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1.
Ter Arkh ; 95(3): 217-222, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242903

ABSTRACT

AIM: To establish symptoms, lung function and to evaluate subsequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during a year after virus-induced COPD exacerbations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized with viral (n=60), bacterial (n=60) and viral-bacterial (n=60) COPD exacerbations were enrolled to single-center prospective observational study. COPD was diagnosed according spirography criteria. Viral infection was established in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or sputum by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for RNA of influenza A and B virus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms, lung function, COPD exacerbations were assessed. Patients were investigated at the hospitalization onset and then 4 and 52 weeks following the discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: After 52 weeks in viral and viral-bacterial COPD exacerbations groups the rate of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) decline were maximal - 71 (68; 73) ml/year and 69 (67; 72) ml/year versus 59 (55; 62) ml/year after bacterial exacerbations. Low levels of diffusion lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco/Va) - 52.5% (45.1%; 55.8%), 50.2% (44.9%; 56.0%) and 75.3% (72.2%; 80.1%) respectively, of 6-minute walk distance; p<0.001 in relation to bacterial exacerbations. In Cox proportional hazards regression analyses viral and viral-bacterial exacerbations were associated with increased risk of subsequent COPD exacerbations by 2.4 times independent of exacerbations rate before index event and FEV1. In linear regression models the relationships between airflow limitation and respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus and influenza virus infection, between low DLco/Va and rhinovirus, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: COPD after virus-induced exacerbations were characterized by progression of airflow limitation, low DLco/Va, low 6-minute walking test distance, subsequent COPD exacerbations risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Lung , Disease Progression
2.
J Med Life ; 16(3): 447-450, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential impact of this disease on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease are at increased risk of severe infection and hospital-acquired adverse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed data from 220 patients who previously contracted COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The average age of the patients was 54.6 ± 11.4 years, and arterial hypertension (AH) was the most common comorbidity, affecting 55% of patients. Obesity was observed in one-third of patients, while coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary heart failure (CHF) were reported in 17.7% and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were less common. Cardiovascular diseases, particularly AH, were the most frequent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies and improving clinical outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing comorbidities in COVID-19 patients to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
3.
Chron Respir Dis ; 20: 14799731231172518, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313784

ABSTRACT

Patients' perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their access to asthma and COPD healthcare could inform better, more equitable care delivery. We demonstrate this topic using British Columbia (BC), Canada, where the impact of the pandemic has not been described. We co-designed a cross-sectional survey with patient partners and administered it to a convenience sample of people living with asthma and COPD in BC between September 2020 and March 2021. We aimed to understand how access to healthcare for these conditions was affected during the pandemic. The survey asked respondents to report their characteristics, access to healthcare for asthma and COPD, types of services they found disrupted and telehealth (telephone or video appointment) use during the pandemic. We analysed 433 responses and found that access to healthcare for asthma and COPD was lower during the pandemic than pre-pandemic (p < 0.001). Specialty care services were most frequently reported as disrupted, while primary care, home care and diagnostics were least disrupted. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that access during the pandemic was positively associated with self-assessed financial ability (OR = 22.0, 95% CI: 7.0 - 84.0, p < 0.001, reference is disagreeing with having financial ability) and living in medium-sized urban areas (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 - 5.2, p = 0.04, reference is rural areas). These disparities in access should be validated post-pandemic to confirm whether they still persist. They also indicate the continued relevance of exploring approaches for more equitable healthcare.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , British Columbia/epidemiology , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/complications , Health Services Accessibility , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Orv Hetil ; 164(2): 51-56, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298209

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 has defined our everyday lives over the past three years and by constituting a serious risk factor for patients with pre-existing respiratory illnesses, it placed an unexpected burden on the health care systems worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between COVID-19 and pre-existing respiratory comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. METHOD: In our current study, we retrospectively processed the data of nearly 29 000 Hungarian patients. RESULTS: We found that COPD was directly associated with the severity of COVID-19 and slightly increased the risk of intensive care unit admission and the need for mechanical ventilation during the SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, the presence of asthma influenced neither the severity of COVID-19 nor the need for intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation significantly. DISCUSSION: International studies suggest that COPD does not significantly increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19 is much higher in COPD patients and the presence of COPD is associated with a more severe disease course. Given the structural alterations and abnormal regeneration processes of the airways that occur during lung injury in COPD patients, these individuals require increased attention and personalized rehabilitation protocols after the onset of the viral infection. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the assessment of clinical manifestations associated with different COPD phenotypes (as well as other chronic lung diseases) and SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential for the implementation of personalized therapeutic approach in the future. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(2): 51-56.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Asthma/epidemiology
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 107, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of leukocytes and systemic inflammation indicators in predicting the severity and mortality of inflammatory diseases has been well reported, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil/lymphocyte*platelet ratio (NLPR), derived neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), aggregate index of systemic inflammation (AISI), as well as systemic inflammation response index (SIRI) and systemic inflammation index (SII). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prognostic role of systemic inflammatory indicators in the mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 169 COPD patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the patients' electronic records. The ability of systemic inflammation indeces to distinguish the severity of COVID-19 was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and survival probability was determined by the mean of Kaplan-Meier curves, with the endpoint being death. RESULTS: ROC curves showed that the AUD level was significant for WBC, MLR, SIRI, and AISI. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that survival was lower with higher MLR (HR = 2.022, 95% CI = 1.030 to 3.968, P < 0.05) and AISI (HR = 2.010, 95% CI = 1.048 to 3.855, P < 0.05) values. However, the multivariate Cox regression model showed that only AISI was significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSION: AISI in COPD patients with COVID-19 was a reliable predictor of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Neutrophils , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Inflammation
6.
J Arthroplasty ; 38(6): 1010-1015.e2, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a surge of same-day discharge (SDD) for total joint arthroplasty. However, SDD may not be beneficial for all patients. Therefore, continued investigation into the safety of SDD is necessary as well as risk stratification for improved patient outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 31,851 elective SDD hip and knee arthroplasties from 2016 to 2020 in a large national database. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient variables and preoperative comorbidities that contribute to postoperative complication or readmission with SDD. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: SDD increased from 1.4% in 2016 to 14.6% in 2020. SDD is associated with lower odds of readmission (AOR: 0.994, CI: 0.992-0.996) and postoperative complications (AOR: 0.998, CI: 0.997-1.000). Patients who have preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.03, CI: 1.02-1.04, P < .001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .002), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.00-1.03, P < .001), had higher odds of postoperative complications. Patients who had preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03), hypertension (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .003), chronic corticosteroid use (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), bleeding disorder (AOR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.00-1.02, P = .038), had higher odds of readmission. CONCLUSION: SDD is safe with certain comorbidities. Preoperative screening for cardiopulmonary comorbidities (eg, dyspnea, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), chronic corticosteroid use, bleeding disorder, and hypoalbuminemia may improve SDD outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Hypoalbuminemia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Dyspnea/complications , Length of Stay , Hypertension/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(12): 1695-1703, 2022 Dec 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in elderly and patients with chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) had a poor prognosis. COPD is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. We explore the epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 with COPD patients in order to provide medical evidence for the prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical baseline characteristics, treatment strategies, disease progression and prognosis of 557 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 29, 2020 to April 8, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 465 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in the study, including 248 (53.3%) males and 217 (46.7%) females. The median age of severe COVID-19 patients was 62.0 years, and 53 patients were complicated with COPD. Common symptoms at the onset included fever (78.5%), dry cough (67.1%), shortness of breath (47.3%) and fatigue (40.9%). Compared with non-COPD patients, patients with COPD had significantly lower levels of SpO2 in admission (90.0% vs 92.0%, P=0.014). In terms of laboratory examinations, patients with COPD had higher levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity troponin I, and D-dimer, while had lower levels of platelet counts, albumin and apolipoprotein AI. Severe COVID-19 patients with COPD had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores [3.0(2.0, 3.0) vs 2.0(2.0, 3.0), P=0.038] and CURB-65 score [1.0(1.0, 2.0) vs1.0(0.0, 1.0), P<0.001], and a higher proportion of progressing to critical illness (28.3% vs 10.0%, P<0.001) with more complications [e.g. septic shock (15.1% vs 6.1%, P=0.034)], had higher incidence rates of antibiotic therapies (90.6% vs 77.2%, P=0.025), non-invasive (11.3% vs 1.7%, P<0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (17.0% vs 8.3%, P=0.039), ICU admission (17.0% vs 7.5%, P=0.021) and death (15.1% vs 6.1%, P=0.016). Cox proportion hazard model was carried out, and the results showed that comorbid COPD was an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 patients progressing to critical type, after adjusting for age and gender [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=2.38(1.30-4.37), P=0.005] and additionally adjusting for chronic kidney diseases, hypertension, coronary heart disease [AHR=2.63(1.45-4.77), P<0.001], or additionally adjusting for some statistically significant laboratory findings [AHR=2.10(1.13-3.89), P=0.018]. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 patients with COPD have higher levels of disease severity, proportion of progression to critical illness and mortality rate. Individualized treatment strategies should be adopted to improve the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
8.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 59, 2023 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the incidence of postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality in patients ≥ 70 years old with hip fracture following hip arthroplasty (HA) and independent risk factors associated with postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted, patients ≥ 70 years old with HA for hip fracture under general anesthesia were included during COVID-19 and before COVID-19 pandemic. The outcome was defined as postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. The baseline characteristics and risk factors were collected, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1096 patients were included during COVID-19 pandemic and 1149 were included before COVID-19 pandemic in the study. Patients ≥ 70 years with hip fracture for HA had longer fracture to operation duration (7.10 ± 3.52 vs. 5.31 ± 1.29, P < 0.001), and the incidence of postoperative medical complications (21.90% vs. 12.53%, P < 0.001) and 3-month mortality (5.20% vs. 3.22%, P = 0.025) was higher during COVID-2019 pandemic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dementia (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.37-5.44; P = 0.004), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.92-4.71; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.19-1.30; P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk for postoperative medical complications. COPD (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.05-4.17; P = 0.035), dementia (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.11-7.94; P = 0.031), postoperative medical complications (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.68-9.28; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19; P = 0.002) were associated with increased risk for 3-month mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that postoperative medical morbidity and 3-month mortality in patients with hip fracture underwent HA were 21.90% and 5.20%, respectively, during the COVID-19. COPD, dementia and longer fracture to operation duration were associated with negative outcome in patients with hip fracture underwent HA during the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Dementia , Hip Fractures , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Incidence , Dementia/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery
9.
Respir Care ; 68(3): 346-355, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause respiratory and multisystemic impairments, which lead to impaired activities of daily living (ADL). Telemonitoring after discharge from the hospital may help identify the persistence of such limitations during ADLs simulations. The aim of this study was to compare SpO2 , fatigue, and dyspnea through telemonitoring during a battery of 4 ADLs in patients following hospital discharge for COVID-19. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted by using teleconferencing for patients 30 d after hospital discharge for COVID-19. The subjects were assessed and performed a simulated ADL battery (ie, walking, bathing and dressing, floor sweeping, and folding towels). SpO2 , fatigue, and dyspnea were monitored immediately after the end of each ADL; also, the subjects were asked to show the pulse oximeter on camera and grade their symptoms by using the Borg scale score (0-10). RESULTS: Sixty-six subjects were evaluated, all of whom were normoxic at rest. No significant difference in SpO2 was found among the ADLs. A portion of the subjects experienced desaturation on at least 1 ADL, which allowed subject grouping into the desaturated group, with highest portion of subjects who desaturated found during the walking task (18%), and the non-desaturated group. The subjects who desaturated were found to have more cardiovascular diseases (P = .031) and diabetes mellitus (P = .005) compared with those who did not desaturate. Both groups experienced mild symptoms; however, a percentage of the subjects with desaturation presented moderate-to-intense symptoms, with higher fatigue scores during walking, bathing and dressing, and floor sweeping. Increased dyspnea was also found during walking and during bathing and dressing in the subjects with desaturation. CONCLUSIONS: SpO2 was similar among the ADLs but walking triggered desaturation in a larger number of subjects. The subjects presented with mild-to-intense fatigue and dyspnea during ADLs 30 d after discharge after hospitalization for COVID-19 regardless of desaturation status, which demonstrated that the persistence of symptoms is independent of hypoxemia during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Patient Discharge , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Oxygen , Fatigue
10.
Skinmed ; 20(6): 463-465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2169882

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old woman presented to the emergency to be department with diarrhea, asthenia, cough, and dysgeusia. The patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and was found infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On physical examination, a small basal cell carcinoma (BCC) lesion was identified on her scalp; however, following the administration of noninvasive ventilation, the appearance of both macroscopic and microscopic BCC worsened dramatically. Our findings point to positive pressure noninvasive ventilation used to treat COVID-19 associated with COPD as a possible causative agent for the progression of cutaneous BCC. (SKINmed. 2022;20:463-465).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Skin Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
11.
J Clin Periodontol ; 50(6): 842-887, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192725

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate (1) whether periodontitis has an influence on the prevalence/incidence of respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], asthma, community-acquired pneumonia [CAP], obstructive sleep apnoea [OSA] and COVID-19), and (2) what is the impact of periodontal therapy on the onset or progression of respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed on Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases up to October 2021, to identify studies answering the PECOS and PICOS questions. RESULTS: Seventy-five articles were selected. Meta-analyses identified statistically significant associations of periodontitis with COPD (nstudies  = 12, odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16; 1.42], p < .001), and OSA (ns  = 6, OR = 1.65, 95% CI [1.21; 2.25], p = .001), but not for asthma (ns  = 9, OR = 1.53, 95% CI [0.82; 2.86], p = .181). For acute conditions, two studies were found for CAP, while for COVID-19, significant associations were found for the need of assisted ventilation (ns  = 2, OR = 6.24, 95% CI [2.78; 13.99], p < .001) and COVID-related mortality (ns  = 3, OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.36, 3.77], p = .002). Only four intervention studies were found, showing positive effects of periodontal treatment on COPD, asthma and CAP. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between periodontitis and COPD, OSA and COVID-19 complications has been found, while there is a lack of intervention studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
12.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 285-291, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exhaustive information about non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are getting easier to find in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructed pulmonary disease (COPD), with numerous infections in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Priority is placed on determining the patient's prognosis based on the presence or absence of TB and COPD. Additionally, a comparison is made between the risk of death and the likelihood of recovery in terms of time in COVID-19 patients who have either COPD or TB. METHODOLOGY: At the DHQ Hospital in Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan, 498 COVID-19 patients with TB and COPD were studied retrospectively. The duration of study started in February 2022 and concluded in August 2022. The Kaplan-Meier curves described time-to-death and time-to-recovery stratified by TB and COPD status. The Wilcoxon test compared the survival rates of people with TB and COPD in two matched paired groups and their status differences with their standard of living. RESULTS: The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with TB was 1.476 times higher than in those without (95% CI: 0.949-2.295). The recovery risk in COVID-19 patients with TB was 0.677 times lower than in those without (95% CI: 0.436-1.054). Similarly, patients with TB had a significantly shorter time to death (p=.001) and longer time to recovery (p=.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings, the most significant contributor to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in TB and COPD patients was the COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESSARS-Cov-19 is a new challenge for the universe in terms of prevention and treatment for people with tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, among other diseases.Propensity score matching to control for potential biases.Compared to hospitalized patients with and without (TB and COPD) had an equivalently higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tuberculosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099518

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: An aging population, pollution and an increase in life habits that are harmful to respiratory health, and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic, have led to an increase in chronic respiratory diseases. Thus, this pilot study aims to describe an intervention program on the training of respiratory patients to maintain airway permeability and preventing complications. (2) Methods: An observational, analytical, and prospective study was proposed. After the initial evaluation of each user during hospitalization, the program started with two sessions, at discharge for the second phase, and fifteen days after discharge for the third phase. Throughout the program's implementation, the modified Medical Research Council scale and the Barthel Index were applied. (3) Results: The population studied aged between 39 and 76 years, diagnosed with pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, showed a significant improvement in the degrees of dyspnea and levels of functionality, as well as an adequate level of learning. (4) Conclusions: This program positively impacted the patients' independence by reducing dyspnea and increasing functionality of the patients included in this study. The set of exercises and techniques can be replicated at home and may be fundamental in the management of respective recovery, as well as in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Quality of Life
14.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 173, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098351

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been growing swiftly worldwide. Patients with background chronic pulmonary inflammations such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are likely to be infected with this virus. Of note, there is an argument that COVID-19 can remain with serious complications like fibrosis or other pathological changes in the pulmonary tissue of patients with chronic diseases. Along with conventional medications, regenerative medicine, and cell-based therapy could be alternative approaches to compensate for organ loss or restore injured sites using different stem cell types. Owing to unique differentiation capacity and paracrine activity, these cells can accelerate the healing procedure. In this review article, we have tried to scrutinize different reports related to the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 on patients with asthma and COPD, as well as the possible therapeutic effects of stem cells in the alleviation of post-COVID-19 complications. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy
15.
S Afr Med J ; 112(9): 760-764, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) typically experience multidimensional symptoms throughout the course of their disease, with burdensome physical symptoms, social isolation, and additional psychological suffering. COVID-19 lockdown resulted in restrictions on chronic care delivery at primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, and it is not known what the care experiences of patients with COPD were during this time. OBJECTIVES: To describe patient experiences of the impact of the lockdown on their needs and their experiences of the primary care received for their COPD. METHODS: The data reported in this paper are from a cohort of 49 patients with COPD receiving primary care, recruited in February and March 2020, before recruitment was paused for COVID-19 lockdown, for a feasibility stepped-wedge hybrid type II design randomised controlled trial of integrated person-centred palliative care in primary care for patients with COPD in Cape Town, South Africa. Data are open-text responses from participants who responded to a single question on a validated measure of primary care consultation empathy (CARE), and describe patient experiences of the impact of the lockdown on the primary care received for their COPD, prior to crossover to trial intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with COPD gave between 1 and 9 responses each to the open-ended question between March and December 2020. The average age of the participants was 58.6 years, and 53.1% (n=17) were female. Inductive analysis of the open-text data identified four main themes. Participants described decreased access to chronic care and a desire for more person-centred care in interactions with healthcare professionals. The socioeconomic ramifications of the COVID-19 lockdown added to the burden they experienced. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown PHC service restrictions caused a disruption to the continuity of care for patients with COPD, with associated worry, anxiety and disappointment. Medication access was largely supported by the home delivery of chronic medication. We suggest that there are opportunities for providing more sustained support for patients with COPD through referrals to community health workers, and also through telephonic patient follow-up by primary care teams.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062305, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a computer-based decision support tool (DST) for key decision makers to safely explore the impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care of service changes driven by restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. DESIGN: The DST is powered by discrete event simulation which captures the entire patient pathway. To estimate the number of COPD admissions under different scenario settings, a regression model was developed and embedded into the tool. The tool can generate a wide range of patient-related and service-related outputs. Thus, the likely impact of possible changes (eg, COVID-19 restrictions and pandemic scenarios) on patients with COPD and care can be estimated. SETTING: COPD services (including outpatient and inpatient departments) at a major provider in central London. RESULTS: Four different scenarios (reflecting the UK government's Plan A, Plan B and Plan C in addition to a benchmark scenario) were run for 1 year. 856, 616 and 484 face-to-face appointments (among 1226 clinic visits) are expected in Plans A, B and C, respectively. Clinic visit quality in Plan A is found to be marginally better than in Plans B and C. Under coronavirus restrictions, lung function tests decreased more than 80% in Plan C as compared with Plan A. Fewer COPD exacerbation-related admissions were seen (284.1 Plan C vs 395.1 in the benchmark) associated with stricter restrictions. Although the results indicate that fewer quality-adjusted life years (in terms of COPD management) would be lost during more severe restrictions, the wider impact on physical and mental health must also be established. CONCLUSIONS: This DST will enable COPD services to examine how the latest developments in care delivery and management might impact their service during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, and in the event of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(2): 522-523, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dear Editor, After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the whole world, rheumatologists began to think about how COVID-19 will progress in patients with inflammatory conditions. High cytokine levels play a role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine known to have a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic immune-mediated diseases. AntiTNF therapy may cause an increase in active tuberculosis, other granulomatous diseases, and serious infections [1]. According to many studies, rheumatological diseases have not been identified as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection [2]. Should significantly increased cytokine levels during COVID-19 infection make us consider anticytokine therapies that may be used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 a risk? We aimed to explore whether the frequency of COVID-19 infection increased, the effect of comorbidities on the frequency of infection, and whether the severity of the disease and need for intensive care support increased in patients who used anti-TNF agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study between March and December 2020 in Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital. Retrospectively, we evaluated whether there was a difference in the frequency and severity of COVID-19 in our patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 77 of whom were using anti-TNF and 49 of whom didn't use anti-TNF. Hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) requirements were evaluated as endpoints. In the anti-TNF group, patients used adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, infliximab, and golimumab. Patients were questioned at an outpatient clinic in person or by phone. Seventy-seven patients with AS using anti-TNF agents (58 males, 19 females) and 49 patients with AS (38 males, 11 females) not using anti-TNF agents were included in the study (p = 0.943). Mean age of patients using antiTNF agents was 41.53 ± 10.38, and mean age of patients not using anti-TNF agents was 42.94 ± 10.86 (p = 0.468). Thirty-three (42.9%) patients were smokers in the antiTNF group, while 23 (46.9%) patients were smokers in the group not using TNFi (p = 0.791). There was 12 pack-year smoking in the anti-TNF group, and 14 pack-year smoking in not using TNFi (p = 0.623). The frequency of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), amiloidosis, familial mediterranean fever (FMF), coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was similar in both groups (p = 0.403, p = 0.999, p = 0.521, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, respectively). Six patients using TNFi and 3 patients not using TNFi recovered from COVID-19 infection. However, this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.999). One patient using anti-TNF was hospitalized but with no need for admission to the ICU (p = 0.999). All 9 patients recovering from COVID-19 were male (p = 0.113). There were 2 (22.2%) smokers in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group and 54 (46.2%) smokers in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.297). There was 37.5 pack-year smoking in SARS-CoV-2 positive group, and 12 pack-year smoking in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.151). Nobody has comorbidities (DM, HT, amiloidosis, FMF, CAD, COPD) in SARS-CoV-2 positive group. There were patients with DM (5.1%), HT (15.4%), amiloidosis (1.7%), FMF (1.7%), CAD (0.9%) and COPD (0.9%) in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.999, p = 0.356, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, respectively). Having comorbidities was not detected to be associated with frequency of COVID-19. 31 (40.3%) patients were using adalimumab, 25 (32.5%) patients were using etanercept, 13 patients were using (16.9%) certolizumab, 6 (7.8%) patients were using golimumab, and 2 patients (2.6%) were using infliximab in TNF group. Six patients using anti-TNF (2 adalimumab, 1 etanercept, 1 golimumab,2 infliximab) and 3 nonuser patients recovered from COVID-19 (p = 0.999). No statistically significant difference was found between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients in terms of the types of anti TNF they used. Patients were called in March 2020, and they were advised to terminate their anti-TNF therapy, when the COVID-19 pandemic began. Among those who used antiTNF, 2 (33.3%) people who had COVID-19 and 38 (53.5%) people who did not have COVID-19 interrupted treatment (p = 0.419). Anti-TNF users who did not have COVID-19 stopped taking the treatment for an average of 3 months (min 2-max 4 months) starting from March 2020, and the patients who had COVID-19 (p = 0.102) stopped taking the treatment for 1.5 months (min 1-max 2 months). Duration of interrupting TNFi was not significant for the risk of COVID-19. Comorbidities, older age, and the presence of active disease have been associated with worse outcomes in previous studies [3]. In our study, the anti-TNF using and the nonuser groups were similar according to age, sex, and comorbidities. Although comorbidities in COVID-19 are associated with severe disease in the literature, we did not find a significant difference in our study. This result is probably related to our insufficient number of patients. As a result, we found that the use of anti-TNF did not increase the frequency and severity of COVID-19. In a recently published multicenter study, it was stated that the use of biological DMARDs in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases was not significantly associated with a worse outcome of COVID-19. But unlike our study, having no comorbidities was associated with a decreased risk of a worse outcome [4]. There are currently studies investigating the therapeutic utility of infliximab and adalimumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients [5]. The results of these studies are very important. The usability of TNFi in treatment and at which stage of the disease anti-TNF agents can be used are wondered. We will see the course of the disease all over the world after the administration of the COVID-19 vaccines, but we still need more information about effective and safe treatment. RESULTS: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. DISCUSSION: The authors did not receive support from any organization for this work.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(6): 1172-1182, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal respiratory viral infections are associated with exacerbations and morbidity among patients with COPD. The real-world clinical outcomes associated with seasonal viral infections are less well established among hospitalized patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: To estimate the association between seasonal respiratory viral infections, 30-day mortality, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission among hospitalized COPD patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of a national prospective multicenter cohort of COPD patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness during winter seasons (2011-2015) in Canada. Nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on all patients at the onset of hospital admission for diagnosis of viral infection. Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and ICU admissions. Secondary outcomes included invasive/non-invasive ventilation use. RESULTS: Among 3931 hospitalized patients with COPD, 28.5% (1122/3931) were diagnosed with seasonal respiratory viral infection. Viral infection was associated with increased admission to ICU (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9) and need for mechanical ventilation (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5), but was not associated with mortality (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.4). Patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were equally likely to require ICU admission (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.67-1.78), and more likely to need non-invasive ventilation (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.8-5.1) compared to patients with influenza. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest COPD patients requiring hospitalization for respiratory symptoms should routinely receive viral testing at admission, especially for RSV and influenza, to inform prognosis, clinical management, and infection control practices during winter seasons. Patients with COPD will be an important target population for newly developed RSV therapeutics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01517191.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
19.
Heart Lung ; 57: 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin thought to be associated with chronic diseases, mortality and COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and mortality of chronic diseases in subjects aged ≥65 years before and during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was performed using the hospital database of subjects aged 65 years and older who had undergone vitamin D measurement between 01.01.2019 and 31.12.2021. All patients with vitamin D measurement (N = 2155) were followed as a cohort from the date of serum vitamin D analysis through death date or 01.01.2022. Age, gender, chronic diseases, survival status, date of death of the deceased, laboratory values including complete blood count, liver/renal functions and 25(OH) vitamin D levels were all noted. Subjects were classified into three groups according to their 25(OH) vitamin D levels; severe deficient group (<10 ng/ml), moderate deficient group (10-19.9 ng/ml), and control group (≥20 ng/ml). RESULTS: Data of 1949 subjects were included in this retrospective analysis and 206 of them (10.6%) had at least two vitamin D measurements. Until the time of data collection (01.01.2022), 94 of the cases had died within the last three years, and only five of them had repeated measurements. While the mean vitamin D level was lower, age and frequency of dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arrhythmia, dementia and severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were higher in subjectswho died (all p<0.05). According to the Cox proportional hazards model; age, presence of CAD, COPD, arrhythmia, dementia, anemia and severe vitamin D deficiency were independently related with mortality (all p<0.05). After adjusted by age, gender, and comorbidities, the probability of death was found to be 1.91 (95% CI=1.12-3.24) times higher in the severe vitamin D deficient group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have shown that - after having adjusted for potential factors - severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) seems to be an independent predictor for non-cancer mortality. Although vitamin D measurement/treatment is very easy and cheap where, on the contrary, severe vitamin D deficiency can be quite mortal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Dementia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/complications
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30073, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system is the first line of defense against outside pollutants. Recently, respiratory health has been receiving increasing attention due to the increase in fine dust, which reduces respiratory function and increases incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in coronavirus pandemic, which can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. METHODS: This clinical pilot trial was designed to secure evidence for a main clinical trial and to confirm the efficacy and safety of Liriope platyphylla (LP) extract for improving respiratory function. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial with 22 participants from June 30, 2021, to August 25, 2021. The primary outcome was Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale score. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume at 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, cough assessment test score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts (white blood cells, eosinophils, T cells, and B cells), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cytokine (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and immunoglobulin E) levels, antioxidant (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) levels, and nitric oxide level. RESULTS: A total of 22 participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the LP group (n = 11), who took 1000 mg of LP extract per day, and the placebo group, who took 1000 mg of dextrin per day. Participants took 1 capsule twice a day for 4 weeks. For the Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum Scale, the interaction between group and visit was statistically significant in a blend of analyses of variance. interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ levels decreased more in the LP group than in the placebo group. The sample size required for large-scale clinical trials in the future was 50. There were no side effects. CONCLUSION: LP extract can enhance respiratory function. The detailed data we obtained support conducting the future main large-scale clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-8 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , Cough/etiology , Dextrins/therapeutic use , Dust , Dyspnea/complications , Glutathione Peroxidase , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Nitric Oxide , Pilot Projects , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Superoxide Dismutase , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/therapeutic use
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