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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 269, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost 100 countries, infected over 31 M patients and resulted in 961 K deaths worldwide as of 21st September 2020. The major clinical feature of severe COVID-19 requiring ventilation is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with multi-functional failure as a result of a cytokine storm with increased serum levels of cytokines. The pathogenesis of the respiratory failure in COVID-19 is yet unknown, but diffuse alveolar damage with interstitial thickening leading to compromised gas exchange is a plausible mechanism. Hypoxia is seen in the COVID-19 patients, however, patients present with a distinct phenotype. Intracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in the vasodilation of small vessels. To elucidate the intracellular levels of NO inside of RBCs in COVID-19 patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. METHODS: We recruited 14 COVID-19 infected cases who had pulmonary involvement of their disease, 4 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (without pulmonary involvement and were not hypoxic) and 2 hypoxic non-COVID-19 patients subjects who presented at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital of Tehran, Iran between March-May 2020. Whole blood samples were harvested from patients and intracellular NO levels in 1 × 106 red blood cells (RBC) was measured by DAF staining using flow cytometry (FACS Calibour, BD, CA, USA). RESULTS: The Mean florescent of intensity for NO was significantly enhanced in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy control subjects (P ≤ 0.05). As a further control for whether hypoxia induced this higher intracellular NO, we evaluated the levels of NO inside RBC of hypoxic patients. No significant differences in NO levels were seen between the hypoxic and non-hypoxic control group. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates increased levels of intracellular NO in RBCs from COVID-19 patients. Future multi-centre studies should examine whether this is seen in a larger number of COVID-19 patients and whether NO therapy may be of use in these severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Partial Pressure , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation , Young Adult
3.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(2): 277-284, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 14% of UK hospital in-patients receive supplemental oxygen therapy, only 57% have valid prescriptions. Oxygen must be optimally prescribed to ensure maximal therapeutic response whilst minimizing adverse outcomes (including fatality). This study investigates prescription compliance. METHODS: All adults admitted to medical wards (18 February to 3 March 2020) were included. Analyses present proportions, descriptive statistics, and hypothesis testing. Ethical approval was unnecessary for this audit. RESULTS: Of the 636 patients admitted, 66 (10%) were receiving oxygen therapy. Ages ranged from 34 to 100 years with 36 (54.5%) males and 30 (45.5%) females. The prescription was not documented in the oxygen section of the drug chart (n = 37, 56.1%, p = 0.389), nor did it have the physicians signature (n = 40, 60.6%, p = 0.110) nor date (n = 46, 69.7%, p = 0.002). Thirteen chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (19.7%) were at risk of hypercapnic failure (p = 1.582x10-6). Target oxygen saturation (SpO2) range had been documented for 30 (45.5%) patients. A target SpO2 range of 88-92% was documented for 9 patients (13.6%), a 94-98% range documented for 11 patients (16.7%). All patients had an invalid prescription. CONCLUSION: We present real-world practice in naturalistic settings, immediately before pandemic-lockdown. Enhanced compliance is advocated to reduce risks of harm and mortality.


Subject(s)
Clinical Audit , Documentation/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927212, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The rapid worldwide spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has placed patients with pre-existing conditions at risk of severe morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study enrolled 336 consecutive patients with confirmed severe COVID-19, including 28 diagnosed with COPD, from January 20, 2020, to April 1, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, and clinical results were measured and compared in survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS Patients with severe COVID-19 and COPD were older than those without COPD. The proportions of men, of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and of those requiring invasive ventilation were significantly higher in patients with than without COPD. Leukocyte and neutrophil counts, as well as the concentrations of NT-proBNP, hemoglobin, D-dimer, hsCRP, ferritin, IL-2R, TNF-alpha and procalcitonin were higher, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte counts were lower, in patients with than without COPD. Of the 28 patients with COPD, 22 (78.6%) died, a rate significantly higher than in patients without COPD (36.0%). A comparison of surviving and non-surviving patients with severe COVID-19 and COPD showed that those who died had a longer history of COPD, more fatigue, and a higher ICU occupancy rate, but a shorter average hospital stay, than those who survived. CONCLUSIONS COPD increases the risks of death and negative outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Age Distribution , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 791-796, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9151

ABSTRACT

The role of clinical laboratory data in the differential diagnosis of the severe forms of COVID-19 has not been definitely established. The aim of this study was to look for the warning index in severe COVID-19 patients. We investigated 43 adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were classified into mild group (28 patients) and severe group (15 patients). A comparison of the hematological parameters between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in interleukin-6 (IL-6), d-dimer (d-D), glucose, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (P < .05). The optimal threshold and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) of IL-6 were 24.3 and 0.795 µg/L, respectively, while those of d-D were 0.28 and 0.750 µg/L, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of IL-6 combined with d-D was 0.840. The specificity of predicting the severity of COVID-19 during IL-6 and d-D tandem testing was up to 93.3%, while the sensitivity of IL-6 and d-D by parallel test in the severe COVID-19 was 96.4%. IL-6 and d-D were closely related to the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in the adult patients, and their combined detection had the highest specificity and sensitivity for early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients, which has important clinical value.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombin Time
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