible studies. Random-model was used to reported the incidence, all-cause case fatality rate (CFR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021242179). RESULTS: In all, thirty-one cohort studies were included in this study. A total of 3,441 patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated and 442 cases of CAPA were reported (30 studies). The pooled incidence rate of CAPA was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.11-0.17, I2=0.0%). Twenty-eight studies reported 287 deceased patients and 269 surviving patients. The pooled CFR of CAPA was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.47-0.56, I2=3.9%). Interestingly, patients with COVID19 would develop CAPA at 7.28 days after mechanical ventilation (range, 5.48-9.08 days). No significant publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU might develop CAPA and have high all-cause CFR. We recommend conducting prospective screening for CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19, especially for those who receive mechanical ventilation over 7 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
18.
J Crit Care ; 69: 154004, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739899

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have tried to determine the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in COVID-19 patients. Challenges in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients have led to new definitions of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and outcomes of and risk factors for IFIs in critically-ill COVID-19 patients, using the new definitions, in a tertiary center in Israel. METHODS: A case-controlled study (from 1 September 2020 to 31 March 2021) in which data from COVID-19 critically-ill patients with a diagnosis of IFI were collected and compared to a control group without IFI. RESULTS: The incidence of IFI amongst 311 COVID-19 critically-ill patients was 6.1%. 3.5% had CAPA and 3.5% had candidemia. In-hospital mortality was higher amongst patients with IFI compared to those without IFI (89.4% vs 60%, p < 0.03). The most significant predictors of IFI were cardiovascular co-morbidity and carbapenem use. CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of CAPA in our group of COVID-19 critically-ill patients was consistent with recent reports, underscoring the importance of differentiating between true infection and colonization. Awareness and timely diagnosis of IFIs in COVID-19 critically-ill patients are imperative considering the associated high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Critical Illness , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Israel/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 105-107, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726465

ABSTRACT

Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis can present in four distinct clinical syndromes, one of which is chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA). CCPA is generally associated with a mildly immunosuppressed state or, in immunocompetent patients, with structural lung damage. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with reactivation of previous quiescent infections such as tuberculosis and invasive fungal infections, but CCPA in a patient with COVID-19 is rarely reported. Here we present the case of a 57-year-old man with CCPA associated with COVID-19 infection in whom latent aspergilloma was most likely activated after SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patient presented with severe COVID and, after initial response to treatment, started to deteriorate due to reactivation of latent aspergilloma to a more aggressive CCPA form. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the patient was initiated on treatment with voriconazole. He showed a good response to treatment with clinicoradiological response. This case also depicts one of the common causes of clinical deterioration in otherwise recovering COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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