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1.
medrxiv; 2024.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2024.02.02.24302216

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Among adults who test positive for COVID-19, some develop long COVID (symptoms lasting [≥]3 months), and some do not. We compared 3 groups on selected measures to help determine strategies to reduce COVID impact. Methods: Using Stata and data for 385,617 adults from the 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we compared adults reporting long COVID, those with just a positive test, and those who never tested positive, on several health status and risk factor measures plus vaccination rates (data for 178,949 adults in 29 states). Results: Prevalence of just COVID was 26.5% (95% CI 26.2-26.8) and long COVID was 7.4% (7.3-7.6). Compared with adults with just COVID those with long COVID had worse rates for 13 of 17 measures of chronic disease, disability, and poor health status, while those with just COVID had the best results for 15 of the 17 measures among all 3 groups. The 5 risk factors (obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and COPD) previously associated with COVID deaths, increased long COVID but not just COVID rates, which were highest among younger and higher income adults. Adults with long COVID had the highest rate among the 3 groups for any COVID risk factors and data from 29 states showed they had the lowest rates for [≥]3 vaccine doses of 35.6%, vs. 42.7% and 50.3% for those with just a positive test, and neither, respectively. Vaccination with [≥]3 vaccines vs. <3 reduced long COVID rates by 38%, and just COVID rates by 16%. Conclusions: Results show the seriousness of long COVID vs. just a positive test and that increasing vaccine coverage by targeting adults with risk factors shows promise for reducing COVID impact.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Diabetes Mellitus , Obesity , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma
2.
authorea preprints; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.170667467.77007656.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become pandemic in 2020 and recently mutated coronavirus has emerged in many countries. This study firstly identified the clinical characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 patients in Zhengzhou for clinical prevention and management. Methods: A total of 70 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were enrolled between 21th January and 29th February 2020, in Zhengzhou, China. Clinical characteristics, hematological findings, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and inflammatory index on admission were selected from medical records and the comparison between COVID-19 patients with different outcomes were evaluated. Results : The median age was 55 years. Forty-three (43%) patients were classified as severe or critical cases. Eighteen (12.8%) patients died in hospital and the remaining fifty-two were discharged. Patients who died tend to old aged, expectoration, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared to survivor, non-survivor has significantly higher leucocytes, neutrophils, NLR, AST, GGT, TBIL, DBIL, LDH, PT, D-dimer, CRP, and decreased platelet, lymphocyte, UA, ALB, CHE, PTA. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified leucocytes, platelet, PLR, NLR, AST, and ALB as independent factors for poor outcomes. The AUC of combination of leucocyte, PLR, NLR, and AST have the largest area under curve at 0.87, with the sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.81. Conclusion : Our results identified the risk factors among COVID-19 patients in-hospital fatality. Leucocyte, PLR, NLR, and AST could have important reference value for prognostic prediction and early intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
3.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3859620.v1

ABSTRACT

Most of the growing prospective analytic methods in space-time disease surveillance and intended functions of disease surveillance systems focus on earlier detection of disease outbreaks, disease clusters, or increased incidence. The spread of the virus such as SARS-CoV-2 has not been spatially and temporally uniform in an outbreak. With the identification of an infectious disease outbreak, recognizing and evaluating anomalies (excess and decline) of disease incidence spread at the time of occurrence during the course of an outbreak is a logical next step.  We propose and formulate a hypergeometric probability model that investigates anomalies of infectious disease incidence spread at the time of occurrence in the timeline for many geographically described populations (e.g., hospitals, towns, counties) in an ongoing daily monitoring process. It is structured to determine whether the incidence grows or declines more rapidly in a region on the single current day or the most recent few days compared to the occurrence of the incidence during the previous few days relative to elsewhere in the surveillance period. The new method uses a time-varying baseline risk model, accounting for regularly (e.g., daily) updated information on disease incidence at the time of occurrence, and evaluates the probability of the deviation of particular frequencies to be attributed to sampling fluctuations, accounting for the unequal variances of the rates due to different population bases in geographical units.    We attempt to present and illustrate a new model to advance the investigation of anomalies of infectious disease incidence spread by analyzing subsamples of spatiotemporal disease surveillance data from Taiwan on dengue and COVID-19 incidence which are mosquito-borne and contagious infectious diseases, respectively. Efficient R programs for computation are available to implement the two approximate formulae of the hypergeometric probability model for large numbers of events. 


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19
4.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.22.23300474

ABSTRACT

In sub-Saharan Africa, reported COVID-19 numbers have been lower than anticipated, even when considering populations younger age. The extent to which risk factors, established in industrialised countries, impact the risk of infection and of disease in populations in sub-Saharan Africa, remains unclear. We estimated the incidence of mild and moderate COVID-19 in urban Mozambique and analysed factors associated with infection and disease in a population-based surveillance study. During December 2020-March 2022, households of a population cohort in Polana Canico, Maputo, Mozambique, were contacted biweekly. Residents reporting any respiratory sign, anosmia, or ageusia, were asked to self-administer a nasal swab, for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. Of a subset of 1400 participants, dried blood spots were repeatedly collected three-monthly from finger pricks at home. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid protein were detected using an in-house developed multiplex antibody assay. We estimated the incidence of respiratory illness and COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. We used Cox regression models, adjusting for age and sex, to identify factors associated with first symptomatic COVID-19 and with SARS-CoV-2 sero-conversion in the first six months. During 11925 household visits in 1561 households, covering 6049 participants (median 21 years, 54.8% female, 7.3% disclosed HIV positive), 1895.9 person-years were followed up. Per 1000 person-years, 364.5 (95%CI 352.8-376.1) respiratory illness episodes of which 72.2 (95%CI 60.6-83.9) COVID-19 confirmed, were reported. Of 1412 participants, 2185 blood samples were tested (median 30.6 years, 55.2% female). Sero-prevalence rose from 4.8% (95%CI 1.1-8.6%) in December 2020 to 34.7% (95%CI 20.2-49.3%) in June 2021, when 3.0% were vaccinated. Increasing age (strong gradient in hazard ratio, HR, up to 15.70 in [≥]70 year olds, 95%CI 3.74-65.97), leukaemia, chronic lung disease, hypertension, and overweight increased risk of COVID-19. We found no increased risk of COVID-19 in people with HIV or tuberculosis. Risk of COVID-19 was lower among residents in the lowest socio-economic quintile (HR 0.16, 95%CI 0.04-0.64), with no or limited handwashing facilities, and who shared bedrooms (HR 0.42, 95%CI 0.25-0.72). Older age also increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion (HR 1.57 in 60-69 year olds, 95%CI 1.03-2.39). We found no associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and socio-economic, behavioural factors and comorbidities. Active surveillance in an urban population cohort confirmed frequent COVID-19 underreporting, yet indicated that the large majority of cases were mild and non-febrile. In contrast to industrialised countries, deprivation did not increase the risk of infection nor disease.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tuberculosis , Leukemia , Ageusia , Olfaction Disorders
5.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3722818.v1

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 survivors may develop long-term symptoms of fatigue, dyspnea, mental health issues, and functional limitations: a condition termed post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a recommended treatment for PASC; however, there is a lack of data regarding PR’s effect on multiple health indices and the factors that influence patient outcomes.Methods We extracted patient demographic, comorbidity, and outcome data from Allegheny Health Network’s electronic medical records. Functionality test results were compared before and after PR, including 6-minute walk test (6MWT), chair rise repetitions (CR reps), timed up and go test (TUG), gait speed (Rehab gait), modified medical research council scale (MMRC), shortness of breath questionnaire (SOBQ), hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) scores. Multiple regression analysis was done to evaluate the effect of comorbidities and patient factors on patient responses to PR.Results The 55 patients included in this study had a mean time of 3.8 months between the initial COVID-19 diagnosis and the subsequent PASC diagnosis. Post-PR, patients signficantly improved in 6MWT, CR reps, TUG, Rehab gait, MMRC, SOBQ, HADS, and CAT scores. However, hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, being an outpatient, and receiving pharmacologic treatments (decadron, decadron + remdesivir, and decadron + remdesivir + tocilizumab) were associated with a poor response to PR.Conclusion Our study supports PR as an integrated model of care for PASC patients to improve several physical and mental health indices. The long-term effects of PR on patients’ functional status should be investigated in the future.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Depressive Disorder , Hypertension , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Anxiety Disorders , Fatigue , Dyspnea
6.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.09.29.23296352

ABSTRACT

Recent MMWR results estimate long COVID prevalence at 6.0% in June 2023, while the percentage of those with COVID reporting long COVID was 11.0%. The 2022 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System addressed COVID (positive test) and long COVID (symptoms lasting [≥]3 months) in a population-based sample from each state and DC. Results for 385,617 adults indicated 34.4% had ever had COVID, 21.9% of whom reported long COVID, representing 7.4% of all adults. State rates ranged from 25.4% - 40.8% for COVID and 4.1%-11.1% for long COVID. Groups with high rates for both included women, younger adults, those with children in the household, plus those reporting obesity, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Highest adjusted odds ratios for COVID were 2.34 (95% CI 2.20-2.49) for age 18-24 years vs. age 65+ while for long COVID it was 2.81 (2.53-3.13) for 3+ of the 5 conditions. Most frequently reported problems for those with long COVID were fatigue (26.0%), shortness of breath (18.8%), loss of taste or smell (17.2%), and memory problems (9.9%). Results show the need for state-based data and suggest a focus on younger adults is needed to address COVID and long COVID.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Obesity , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Fatigue , Asthma , Dyspnea , Taste Disorders
7.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.23.23294470

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic, socio-economic, health, and lifestyle variables on the development of PTSD symptoms in COVID survivors. The study used a cross-sectional design, and data were collected via a standard set of questionnaires from 228 COVID survivors, who required oxygen support and were admitted to Damak COVID hospital from April to October 2021. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used to summarize the data and inferential statistics such as chi-square test, Fishers exact test, and Binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data and to infer the overall result from the taken sample. The study found that only three variables, i.e., gender, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), were significant factors that posed a higher threat of PTSD in COVID survivors. Additionally, the study uses model adequacy tests such as Pseudo R2 test, Reliability test and Hosmer and Lemeshow test to validate the model fitted. The study found that only three variables had significant impact PTSD symptoms in COVID survivors. Male patients were more likely to have PTSD symptoms than female patients. The presence of diabetes before or after the infection increased the risk of PTSD. The patients with high blood pressure before COVID and those who developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) after COVID were more likely to experience PTSD symptoms. The study provides valuable information on the risk factors for developing PTSD symptoms in COVID survivors. This study can contribute to the understanding and growing body of research on the psychological impact of COVID and help healthcare professionals identify patients who are at risk of developing PTSD and provide them with appropriate interventions to prevent or treat PTSD.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Diabetes Mellitus , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Stress Disorders, Traumatic
8.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.03.23293619

ABSTRACT

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic led to widespread changes to health and social institutions. The effects of the pandemic on neonatal and infant health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are poorly understood, and nationally representative data characterizing changes to health care and outcomes is only now emerging. Methods: We used nationally representative survey data with vital status and perinatal care information on 2,959,203 children born in India, Madagascar, Cambodia, Nepal, and the Philippines. Using interrupted time series models, we estimated the change in neonatal mortality (death in first 30 days of life) and infant mortality (death in first year of life) following the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, controlling for granular location fixed-effects and seasonality. Findings: We analyzed 2,935,052 births (146,820 deaths) before March 2020 and 24,151 births (799 deaths) after March 2020. We estimated that infant mortality increased by 9.9 deaths per 1,000 live births after March 2020 (95% CI 5.0, 15.0; p<0.01; 22% increase) and neonatal mortality increased by 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 2.4, 11.1; p<0.01; 27% increase). We observe increased mortality in all study countries. We also estimated a 3.8 percentage point reduction in antenatal care use (95% CI -4.9, -2.7; p<0.01) and a 5.6 percentage point reduction in facility deliveries (95% CI -7.2, -4.0; p<0.01) during the pandemic. Interpretation: Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, neonatal and infant mortality are higher than expected in five LMICs. Helping LMICs resume pre-pandemic declines in neonatal and infant mortality should be a major global priority. Funding: National Institute of Child Health and Development (R01HD104835 PI Wagner)


Subject(s)
Death , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19
10.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3145554.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical effectiveness of Azvudine against coronavirus infection and optimal time for initiation of Azvudine treatment to hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not fully understood. Methods: This is a multi-center retrospective cohort study, and five clinical centers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital participated. From omicron pandemics, 6218 hospitalized patients confirmed with COVID-19 from December 10, 2022, to February 20, 2023, were retrieved for this study. After exclusions and propensity score matching , 428 Azvudine recipients and 428 controls were included with a follow-up of 28 days. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during 28 days of hospitalization, and the secondary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinical improvement up to day 28. Results: The Azvudine group had a lower crude all-cause death rate when compared to the control group (2.82 per 1000 person-days vs. 4.52 per 1000 person-days; HR: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-1.00; P=0.038). Notably, the incidence rate of clinical improvement outcome was significantly higher in patients who received Azvudine within 5 days from the onset of symptoms, compared to the control group (Median days: 9 vs. 10; P=0.007). Subgroup analyses showed that chronic lung disease and corticosteroid treatment acted as protective factors (P=0.010; P=0.050). Conclusions: Clinical effectiveness of Azvudine in improving all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients was seen, and initiation of Azvudine treatment within 5 days of the onset of symptoms was found to be significant. Additionally, the findings revealed the protective effect of Azvudine in COVID-19 patients with chronic lung disease.


Subject(s)
Death , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Coronavirus Infections
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 99, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigated the dynamic ventilatory responses and their influence on functional exercise capacity in patients with long-COVID-19 syndrome (LCS). RESULTS: Sixteen LCS patients were subjected to resting lung function (spirometry and respiratory oscillometry-RO) and cardiopulmonary performance to exercise (Spiropalm®-equipped six-minute walk test-6MWT and cardiopulmonary exercise test-CPX). At rest, spirometry showed a normal, restrictive and obstructive pattern in 87.5%, 6.25% and 6.25% of participants, respectively. At rest, RO showed increased resonance frequency, increased integrated low-frequency reactance and increased difference between resistance at 4-20 Hz (R4-R20) in 43.7%, 50%, and 31.2% of participants, respectively. The median of six-minute walking distance (DTC6) was 434 (386-478) m, which corresponds to a value of 83% (78-97%) of predicted. Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) and reduced breathing reserve (BR) were detected in 62.5% and 12.5% of participants, respectively. At CPX, the median peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was 19 (14-37) ml/kg/min. There was a significant correlation of 6MWD with both R4-R20 (rs=-0.499, P = 0.039) and VO2peak (rs=0.628, P = 0.009). Our results indicate that DH and low BR are contributors to poor exercise performance, which is associated with peripheral airway disease. These are promising results considering that they were achieved with simple, portable ventilatory and metabolic systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Walk Test , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Lung , Walking/physiology , Exercise Test/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286870, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorrect use of inhalers is a problem associated with poor patient outcomes. Despite improvement in the technique after verbal educations, this deteriorates over-time requiring re-enforcement through different educative strategies. This study aimed to assess the impact of a novel video-based teach-to-goal (TTG) educational intervention on: mastery of inhaler technique, disease control, medication adherence and disease-related quality of life (QoL) over-time among asthma and COPD patients. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT05664347. After baseline assessment participants received either a verbal (control group) or a video-based (intervention group) TTG strategy. After 3-month the intervention was assessed for impact on the intended outcomes. Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists, disease control using the Asthma control test and COPD assessment test respectively for asthma and COPD patients while adherence using the Morisky Green Levine scale. For QoL, the mini asthma quality of life questionnaire and the St. George respiratory questionnaire were used for asthmatic and COPD patients, respectively. Differences in outcomes between intervention-control groups were analyzed using either Chi-Square (X2)/Fisher Exact or Mann Whitney test. The impact of intervention on outcomes over-time was examined using either McNemar or Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: At baseline, intervention (n = 51) and control (n = 52) groups had comparable demographic/clinical characteristics. At follow-up, inhaler technique improved among intervention group compared to control group (93.4% vs 67%) and to baseline (93.4% to 49.5%), (P<0.05). Similarly, medication adherence ameliorated among the intervention group in comparison to control group (88.2% to 61.5%) and to baseline (88.2% to 66.7%), (P<0.05). In regards to disease control, results showed an amelioration among the intervention group compared to baseline (35.3% to 54.9%) (P<0.05). QoL scores improved significantly among asthma patients (intervention group) at follow-up vs baseline. Better scores were also observed for COPD patients compared to controls, (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Video-based (TTG) was effective in enhancing inhaler technique over time as well as improving disease control, medication adherence, and QoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05664347. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05664347.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Goals , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 15(699): eabo7728, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239741

ABSTRACT

Unlike solid organs, human airway epithelia derive their oxygen from inspired air rather than the vasculature. Many pulmonary diseases are associated with intraluminal airway obstruction caused by aspirated foreign bodies, virus infection, tumors, or mucus plugs intrinsic to airway disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Consistent with requirements for luminal O2, airway epithelia surrounding mucus plugs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lungs are hypoxic. Despite these observations, the effects of chronic hypoxia (CH) on airway epithelial host defense functions relevant to pulmonary disease have not been investigated. Molecular characterization of resected human lungs from individuals with a spectrum of muco-obstructive lung diseases (MOLDs) or COVID-19 identified molecular features of chronic hypoxia, including increased EGLN3 expression, in epithelia lining mucus-obstructed airways. In vitro experiments using cultured chronically hypoxic airway epithelia revealed conversion to a glycolytic metabolic state with maintenance of cellular architecture. Chronically hypoxic airway epithelia unexpectedly exhibited increased MUC5B mucin production and increased transepithelial Na+ and fluid absorption mediated by HIF1α/HIF2α-dependent up-regulation of ß and γENaC (epithelial Na+ channel) subunit expression. The combination of increased Na+ absorption and MUC5B production generated hyperconcentrated mucus predicted to perpetuate obstruction. Single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing analyses of chronically hypoxic cultured airway epithelia revealed transcriptional changes involved in airway wall remodeling, destruction, and angiogenesis. These results were confirmed by RNA-in situ hybridization studies of lungs from individuals with MOLD. Our data suggest that chronic airway epithelial hypoxia may be central to the pathogenesis of persistent mucus accumulation in MOLDs and associated airway wall damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism
16.
Acta Pharm ; 73(2): 257-268, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234969

ABSTRACT

This retrospective observational study is aimed to determine the efficacy of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccines against symptomatic or severe disease in COVID-19-diagnosed patients. The secondary aim was to define the differences between vaccinated and un-vaccinated patients in terms of age, comorbidities and course of the disease, and to determine the survival rates. Of the 1463 PCR-positive patients, 55.3 % were vaccinated, and 44.7 % were unvaccinated. While 959 patients had mild-moderate symptoms, 504 patients had severe-critical symptoms and were treated in the intensive care unit. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of the type and doses of vaccines between the patient groups (p = 0.021). The rate of receiving 2 doses of Biontech was 18.9 % in the mild-moderate patient group but lower in the severe patient group (12.6 %). The rate of two doses of Sinovac and two doses of Biontech vaccine (four doses of vaccine) was 5 % in the mild-moderate patient group and 1.9 % in the severe patient group. The mortality rates were statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) between the patient groups: 65.3 % in the severe patient group and 1 % in the mild-moderate patient group. The multivariate model showed that the mortality risk of the unvaccinated patients was 1.5 times higher than the vaccinated ones (p = 0.042). In addition to being unvaccinated, advanced age, coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and obesity were found to be associated with higher mortality risk. Besides, the reduction in mortality rate was more evident in individuals vaccinated with at least 2 doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine than in CoronaVac group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines
17.
Ter Arkh ; 95(3): 243-247, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a high level of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant social and economic damage to the health system and society. COPD and COVID-19 have many potentially negative relationships that can lead to worse outcomes of COVID-19, including impaired lung function, old age and the presence of concomitant diseases Aim. To assess efficacy and safety of the drug Tixagevimab + Cilgavimab for the pre-contact prevention of COVID-19 infection in patients with COPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 324 male patients were included in the study, who were treated or monitored at the Regional Clinic Hospital №3 and the Regional Pulmonological Center of Chelyabinsk in April-May 2022. The main endpoints of observation, for 3 and 6 months, to assess the effectiveness were the dynamics of shortness of breath according to The Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale - mMRC, the The forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the number of exacerbations, emergency calls, hospitalizations, polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2. Local and general reactions after immunization were evaluated. The drug Evusheld (150 mg Tixsagevimab +150 mg Cilgavimab, AstraZeneca) was used for immunization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of pre-contact prevention of COVID-19 was 88.8%. The administration of the drug does not provoke an exacerbation of the underlying disease. The main clinical and functional indicators have positive dynamics by the 6th month of follow-up. The drug is well tolerated and has no significant both early and late complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Immunization , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(10): 2606-2612, 2023 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244902

ABSTRACT

Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic herbal formula. All of them are derived from Treatise on Cold Damage(Shang Han Lun) by ZHANG Zhong-jing. This combination has the effects of harmonizing lesser yang, relieving exterior syndrome, clearing lung heat, and relieving panting. It is mainly used for treating the disease involving the triple-Yang combination of diseases and accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classic combination for the treatment of exogenous diseases involving the triple-Yang combination. They are commonly used in exogenous diseases, especially in the north of China. This combination is also the main treatment strategy for coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) accompanied by fever and cough. Maxing Shigan Decoction is a classical herbal formula for treating the syndrome of phlegm-heat obstructing the lung. "Dyspnea after sweating" suggests the accumulation of pathogenic heat in the lung. Patients with mild symptoms may develop cough and asthma along with forehead sweating, and those in critical severe may develop whole-body sweating, especially the front chest. Modern medicine believes that the above situation is related to lung infection. "Mild fever" refers to syndromes rather than pathogenesis. It does not mean that the heat syndrome is not heavy, instead, it suggests that severe heat and inflammation have occurred. The indications of Xiao Chaihu Decoction combined with Maxing Shigan Decoction are as follows.(1) In terms of diseases, it is suitable for the treatment of viral pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, COVID-19 infection, measles with pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS), avian influenza, H1N1 influenza, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation, pertussis, and other influenza and pneumonia.(2) In terms of syndromes, it can be used for the syndromes of bitter mouth, dry pharynx, vertigo, loss of appetite, vexation, vomiting, and fullness and discomfort in the chest and hypochondrium. It can also be used to treat alternate attacks of chill and fever and different degrees of fever, as well as chest tightness, cough, asthma, expectoration, dry mouth, wanting cold drinks, feeling agitated, sweating, yellow urine, dry stool, red tongue, yellow or white fur, and floating, smooth, and powerful pulse, especially the right wrist pulse.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Animals , Humans , Cough , Syndrome , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Critical Care , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Ter Arkh ; 95(3): 217-222, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242903

ABSTRACT

AIM: To establish symptoms, lung function and to evaluate subsequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during a year after virus-induced COPD exacerbations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized with viral (n=60), bacterial (n=60) and viral-bacterial (n=60) COPD exacerbations were enrolled to single-center prospective observational study. COPD was diagnosed according spirography criteria. Viral infection was established in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for RNA of influenza A and B virus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms, lung function, COPD exacerbations were assessed. Patients were investigated at the hospitalization onset and then 4 and 52 weeks following the discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: After 52 weeks in viral and viral-bacterial COPD exacerbations groups the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) decline were maximal - 71 (68; 73) ml/year and 69 (67; 72) ml/year versus 59 (55; 62) ml/year after bacterial exacerbations. Low levels of diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco/Va) - 52.5% (45.1%; 55.8%), 50.2% (44.9%; 56.0%) and 75.3% (72.2%; 80.1%) respectively, of 6-minute walk distance; p<0.001 in relation to bacterial exacerbations. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses viral and viral-bacterial exacerbations were associated with increased risk of subsequent COPD exacerbations by 2.4 times independent of exacerbations rate before index event and FEV1. In linear regression models the relationships between airflow limitation and respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus and influenza virus infection, between low DLco/Va and rhinovirus, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: COPD after virus-induced exacerbations were characterized by progression of airflow limitation, low DLco/Va, low 6-minute walking test distance, subsequent COPD exacerbations risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Lung , Disease Progression
20.
preprints.org; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202306.1417.v1

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, the infection primarily affected patients with following chronic conditions: cardiovascular disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity and cancer. The aim of this study was to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with COVID-19 outcomes in patients at the primary health care centre from March 2020 to September 2022. Materials and Methods: The study included 40,692 citizens of Banja Luka County, Bosnia and Herzegovina, who were confirmed and registered as RT-PCR positive on COVID-19. Differences regarding the distributions of patients between groups were analysed using Pearson chi square test and Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends, while differences in mean values were compared using independent samples t test. Relationship between mortality and independent variables were examined using logistic regression. Results: Out of 40,692 COVID-19 positive patients, 7.76% were hospitalized. The average age of hospitalized patients was significantly higher than the age of non-hospitalized patients (64.2±16.1 vs. 45.4±18.7; p<0.001). The average age of patients with lethal outcome was nearly twice higher compared to patients with non-lethal outcome (74.6±11.5 vs. 45.7±18.6; p<0.001). Male patients had higher hospitalization and mortality rate, compared to females (9.8% vs. 5.9%, p<0.001; 4.8% vs. 3%, p<0.001, respectively). The highest hospitalization rate was in patients with chronic renal failure, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, while the death rate was the highest among patients with CRF and hearth comorbidities. Fever, cough, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, chest pain, shortness of breath and appetite loss favoured hospitalization. Patients with fatigue and appetite loss had higher percentage of lethal outcome. Vaccinated patients had significantly lower rate of lethal outcome. Conclusions: Clinical symptoms, signs and outcomes, are posing as predictive parameters for further management of COVID-19. Vaccination has an important role in clinical outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Fever , Chest Pain , Neoplasms , Dyspnea , Obesity , Vomiting , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cough , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Fatigue , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Hypertension , Nausea
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