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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e28318, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become one of the most critical public health problems worldwide. Because many COPD patients are using video-based social media to search for health information, there is an urgent need to assess the information quality of COPD videos on social media. Recently, the short-video app TikTok has demonstrated huge potential in disseminating health information and there are currently many COPD videos available on TikTok; however, the information quality of these videos remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the information quality of COPD videos on TikTok. METHODS: In December 2020, we retrieved and screened 300 videos from TikTok and collected a sample of 199 COPD-related videos in Chinese for data extraction. We extracted the basic video information, coded the content, and identified the video sources. Two independent raters assessed the information quality of each video using the DISCERN instrument. RESULTS: COPD videos on TikTok came mainly from two types of sources: individual users (n=168) and organizational users (n=31). The individual users included health professionals, individual science communicators, and general TikTok users, whereas the organizational users consisted of for-profit organizations, nonprofit organizations, and news agencies. For the 199 videos, the mean scores of the DISCERN items ranged from 3.42 to 4.46, with a total mean score of 3.75. Publication reliability (P=.04) and overall quality (P=.02) showed significant differences across the six types of sources, whereas the quality of treatment choices showed only a marginally significant difference (P=.053) across the different sources. CONCLUSIONS: The overall information quality of COPD videos on TikTok is satisfactory, although the quality varies across different sources and according to specific quality dimensions. Patients should be selective and cautious when watching COPD videos on TikTok.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Social Media , Humans , Information Dissemination , Public Health , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Video Recording
2.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581602

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1415-1425, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings of hospitalized asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with COVID-19 and demonstrate that they have different symptoms and/or laboratory results and outcomes than COVID-19 patients with comorbidity (CoV-com) and without comorbidity (CoV-alone). METHODOLOGY: The data of the demographic, clinical, laboratory findings of hospitalized CoV-alone, asthma, COPD patients with COVID-19 (CoV-asthma, CoV-COPD, respectively), and CoV-com were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 1082 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 585 (54.1%) had CoV-alone, 40 (3.7%) had CoV-asthma, 46 (4.3%) had CoV-COPD and 411 (38%) had CoV-com. Cough, shortness of breath, fever and weakness were the most common four symptoms seen in all COVID-19 patients. Shortness of breath, myalgia, headache symptoms were more common in CoV-asthma than the other groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05 respectively). Sputum was more common in CoV-COPD than other groups (p < 0.01). COPD group most frequently had increased values, different from the other groups with CRP>5ng/mL in 91.3%, D-dimer > 0.05mg/dL in 89.1%, troponin > 0.014micg/L in %63.9, INR>1.15 in 52.2%, CK-MB>25U/L in 48.5%, PT>14s in 40.9% of patients (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). NT-ProBNP was found to have the highest AUC value and the best differentiating parameter for CoV-asthma from CoV-alone. Typical CT findings were present in 44.4% of CoV-alone, 57.5% of CoV-asthma, 28.3% of CoV-COPD and 38.9% of CoV-com groups. CoV-COPD and CoV-com patients died more frequently than other groups (17.8%, 18.5%). CONCLUSIONS: CoV-asthma and CoV-COPD patients might have different symptoms and laboratory parameters than other COVID-19 patients which can guide the physicians.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Asthma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Turkey/epidemiology
7.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 43-49, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517485

ABSTRACT

The many socioeconomic disparities in the myriad of diagnoses that make up benign lung diseases are unfortunately a global issue that was most recently highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the socioeconomic disparities in benign lung disease from both a United States perspective as well as a global perspective. We will cover the spectrum of infectious, obstructive, and restrictive lung disease and review the evidence on how social disparities affect these populations and their access to medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512568

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological trends over the past decade show a significant worldwide increase in the burden of chronic diseases. At the same time, the human resources of health care are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. One of the management concepts that can help in solving this problem is business process management (BPM). The results of research conducted in the healthcare sector thus far prove that BPM is an effective tool for optimizing clinical processes, as it allows for the ongoing automatic tracking of key health parameters of an individual patient without the need to involve medical personnel. The aim of this article is to present and evaluate the redesign of diagnostic and therapeutic processes enabling the patient-centric organization of therapy thanks to the use of new telemedicine techniques and elements of hyperautomation. By using an illustrative case study of one of the most common chronic diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), we discuss the use of clinical pathways (CPs) prepared on the basis of the current version of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a communication tool between healthcare professionals, the patient and his or her caregivers, as well as the method of identifying and verifying new knowledge generated on an ongoing basis in diagnostic and therapeutic processes. We also show how conducting comprehensive, patient-focused primary health care relieves the health care system, and at the same time, thanks to the use of patient engagement and elements of artificial intelligence (predictive analyses), reduces the significant clinical risk of therapy.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
10.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2983-2996, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511885

ABSTRACT

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary condition characterized by low serum Alpha 1 Antitrypsin (AAT) levels and a predisposition towards early-onset emphysema. Infusion of AAT is the only disease-modifying therapy that can sufficiently raise plasma AAT levels above the putative protective threshold and reduce the decline in lung density loss. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registry studies support the clinical efficacy of AAT therapy in slowing the progression of AATD-related emphysema and improving survival outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted physicians to develop additional strategies for delivering AAT therapy, which are not only more convenient for the patient, but are "COVID-19 friendly", thereby reducing the risk of exposing these vulnerable patients. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of AAT therapy is likely to be beneficial in certain subgroups of patients with AATD and can remove the need for weekly hospital visits, thereby improving independence and well-being. Increasing the awareness of self-administration in AATD through the development of formal guidelines and training programs is required among both physicians and patients and will play an essential role, especially post-COVID-19, in encouraging physicians to consider self-administration for AATD in suitable patients. This review summarizes the benefits of AAT therapy on the clinical endpoints of mortality and quality of life (QoL) and discusses the benefits of self-administration therapy compared with conventional therapy administered by a healthcare professional. In addition, this review highlights the challenges of providing AAT therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential considerations for its implementation thereafter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha 1-Antitrypsin , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients vary greatly with age and underlying comorbidities. We aimed to determine the demographic and clinical factors, particularly baseline chronic conditions, associated with an increased risk of severity in COVID-19 patients from a population-based perspective and using data from electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: Retrospective, observational study in an open cohort analyzing all 68,913 individuals (mean age 44.4 years, 53.2% women) with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 15 June and 19 December 2020 using exhaustive electronic health registries. Patients were followed for 30 days from inclusion or until the date of death within that period. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between each chronic disease and severe infection, based on hospitalization and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: 5885 (8.5%) individuals showed severe infection and old age was the most influencing factor. Congestive heart failure (odds ratio -OR- men: 1.28, OR women: 1.39), diabetes (1.37, 1.24), chronic renal failure (1.31, 1.22) and obesity (1.21, 1.26) increased the likelihood of severe infection in both sexes. Chronic skin ulcers (1.32), acute cerebrovascular disease (1.34), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.21), urinary incontinence (1.17) and neoplasms (1.26) in men, and infertility (1.87), obstructive sleep apnea (1.43), hepatic steatosis (1.43), rheumatoid arthritis (1.39) and menstrual disorders (1.18) in women were also associated with more severe outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Age and specific cardiovascular and metabolic diseases increased the risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in men and women, whereas the effects of certain comorbidities are sex specific. Future studies in different settings are encouraged to analyze which profiles of chronic patients are at higher risk of poor prognosis and should therefore be the targets of prevention and shielding strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4712406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506246

ABSTRACT

Periodontal diseases are a range of polymicrobial infectious disorders, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, which affect tooth-supporting tissues and are linked to playing a role in the exacerbation of several pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary diseases, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, tuberculosis, COVID-19, and bronchiectasis, significantly contribute to poor quality of life and mortality. The association between periodontal disease and pulmonary outcomes is an important topic and requires further attention. Numerous resident microorganisms coexist in the oral cavity and lungs. However, changes in the normal microflora due to oral disease, old age, lifestyle habits, or dental intervention may contribute to altered aspiration of oral periodontopathic bacteria into the lungs and changing inflammatory responses. Equally, periodontal diseases are associated with the longitudinal decline in spirometry lung volume. Several studies suggest a possible beneficial effect of periodontal therapy in improving lung function with a decreased frequency of exacerbations and reduced risk of adverse respiratory events and morbidity. Here, we review the current literature outlining the link between the oral cavity and pulmonary outcomes and focus on the microflora of the oral cavity, environmental and genetic factors, and preexisting conditions that can impact oral and pulmonary outcomes.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Mouth/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Causality , Environment , Humans
13.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L978-L982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506058

ABSTRACT

Early in the COVID pandemic there were concerns about the outcomes for patients with COPD who developed COVID-19. Although the pandemic has made the diagnosis and routine management of COPD more difficult, the risk of patients developing COVID or of having poor outcomes is less than anticipated and there have been some unexpected findings that may lead to significant improvements in the management of COPD in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504421

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
16.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470800

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary epithelial cells are widely considered to be the first line of defence in the lung and are responsible for coordinating the innate immune response to injury and subsequent repair. Consequently, epithelial cells communicate with multiple cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts to promote acute inflammation and normal wound healing in response to damage. However, aberrant epithelial cell death and damage are hallmarks of pulmonary disease, with necrotic cell death and cellular senescence contributing to disease pathogenesis in numerous respiratory diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and coronavirus disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we summarise the literature that demonstrates that epithelial damage plays a pivotal role in the dysregulation of the immune response leading to tissue destruction and abnormal remodelling in several chronic diseases. Specifically, we highlight the role of epithelial-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and senescence in shaping the immune response and assess their contribution to inflammatory and fibrotic signalling pathways in the lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epithelium/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Lung/immunology , Alarmins , Animals , Cellular Senescence , Coculture Techniques , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Immunity , Inflammation/metabolism , Ligands , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
17.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211049738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive lung diseases may be at risk of hospitalization and/or death due to COVID-19. AIM: To estimate the frequency of severe COVID-19, and COVID-19-related mortality in a well-defined large population of patients with asthma and chronic inflammatory lung disease (COPD). Further to assess the frequency of asthma and COPD as registered comorbidities at discharge from hospital, and in death certificates. METHODS: At the start of the pandemic, the Swedish National Airway Register (SNAR) included 271,404 patients with a physician diagnosis of asthma and/or COPD. In September 2020, after the first COVID-19 wave in Sweden, the database was linked with the National Patient Register (NPR), the Swedish Intensive Care Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register, which all provide data about COVID-19 based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes. Severe COVID-19 was defined as hospitalization and/or intensive care or death due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among patients in SNAR, 0.5% with asthma, and 1.2% with COPD were identified with severe COVID-19. Among patients < 18 years with asthma, only 0.02% were severely infected. Of hospitalized adults, 14% with asthma and 29% with COPD died. Further, of patients in SNAR, 56% with asthma and 81% with COPD were also registered in the NPR, while on death certificates the agreement was lower (asthma 24% and COPD 71%). CONCLUSION: The frequency of severe COVID-19 in asthma and COPD was relative low. Mortality for those hospitalized was double as high in COPD compared to asthma. Comorbid asthma and COPD were not always identified among patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050362, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are common and disabling conditions that can result in social isolation and economic hardship for patients and their families. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but practical barriers to attending centre-based sessions or the need for infection control limits accessibility. Home-PR offers a potential solution that may improve access. We aim to systematically review the clinical effectiveness, completion rates and components of Home-PR for people with CRDs compared with Centre-PR or Usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, PeDRO and PsycInfo from January 1990 to date using a PICOS search strategy (Population: adults with CRDs; Intervention: Home-PR; Comparator: Centre-PR/Usual care; Outcomes: functional exercise capacity and HRQoL; Setting: any setting). The strategy is to search for 'Chronic Respiratory Disease' AND 'Pulmonary Rehabilitation' AND 'Home-PR', and identify relevant randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials. Six reviewers working in pairs will independently screen articles for eligibility and extract data from those fulfilling the inclusion criteria. We will use the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to rate the quality of evidence. We will perform meta-analysis or narrative synthesis as appropriate to answer our three research questions: (1) what is the effectiveness of Home-PR compared with Centre-PR or Usual care? (2) what components are used in effective Home-PR studies? and (3) what is the completion rate of Home-PR compared with Centre-PR? ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethics approval is not required since the study will review only published data. The findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation in conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020220137.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration Disorders , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2687-2695, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456164

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected millions of patients, caregivers, and clinicians around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads via droplets and close contact from person to person, and there has been an increased concern regarding aerosol drug delivery due to the potential aerosolizing of viral particles. To date, little focus has been given to aerosol drug delivery to patients with COVID-19 treated at home to minimize their hospital utilization. Since most hospitals were stressed with multiple admissions and experienced restricted healthcare resources in the era of COVID-19 pandemic, treating patients with COPD at home became essential to minimize their hospital utilization. However, guidance on how to deliver aerosolized medications safely and effectively to this patient population treated at home is still lacking. In this paper, we provide some strategies and rationales for device and interface selection, delivery technique, and infection control for patients with COPD who are being treated at home in the era of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L983-L987, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455765

ABSTRACT

World COPD Day raises awareness about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD accounts for over 150,000 US deaths per year. A major challenge is that COPD receives only a fraction of the research funding provided to other major diseases. Control of COPD is dependent on developing new approaches to diagnose the disease earlier with a recognition of either pre-COPD or established COPD based on symptoms, lung structural change and/or loss of lung function that occurs before meeting long established criteria for a population-based definition of obstruction. Optimization of current therapies improves lung function, exercise capacity, quality of life, and survival. New pathways of disease progression are being identified creating new opportunities for development of therapies that could stop or cure this disease.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Premature Birth , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Child , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life
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