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3.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 11-18, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956102

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis represent a cavity with air-meniscus sign, nodule, mass, and consolidation having an angio-invasive pattern. This study aims to conduct a systematic review and an individual patient-level image analysis of CT findings of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting CT findings of CAPA as of January 7, 2021. We summarized study-level clinical and CT findings of CAPA and collected individual patient CT images by inviting corresponding authors. The CT findings were categorized into four groups: group 1, typical appearance of COVID-19; group 2, indeterminate appearance of COVID-19; group 3, atypical for COVID-19 without cavities; and group 4, atypical for COVID-19 with cavities. In group 2, cases had only minor discrepant findings including solid nodules, isolated airspace consolidation with negligible ground-glass opacities, centrilobular micronodules, bronchial abnormalities, and cavities. RESULTS: The literature search identified 89 patients from 25 studies, and we collected CT images from 35 CAPA patients (mean age 62.4 ± 14.6 years; 21 men): group 1, thirteen patients (37.1%); group 2, eight patients (22.9%); group 3, six patients (17.1%); and group 4, eight patients (22.9%). Eight of the 14 patients (57.1%) with an atypical appearance had bronchial abnormalities, whereas only one (7.1%) had an angio-invasive fungal pattern. In the study-level analysis, cavities were reported in 12 of 54 patients (22.2%). CONCLUSION: CAPA can frequently manifest as COVID-19 pneumonia without common CT abnormalities of pulmonary aspergillosis. If abnormalities exist on CT images, CAPA may frequently accompany bronchial abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Data Analysis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Mycoses ; 65(11): 1010-1023, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been widely reported but homogenous large cohort studies are needed to gain real-world insights about the disease. METHODS: We collected clinical and laboratory data of 1161 patients hospitalised at our Institute from March 2020 to August 2021, defined their CAPA pathology, and analysed the data of CAPA/non-CAPA and deceased/survived CAPA patients using univariable and multivariable models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence and mortality of CAPA in our homogenous cohort of 1161 patients were 6.4% and 47.3%, respectively. The mortality of CAPA was higher than that of non-CAPA patients (hazard ratio: 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.8]). Diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.92 [1.15-3.21]); persistent fever (2.54 [1.17-5.53]); hemoptysis (7.91 [4.45-14.06]); and lung lesions of cavitation (8.78 [2.27-34.03]), consolidation (9.06 [2.03-40.39]), and nodules (8.26 [2.39-28.58]) were associated with development of CAPA by multivariable analysis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2.68 [1.09-6.55]), a high computed tomography score index (OR 1.18 [1.08-1.29]; p < .001), and pulse glucocorticoid treatment (HR 4.0 [1.3-9.2]) were associated with mortality of the disease. Whereas neutrophilic leukocytosis (development: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and mortality: 1.17 [1.08-1.28]) and lymphopenia (development: 0.68 [0.51-0.91] and mortality: 0.40 [0.20-0.83]) were associated with the development as well as mortality of CAPA. CONCLUSION: We observed a low but likely underestimated prevalence of CAPA in our study. CAPA is a disease with high mortality and diabetes is a significant factor for its development while ARDS and pulse glucocorticoid treatment are significant factors for its mortality. Cellular immune dysregulation may have a central role in CAPA from its development to mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884188

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by Aspergillus, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports Aspergillus co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Generally, the microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis is based on cultural methods and on searching for the circulating antigens galactomannan and 1,3-ß-D-glucan in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (bGM) or serum (sGM). In this study, to verify whether the COVID-19 period has stimulated clinicians to pay greater attention to IPA in patients with respiratory tract infections, we evaluated the number of requests for GM-Ag research and the number of positive tests found during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our data show a significant upward trend in GM-Ag requests and positivity from the pre-COVID to COVID period, which is attributable in particular to the increase in IPA risk factors as a complication of COVID-19. In the COVID period, parallel to the increase in requests, the number of positive tests for GM-Ag also increased, going from 2.5% in the first period of 2020 to 12.3% in the first period of 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(6): 754-760, 2021 12.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus spp. fungal coinfections have been described in critically ill COVID-19 patients. AIM: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and evolution of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with COVID-19, who present with COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a single public hospital. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical records during 12 months in patients diagnosed with CAPA by cultures of respiratory samples or determination of galactomannan (GM). RESULTS: Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 11 patients (average APACHE II score of 11.7). Respiratory samples were obtained in 73% of cases by bronchoalveolar lavage and in 27% by tracheal aspirate. A. fumigatus was isolated in 4 cultures, A. niger, A. terreus and Aspergillus spp on one occasion each and the cultures were negative in 4 samples. Respiratory sample GM was performed in 7 patients, median: 3.6 (IQR: 1.71 - 4.4). In 10 patients, serum GM was performed, median: 0.5 (IQR: 0.265 - 0.9 75) with 50% of them > 0.5. Two patients showed classic findings suggestive of CAPA on computed tomography. All received antifungal therapy with voriconazole, mean time 14 days. Four patients died. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CAPA should be a diagnosis to be considered in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Chile/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(18): e134, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often accompanied by secondary infections, such as invasive aspergillosis. In this study, risk factors for developing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and their clinical outcomes were evaluated. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients from July 2020 through March 2021. Critically ill patients were defined as patients requiring high-flow respiratory support or mechanical ventilation. CAPA was defined based on the 2020 European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology consensus criteria. Factors associated with CAPA were analyzed, and their clinical outcomes were adjusted by a propensity score-matched model. RESULTS: Among 187 eligible patients, 17 (9.1%) developed CAPA, which is equal to 33.10 per 10,000 patient-days. Sixteen patients received voriconazole-based antifungal treatment. In addition, 82.4% and 53.5% of patients with CAPA and without CAPA, respectively, received early high-dose corticosteroids (P = 0.022). In multivariable analysis, initial 10-day cumulative steroid dose > 60 mg of dexamethasone or dexamethasone equivalent dose) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-13.79) and chronic pulmonary disease (adjusted OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.26-14.02) were independently associated with CAPA. Tendencies of higher 90-day overall mortality (54.3% vs. 35.2%, P = 0.346) and lower respiratory support-free rate were observed in patients with CAPA (76.3% vs. 54.9%, P = 0.089). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the dose of corticosteroid use might be a risk factor for CAPA development and the possibility of CAPA contributing to adverse outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mycoses ; 65(7): 724-732, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been reported as an important cause of mortality in critically ill patients with an incidence rate ranging from 5% to 35% during the first and second pandemic waves. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors for CAPA by a screening protocol and outcome in the critically ill patients during the third wave of the pandemic. PATIENTS/METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units (ICU) designated for patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary care university hospital between 18 November 2020 and 24 April 2021. SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive adult patients admitted to the ICU with respiratory failure were included in the study. Serum and respiratory samples were collected periodically from ICU admission up to CAPA diagnosis, patient discharge or death. ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria were used to diagnose and classify CAPA cases. RESULTS: A total of 302 patients were admitted to the two ICUs during the study period, and 213 were included in the study. CAPA was diagnosed in 43 (20.1%) patients (12.2% probable, 7.9% possible). In regression analysis, male sex, higher SOFA scores at ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation and longer ICU stay were significantly associated with CAPA development. Overall ICU mortality rate was higher significantly in CAPA group compared to those with no CAPA (67.4% vs 29.4%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of critically ill patients in COVID-19 ICUs developed CAPA, and this was associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
APMIS ; 130(7): 397-403, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807020

ABSTRACT

Aspergillomas are found in pre-existing cavities in pulmonary parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, aspergilloma has not previously been reported in COVID-19-associated pulmonary architecture distortion combined with barotrauma from invasive mechanical ventilation therapy. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman, who suffered from severe COVID-19 in the summer of 2020 with no suspicion of infection with Aspergillus in the acute phase. Ten months after discharge from her COVID-related admission, she developed bilateral aspergillomas diagnosed by image diagnostics, bronchoscopy, and blood samples, and she now receives antifungal therapy. We would like to raise awareness on aspergilloma in post-COVID-19 patients, since it is an expected long-term complication to COVID-19 patients with pulmonary architectural distortion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis
12.
Mycoses ; 65(5): 541-550, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a major complication of critically ill COVID-19 patients, with a high mortality rate and potentially preventable. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of CAPA would be of great interest. We intended to develop a clinical prediction score capable of stratifying patients according to the risk for CAPA at ICU admission. METHODS: Single centre retrospective case-control study. A case was defined as a patient diagnosed with CAPA according to 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria. 2 controls were selected for each case among critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: 28 CAPA patients and 56-matched controls were included. Factors associated with CAPA included old age (68 years vs. 62, p = .033), active smoking (17.9% vs. 1.8%, p = .014), chronic respiratory diseases (48.1% vs. 26.3%, p = .043), chronic renal failure (25.0% vs. 3.6%, p = .005), chronic corticosteroid treatment (28.6% vs. 1.8%, p < .001), tocilizumab therapy (92.9% vs. 66.1%, p = .008) and high APACHE II at ICU admission (median 13 vs. 10 points, p = .026). A score was created including these variables, which showed an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.77-0.92). A punctuation below 6 had a negative predictive value of 99.6%. A punctuation of 10 or higher had a positive predictive value of 27.9%. CONCLUSION: We present a clinical prediction score that allowed to stratify critically ill COVID-19 patients according to the risk for developing CAPA. This CAPA score would allow to target preventive measures. Further evaluation of the score, as well as the utility of these targeted preventive measures, is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 458-465, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is associated with increased mortality. Cases of CAPA caused by azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the twelve-month CAPA prevalence in a German tertiary care hospital and to characterise clinical A. fumigatus isolates from two German hospitals by antifungal susceptibility testing and microsatellite genotyping. PATIENTS/METHODS: Retrospective observational study in critically ill adults from intensive care units with COVID-19 from 17 February 2020 until 16 February 2021 and collection of A. fumigatus isolates from two German centres. EUCAST broth microdilution for four azole compounds and microsatellite PCR with nine markers were performed for each collected isolate (N = 27) and additional for three non-COVID A. fumigatus isolates. RESULTS: welve-month CAPA prevalence was 7.2% (30/414), and the rate of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates from patients with CAPA was 3.7% with detection of one TR34/L98H mutation. The microsatellite analysis revealed no major clustering of the isolates. Sequential isolates mainly showed the same genotype over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate similar CAPA prevalence to other reports and a low azole-resistance rate. Genotyping of A. fumigatus showed polyclonal distribution except for sequential isolates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus , Azoles/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(7): 920-927, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspergillosis may complicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and contribute to excess mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The disease is poorly understood, in part due to discordant definitions across studies. OBJECTIVES: We sought to review the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and compare research definitions. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and MedRxiv were searched from inception to October 12, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: ICU cohort studies and CAPA case series including ≥3 patients were included. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients in ICUs with COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were reclassified according to four research definitions. We assessed risk of bias with an adaptation of the Joanna Briggs Institute cohort checklist tool for systematic reviews. METHODS: We calculated CAPA prevalence using the Freeman-Tukey random effects method. Correlations between definitions were assessed with Spearman's rank test. Associations between antifungals and outcome were assessed with random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies were included. Among 3297 COVID-19 patients in ICU cohort studies, 313 were diagnosed with CAPA (prevalence 10%; 95% CI 8%-13%). Two hundred seventy-seven patients had patient-level data allowing reclassification. Definitions had limited correlation with one another (ρ = 0.268-0.447; p < 0.001), with the exception of Koehler and Verweij (ρ = 0.893; p < 0.001); 33.9% of patients reported to have CAPA did not fulfill any research definitions. Patients were diagnosed after a median of 8 days (interquartile range 5-14) in ICUs. Tracheobronchitis occurred in 3% of patients examined with bronchoscopy. The mortality rate was high (59.2%). Applying CAPA research definitions did not strengthen the association between mould-active antifungals and survival. CONCLUSIONS: The reported prevalence of CAPA is significant but may be exaggerated by nonstandard definitions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
16.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096211063332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603889

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a 56-year-old woman who was diagnosed with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who was intubated for 19 days. She recovered from COVID-19 after a month. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, after a month, showed improved infiltrates with a small residual cavity within the lingula. A CT angiogram showed a more confluent density in the lingular portion on follow-up 2 months later. She developed intermittent hemoptysis after 3 months in December 2020, which persisted for almost 6 months, and CT of the chest showed the lingular nodular with resolution of the cavitation. She underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, confirming Aspergillus fumigatus by galactomannan assay and histology showing branching hyphae. Once she started treatment with itraconazole, her hemoptysis resolved. The follow-up CT of the chest after 2 months of treatment did not show a cavity or a nodule in the lingula. Our patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) as a sequela of severe COVID-19 infection. COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is an underrecognized complication that needs to be investigated on whether prophylactic treatment is required. Our case also demonstrates that the diagnosis of IPA needs to be considered months after COVID-19 infection when a superimposed fungal infection can occur after a viral infection if the patient continues to have persistent symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus fumigatus , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 580-587, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome. METHODS: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions. RESULTS: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Mycology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e405-e414, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286408

ABSTRACT

Invasive mould disease (IMD) might affect up to a third of critically ill patients with COVID-19. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is typically diagnosed on the basis of a combination of non-specific clinical, radiographical, and mycological findings, but whether most cases represent invasive disease is unresolved. We systematically reviewed autopsy series of three or more decedents with COVID-19 for evidence of IMD. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, OVID (Embase), and medRxiv for studies in English or French published from Jan 1, 2019, to Sept 26, 2020. We identified 1070 references, of which 50 studies met the criteria. These studies described autopsies from 677 decedents, with individual-level data for 443 decedents. The median age was 70·0 years (IQR 57·0-79·0). Of decedents with individual-level data, 133 (30%) had diabetes, 97 (22%) had pre-existing lung disease, and 27 (6%) had immunocompromising conditions. Of 548 decedents with such data, 320 (58%) received invasive mechanical ventilation; among 140 decedents for whom this was known, ventilation was for a median of 9·0 days (IQR 5·0-20·0). Treatment included immunomodulation in 60 decedents and antifungals in 50 decedents. Autopsy-proven IMD occurred in 11 (2%) of 677 decedents, including eight CAPA, two unspecified IMD, and one disseminated mucormycosis. Among 320 decedents who received mechanical ventilation, six (2%) had IMD. We conclude that IMD, including CAPA, is an uncommon autopsy finding in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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