Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753505

ABSTRACT

As the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to plague healthcare systems, it has become clear that opportunistic pathogens cause a considerable proportion of SARS-CoV-2-associated mortality and morbidity cases. Of these, Covid-Associated Pulmonary Aspergilliosis (CAPA) is a major concern with evidence that it occurs in the absence of traditional risk factors such as neutropenia and is diagnostically challenging for the attending physician. In this review, we focus on the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 and how this potentiates CAPA through dysregulation of local and systemic immunity as well as the unintended consequences of approved COVID treatments including corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors. Finally, we will consider how knowledge of the above may aid in the diagnosis of CAPA using current diagnostics and what treatment should be instituted in probable and confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(1): e0168921, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630019

ABSTRACT

This multicenter study evaluated the IMMY Aspergillus Galactomannan Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) with automated reader for diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between 03/2020 and 04/2021. A total of 196 respiratory samples and 148 serum samples (n = 344) from 238 patients were retrospectively included, with a maximum of one of each sample type per patient. Cases were retrospectively classified for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) status following the 2020 consensus criteria, with the exclusion of LFA results as a mycological criterion. At the 1.0 cutoff, sensitivity of LFA for CAPA (proven/probable/possible) was 52%, 80% and 81%, and specificity was 98%, 88% and 67%, for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), nondirected bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL), and tracheal aspiration (TA), respectively. At the 0.5 manufacturer's cutoff, sensitivity was 72%, 90% and 100%, and specificity was 79%, 83% and 44%, for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. When combining all respiratory samples, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.823, versus 0.754, 0.890 and 0.814 for BALF, NBL and TA, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of serum LFA were 20% and 93%, respectively, at the 0.5 ODI cutoff. Overall, the Aspergillus Galactomannan LFA showed good performances for CAPA diagnosis, when used from respiratory samples at the 1.0 cutoff, while sensitivity from serum was limited, linked to weak invasiveness during CAPA. As some false-positive results can occur, isolated results slightly above the recommended cutoff should lead to further mycological investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 222-227, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and risk of fungal co-infection, pulmonary aspergillosis in particular. However, COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) cases remain limited due to the difficulty in diagnosis. METHODS: We describe presumptive invasive aspergillosis in eight patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in a single center in Shenzhen, China. Data collected include underlying conditions, mycological findings, immunodetection results, therapies and outcomes. RESULTS: Four of the eight patients had tested positive for Aspergillus by either culture or Next-generation sequencing analysis of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), while the rest of patients had only positive results in antigen or antibody detection. Although all patients received antifungal therapies, six of these eight patients (66.7%) died. CONCLUSION: Due to the high mortality rate of CAPA, clinical care in patients with CAPA deserves more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(2): 163-169, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606008

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) can affect patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but many questions remain open about its very variable incidence across the world, the actual link between the viral infection and the fungal superinfection, the significance of Aspergillus recovery in a respiratory sample, and the management of such cases. This review addresses these questions and aims at providing some clues for the practical diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in a clinical perspective. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions have been proposed for possible/probable/proven CAPA, but distinction between colonization and invasive fungal infection is difficult and not possible in most cases in the absence of histopathological proof or positive galactomannan in serum. Most importantly, the recovery of an Aspergillus by a direct (culture, PCR) or indirect (galactomannan) test in a respiratory sample is an indicator of worse outcome, which justifies a screening for early detection and initiation of preemptive antifungal therapy in such cases. SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased our awareness of IPA among ICU patients. Although current recommendations are mainly based on experts' opinions, prospective studies are needed to get more evidence-based support for the diagnostic approach and management of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(8): 819-834, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly reported in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diagnosis and management of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are challenging and our aim was to develop practical guidance. METHODS: A group of 28 international experts reviewed current insights in the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of CAPA and developed recommendations using GRADE methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of CAPA varied between 0 and 33%, which may be partly due to variable case definitions, but likely represents true variation. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) remain the cornerstone of CAPA diagnosis, allowing for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and collection of the best validated specimen for Aspergillus diagnostics. Most patients diagnosed with CAPA lack traditional host factors, but pre-existing structural lung disease and immunomodulating therapy may predispose to CAPA risk. Computed tomography seems to be of limited value to rule CAPA in or out, and serum biomarkers are negative in 85% of patients. As the mortality of CAPA is around 50%, antifungal therapy is recommended for BAL positive patients, but the decision to treat depends on the patients' clinical condition and the institutional incidence of CAPA. We recommend against routinely stopping concomitant corticosteroid or IL-6 blocking therapy in CAPA patients. CONCLUSION: CAPA is a complex disease involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue invasion and angioinvasive disease. Knowledge gaps including true epidemiology, optimal diagnostic work-up, management strategies and role of host-directed therapy require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mycopathologia ; 186(4): 499-505, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274891

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported at high rates in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively assessed all patients admitted to an intensive care unit during the early COVID-19 surge (3/17/20-5/10/20) at our medical center in the midwestern USA for the presence of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). Patients were not routinely screened for CAPA; diagnostic work-up for fungal infections was pursued when clinically indicated. Among 256 patients admitted to the ICU with severe COVID-19, 188 (73%) were intubated and 62 (24%) ultimately expired within 30 days of admission to the ICU. Only three patients (1%) were found to have CAPA; diagnosis was made by tracheal aspirate cultures in two cases and by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Aspergillus galactomannan in one case. None of the patients who developed CAPA had classic risk factors for invasive fungal infection. The occurrence of CAPA was much lower than that reported at other centers, likely reflecting the local epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 911-914, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101366

ABSTRACT

CAPA (COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis) is an important complication of COVID-19. It has been reported that the incidence of CAPA is as high as 19%-33% worldwide. However, its onset has not been reported in Japan. A 72-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with COVID-19 and was transferred to our hospital due to deterioration of respiratory condition. Treatment with remdesivir, dexamethasone (DEXA), and antibiotics was performed under mechanical ventilation. Although the condition improved temporarily, a new shadow appeared in the lung, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from sputum. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CAPA and treated with voriconazole. However, his progress deteriorated and he died. High-risk COVID-19 patients should be tested for Aspergillus to ensure early diagnosis of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Japan , Male , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1077-1086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067634

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China at the end of 2019. Because of the severe immunomodulation and lymphocyte depletion caused by this virus and the subsequent administration of drugs directed at the immune system, we anticipated that patients might experience fungal superinfection. We collected data from 186 patients who had coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) worldwide during March-August 2020. Overall, 182 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), including 180 with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 175 who received mechanical ventilation. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 10 days after coronavirus disease diagnosis. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in 80.3% of patient cultures, 4 of which were azole-resistant. Most (52.7%) patients received voriconazole. In total, 52.2% of patients died; of the deaths, 33.0% were attributed to CAPA. We found that the cumulative incidence of CAPA in the ICU ranged from 1.0% to 39.1%.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Incidence , International Cooperation , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Registries , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Mycoses ; 64(4): 364-371, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the performance of two galactomannan (GM) assays (Platelia Aspergillus EIA, Bio-Rad® , and Aspergillus GM LFA, IMMY® ) in tracheal aspirate (TA) samples of consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included critically ill patients, performed GM-EIA and GM-Lateral Flow Assay (GM-LFA) in TA and followed them until development of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) or alternate diagnosis. CAPA was defined according to the modified AspICU criteria in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for GM-EIA, GM-LFA, the combination of both or either positive results for GM-EIA and GM-LFA. We explored accuracy using different breakpoints, through ROC analysis and Youden index to identify the optimal cut-offs. We described antifungal treatment and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: We identified 14/144 (9.7%) patients with CAPA, mean age was 50.35 (SD 11.9), the median time from admission to CAPA was 8 days; 28.5% received tocilizumab and 30-day mortality was 57%. ROC analysis and Youden index identified 2.0 OD as the best cut-off, resulting in sensitivity and specificity of 57.1% and 81.5% for GM-EIA and 60% and 72.6% for GM-LFA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of GM in tracheal aspirates improved after using a cut-off of 2 OD. Although bronchoalveolar lavage testing is the ideal test, centres with limited access to bronchoscopy may consider this approach to identify or rule out CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mannans/analysis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Trachea/chemistry , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Diabetes Complications/complications , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trachea/microbiology
20.
Mycoses ; 64(1): 55-59, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), clinicians have used personal protective equipment to avoid transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, they still face occupational risk of infection, when treating COVID-19 patients. This may be highest during invasive diagnostic procedures releasing aerosols and droplets. Thereby, the use of diagnostic procedures for Covid-19 associated aspergillosis may be delayed or impeded, as use of bronchoscopy has been discouraged. This leads to avoidance of a crucial procedure for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. We intent to visualise aerosol and droplet spread and surface contamination during bronchoscopy and address which measures can avoid exposure of health-care workers. METHODS: We created a simulation model to visualise aerosol and droplet generation as well as surface contamination by nebulising fluorescent solution detected by using ultraviolet light- and slow-motion capture. We repurposed covers for ultrasound transducers or endoscopic cameras to prevent surface and ambient air contamination. RESULTS: In our bronchoscopy simulation model, we noticed extensive aerosol generation, droplet spread and surface contamination. Exposure of health-care workers and contamination of surfaces can be efficiently reduced by repurposing covers for ultrasound transducers or endoscopic cameras to seal the tube opening during bronchoscopy in mechanically ventilated patients. CONCLUSION: Adequate personal protective equipment and safety strategies allow to minimise contamination during bronchoscopy in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL