Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 57
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260416, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793553

ABSTRACT

This study determined the association between respiratory symptoms and death from respiratory causes over a period of 45 years. In four cohorts of random samples of Norwegian populations with 103,881 participants, 43,731 persons had died per 31 December 2016. In total, 5,949 (14%) had died from respiratory diseases; 2,442 (41%) from lung cancer, 1,717 (29%) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1,348 (23%) pneumonia, 119 (2%) asthma, 147 (2%) interstitial lung disease and 176 (3%) other pulmonary diseases. Compared with persons without respiratory symptoms the multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for lung cancer deaths increased with score of breathlessness on effort and cough and phlegm, being 2.6 (95% CI 2.1-3.2) for breathlessness score 3 and 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.5) for cough and phlegm score 5. The HR of COPD death was 6.4 (95% CI 5.4-7.7) for breathlessness score 3 and 3.0 (2.4-3.6) for cough and phlegm score 5. Attacks of breathlessness and wheeze score 2 had a HR of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) for COPD death. The risk of pneumonia deaths increased also with higher breathlessness on effort score, but not with higher cough and phlegm score, except for score 2 with HR 1.5 (1.2-1.8). In this study with >2.4 million person-years at risk, a positive association was observed between scores of respiratory symptoms and deaths due to COPD and lung cancer. Respiratory symptoms are thus important risk factors, which should be followed thoroughly by health care practitioners for the benefit of public health.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Respiration Disorders/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Young Adult
2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incremental step tests (IST) can be used to assess exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of a new step test based on the characteristics of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an important study to explore. We aimed to develop a new IST based on the ISWT in people with COPD, and assess its validity (construct validity) and reliability, according to Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in participants recruited from hospitals/clinics. During the recruitment, the participants who presented a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) report in the previous month were also identified and the respective data was collected. Subsequently, participants attended two sessions at their homes. IST was conducted on the first visit, along with the 1 min sit-to-stand (1MSTS) test. IST was repeated on a second visit, performed 5-7 days after the first one. Spearman's correlations were used for construct validity, by comparing the IST with the 6MWT and the 1MSTS. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1), SE of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at 95% CI (MDC95) were used for reliability. The learning effect was explored with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: 50 participants (70.8±7.5 years) were enrolled. IST was significant and moderate correlated with the 6MWT (ρ=0.50, p=0.020), and with the 1MSTS (ρ=0.46, p=0.001). IST presented an ICC2,1=0.96, SEM=10.1 (16.6%) and MDC95=27.9 (45.8%) for the number of steps. There was a statistically significant difference between the two attempts of the IST (p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Despite the significant and moderate correlations with the 6MWT and 1MSTS, the inability to full compliance with the COSMIN recommendations does not yet allow the IST to be considered valid in people with COPD. On the other hand, the IST is a reliable test based on its high ICC, but a learning effect and an 'indeterminate' measurement error were shown. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04715659.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Walk Test
3.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221075493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724306

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality despite current treatment strategies which focus on smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation, and symptomatic relief. A focus of COPD care is to encourage self-management, particularly during COVID-19, where much face-to-face care has been reduced or ceased. Digital health solutions may offer affordable and scalable solutions to support COPD patient education and self-management, such solutions could improve clinical outcomes and expand service reach for limited additional cost. However, optimal ways to deliver digital medicine are still in development, and there are a number of important considerations for clinicians, commissioners, and patients to ensure successful implementation of digitally augmented care. In this narrative review, we discuss advantages, pitfalls, and future prospects of digital healthcare, which offer a variety of tools including self-management plans, education videos, inhaler training videos, feedback to patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), exacerbation monitoring, and pulmonary rehabilitation. We discuss the key issues with sustaining patient and HCP engagement and limiting attrition of use, interoperability with devices, integration into healthcare systems, and ensuring inclusivity and accessibility. We explore the essential areas of research beyond determining safety and efficacy to understand the acceptability of digital healthcare solutions to patients, clinicians, and healthcare systems, and hence ways to improve this and sustain engagement. Finally, we explore the regulatory challenges to ensure quality and engagement and effective integration into current healthcare systems and care pathways, while maintaining patients' autonomy and privacy. Understanding and addressing these issues and successful incorporation of an acceptable, simple, scalable, affordable, and future-proof digital solution into healthcare systems could help remodel global chronic disease management and fractured healthcare systems to provide best patient care and optimisation of healthcare resources to meet the global burden and unmet clinical need of COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/therapy , Chronic Disease , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264009, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Populations seem to respond differently to the global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Recent studies show individual variability in both susceptibility and clinical response to COVID-19 infection. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitute one of COVID-19 risk groups, being already associated with a poor prognosis upon infection. This study aims contributing to unveil the underlying reasons for such prognosis in people with COPD and the variability in the response observed across worldwide populations, by looking at the genetic background as a possible answer to COVID-19 infection response heterogeneity. METHODS: SNPs already associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 infection (rs286914 and rs12329760) and severe COVID-19 with respiratory failure (rs657152 and rs11385942) were assessed and their allelic frequencies used to calculate the probability of having multiple risk alleles. This was performed on a Portuguese case-control COPD cohort, previously clinically characterized and genotyped from saliva samples, and also on worldwide populations (European, Spanish, Italian, African, American and Asian), using publicly available frequencies data. A polygenic risk analysis was also conducted on the Portuguese COPD cohort for the two mentioned phenotypes, and also for hospitalization and survival to COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: No differences in genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, severity or survival were found between people with COPD and the control group (all p-values > 0.01), either considering risk alleles individually, allelic combinations or polygenic risk scores. All populations, even those with European ancestry (Portuguese, Spanish and Italian), showed significant differences from the European population in genetic risk for both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity (all p-values < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a low genetic contribution for COVID-19 infection predisposition or worse outcomes observed in people with COPD. Also, our study unveiled a high genetic heterogeneity across major world populations for the same alleles, even within European sub-populations, demonstrating the need to build a higher resolution European genetic map, so that differences in the distribution of relevant alleles can be easily accessed and used to better manage diseases, ultimately, safeguarding populations with higher genetic predisposition to such diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Portugal , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , /genetics
5.
Respir Med ; 189: 106641, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665447

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has a significant impact on healthcare systems and health-related quality of life. Increased prevalence of smoking is an important factor contributing to high burden of COPD in the Middle East and Africa (MEA). Several other factors including sedentary lifestyle, urbanization, second-hand smoke, air pollution, and occupational exposure are also responsible for the upsurge of COPD in the MEA. Frequent COPD exacerbations accelerate disease progression, progressively deteriorate the lung function, and negatively affect quality of life. This consensus is based on review of the published evidence, international and regional guidelines, and insights provided by the expert committee members from the MEA region. Spirometry, though the gold standard for diagnosis, is often unavailable and/or underutilized leading to underdiagnosis of COPD in primary care settings. Low adherence to the treatment guidelines and delayed use of appropriate combination therapy including triple therapy are additional barriers in management of COPD in MEA. It is necessary to recognize COPD as a screenable condition and develop easy and simple screening tools to facilitate early diagnosis. Knowledge of the disease symptomatology at patient and physician level and adherence to the international or regional guidelines are important to create awareness about harmful effects of smoking and develop national guidelines to focus on prevention on COPD. Implementation of vaccination program and pulmonary rehabilitation are equally valuable to manage patients with COPD at local and regional level. We present recommendations made by the expert panel for improved screening, diagnosis, and management of COPD in MEA.


Subject(s)
Health Services Needs and Demand , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Africa/epidemiology , Consensus , Disease Progression , Humans , Mass Screening , Middle East/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Smoking Cessation
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e28953, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a large burden on health care. Severe COPD exacerbations require emergency department visits or inpatient stays, often cause an irreversible decline in lung function and health status, and account for 90.3% of the total medical cost related to COPD. Many severe COPD exacerbations are deemed preventable with appropriate outpatient care. Current models for predicting severe COPD exacerbations lack accuracy, making it difficult to effectively target patients at high risk for preventive care management to reduce severe COPD exacerbations and improve outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a more accurate model to predict severe COPD exacerbations. METHODS: We examined all patients with COPD who visited the University of Washington Medicine facilities between 2011 and 2019 and identified 278 candidate features. By performing secondary analysis on 43,576 University of Washington Medicine data instances from 2011 to 2019, we created a machine learning model to predict severe COPD exacerbations in the next year for patients with COPD. RESULTS: The final model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.866. When using the top 9.99% (752/7529) of the patients with the largest predicted risk to set the cutoff threshold for binary classification, the model gained an accuracy of 90.33% (6801/7529), a sensitivity of 56.6% (103/182), and a specificity of 91.17% (6698/7347). CONCLUSIONS: Our model provided a more accurate prediction of severe COPD exacerbations in the next year compared with prior published models. After further improvement of its performance measures (eg, by adding features extracted from clinical notes), our model could be used in a decision support tool to guide the identification of patients with COPD and at high risk for care management to improve outcomes. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/13783.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Disease Progression , Humans , Machine Learning , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 101-115, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630608

ABSTRACT

Background: Smokers and patients with COPD are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to severe COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved resected lung tissues from 16 patients with GOLD stage I or II COPD; of which 8 were current smokers COPD (COPD-CS), and 8 ex-smokers COPD (COPD-ES), 7 normal lung function smokers (NLFS), 9 patients with small airways disease (SAD), and 10 were never-smoking normal controls (NC). Immunostaining for ACE2, Furin, and TMPRSS2 was performed and analysed for percent expression in small airway epithelium (SAE) and counts for positively and negatively stained type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were done using Image ProPlus V7.0. Furthermore, primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAEC) were analysed by immunofluorescence after exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Results: ACE2, Furin, and TMPRSS2 expression significantly increased in SAE and type 2 pneumocytes in all the subjects (except Furin for NLFS) compared to NC (p < 0.001). Similar significance was observed for ACE2 positive AM (p < 0.002), except COPD-ES, which decreased in ACE2 positive AMs (p < 0.003). Total type 2 pneumocytes and AMs significantly increased in the pathological groups compared to NC (p < 0.01), except SAD (p = 0.08). However, AMs are significantly reduced in COPD-ES (p < 0.003). Significant changes were observed for tissue co-expression of Furin and TMPRSS2 with ACE2 in SAE, type 2 pneumocytes and AMs. These markers also negatively correlated with lung function parameters, such as FEV1/FVC % predicted, FEF25-75%, DLCO% predicted. A strong co-localisation and expression for ACE2 (p < 0.0001), Furin (p < 0.01), and TMPRSS2 (p < 0.0001) was observed in pSAEC treated with 1% CSE than controls. Discussion: The increased expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin, in the SAE, type 2 pneumocytes and AMs of smokers and COPD are detrimental to lung function and proves that these patient groups could be more susceptible to severe COVID-19 infection. Increased type 2 pneumocytes suggest that these patients are vulnerable to developing post-COVID-19 interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or fibrosis in general. There could be a silently developing interstitial pathology in smokers and patients with COPD. This is the first comprehensive study to report such changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrosis , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smokers , Up-Regulation
8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 13-24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623677

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A better understanding of new biomarkers for COPD patients and their complex mechanisms in the progression of COPD are needed. Methods: An algorithm was conducted to reveal the proportions of 22 subsets of immune cells in COPD samples. Differentially expressed immune-related genes (DE-IRGs) were obtained based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the GSE57148 dataset, and 1509 immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the ImmPort database. Functional enrichment analyses of DE-IRGs were conducted by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We defined the DE-IRGs that had correlations with immune cells as hub genes. The potential interactions among the hub genes were explored by a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Results: The CIBERSORT results showed that lung tissue of COPD patients contained a greater number of resting NK cells, activated dendritic cells, and neutrophils than normal samples. However, the fractions of follicular helper T cells and resting dendritic cells were relatively lower. Thirty-eight DE-IRGs were obtained for further analysis. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these DE-IRGs were significantly enriched in several immune-related biological processes and pathways. Notably, we also observed that DE-IRGs were associated with the coronavirus disease COVID-19 in the progression of COPD. After correlation analysis, six DE-IRGs associated with immune cells were considered hub genes, including AHNAK, SLIT2 TNFRRSF10C, CXCR1, CXCR2, and FCGR3B. Conclusion: In the present study, we investigated immune-related genes as novel diagnostic biomarkers and explored the potential mechanism for COPD based on CIBERSORT analysis, providing a new understanding for COPD treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Gene Ontology , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581602

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 7237-7243, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565114

ABSTRACT

Respiratory illnesses are common in the United States and globally; people deal with these illnesses in various forms, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, or infectious respiratory diseases (e.g., coronavirus). The lung function of subjects affected by these illnesses degrades due to infection or inflammation in their respiratory airways. Typically, lung function is assessed using in-clinic medical equipment, and quite recently, via portable spirometry devices. Research has shown that the obstruction and restriction in the respiratory airways affect individuals' voice characteristics. Hence, audio features could play a role in predicting the lung function and severity of the obstruction. In this paper, we go beyond well-known voice audio features and create a hybrid deep learning model using CNN-LSTM to discover spatiotemporal patterns in speech and predict the lung function parameters with accuracy comparable to conventional devices. We validate the performance and generalizability of our method using the data collected from 201 subjects enrolled in two studies internally and in collaboration with a pulmonary hospital. SpeechSpiro measures lung function parameters (e.g., forced vital capacity) with a mean normalized RMSE of 12% and R2 score of up to 76% using 60-second phone audio recordings of individuals reading a passage.Clinical relevance - Speech-based spirometry has the potential to eliminate the need for an additional device to carry out the lung function assessment outside clinical settings; hence, it can enable continuous and mobile track of the individual's condition, healthy or with a respiratory illness, using a smartphone.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Speech , Spirometry
11.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512568

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological trends over the past decade show a significant worldwide increase in the burden of chronic diseases. At the same time, the human resources of health care are becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. One of the management concepts that can help in solving this problem is business process management (BPM). The results of research conducted in the healthcare sector thus far prove that BPM is an effective tool for optimizing clinical processes, as it allows for the ongoing automatic tracking of key health parameters of an individual patient without the need to involve medical personnel. The aim of this article is to present and evaluate the redesign of diagnostic and therapeutic processes enabling the patient-centric organization of therapy thanks to the use of new telemedicine techniques and elements of hyperautomation. By using an illustrative case study of one of the most common chronic diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), we discuss the use of clinical pathways (CPs) prepared on the basis of the current version of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a communication tool between healthcare professionals, the patient and his or her caregivers, as well as the method of identifying and verifying new knowledge generated on an ongoing basis in diagnostic and therapeutic processes. We also show how conducting comprehensive, patient-focused primary health care relieves the health care system, and at the same time, thanks to the use of patient engagement and elements of artificial intelligence (predictive analyses), reduces the significant clinical risk of therapy.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2687-2695, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456164

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected millions of patients, caregivers, and clinicians around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads via droplets and close contact from person to person, and there has been an increased concern regarding aerosol drug delivery due to the potential aerosolizing of viral particles. To date, little focus has been given to aerosol drug delivery to patients with COVID-19 treated at home to minimize their hospital utilization. Since most hospitals were stressed with multiple admissions and experienced restricted healthcare resources in the era of COVID-19 pandemic, treating patients with COPD at home became essential to minimize their hospital utilization. However, guidance on how to deliver aerosolized medications safely and effectively to this patient population treated at home is still lacking. In this paper, we provide some strategies and rationales for device and interface selection, delivery technique, and infection control for patients with COPD who are being treated at home in the era of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L983-L987, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455765

ABSTRACT

World COPD Day raises awareness about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD accounts for over 150,000 US deaths per year. A major challenge is that COPD receives only a fraction of the research funding provided to other major diseases. Control of COPD is dependent on developing new approaches to diagnose the disease earlier with a recognition of either pre-COPD or established COPD based on symptoms, lung structural change and/or loss of lung function that occurs before meeting long established criteria for a population-based definition of obstruction. Optimization of current therapies improves lung function, exercise capacity, quality of life, and survival. New pathways of disease progression are being identified creating new opportunities for development of therapies that could stop or cure this disease.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Premature Birth , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Child , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life
15.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(12): 1605-1612, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic, there have been disruptions to how patients seek care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: To investigate monthly prescription claims for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) medicines during the first UK wave, interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was used. A national cohort of community patients' data were examined. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics show salbutamol, aminophylline, ipratropium, and theophylline remain below pre-pandemic levels.Montelukast showed pre-pandemic monthly increase (Est. 67,151 doses, P = 0.05, 95% CI: 1011, 133,291), followed by a jump of 1.6 million doses at March , followed by monthly declines (Est. -112,098 doses, P = 0.216, 95% CI: -293,499, 69,303).Before the pandemic, tiotropium, salbutamol, aminophylline, and ipratropium (P = 0.003) show monthly declines but theophylline and beclometasone showed increases. In March , salbutamol (P = 0.033) and ipratropium (P = 0.001) show a significant jump. After March , ipratropium continues with a downward trajectory (P = 0.001), with a generalized negative trend for all other agents. Salbutamol confidence bounds become negative after March 2020. Some brands were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: An 'unmet' medical gap is identified. While it is essential to understand the underlying reasons, urgent action needs to be taken to reassess patients and ensure continuity of care.PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARIES (PLS)Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are long-term lung conditions, affecting 6 million & 1.2 million people respectively and causing breathing difficulties. Sufferers are at a higher risk of chest infections including the coronavirus. Regular use of prescribed medication stabilizes these conditions and prevents them from getting worse. It is common to be prescribed a combination of five to eight oral and inhaled medications.We investigated the impact of the pandemic on the dispensing of these specific medicines across England during the first wave. The English Prescribing Dataset was checked from January 2019 to February 2020 (14 months before the pandemic) and March to October 2020 (8 months after its onset).We find that since March 2020, salbutamol, aminophylline, ipratropium, and theophylline have not returned to their pre-pandemic levels. However, for all agents, there is great variability. Further analysis suggests these trends are not reversing, suggesting that people have not been using their medication as anticipated for 8 months, which is concerning.As a consequence of this work, we recommend that doctors specifically call these patients and discuss their health as a matter of urgency, we encourage patients to continue to take their medication. We advise policy changes to waive the NHS prescription levy for asthma and COPD medication and we seek more granular data for further harm quantification. There are several strengths and weaknesses to our analysis, and we need to conduct more studies to ask patients about their experiences.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Bronchodilator Agents/adverse effects , Drug Prescriptions , England/epidemiology , Humans , Ipratropium/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 909-923, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death. INTERPRETATION: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class
18.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 50, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388766

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccinations for COPD patients has been previously described. However, there is still a gap between guideline recommendations and the implementation of preventive care delivery for these patients. Specially, the rise of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made the significance of vaccination adherence more critical to address. Our study showed that referral to pulmonary clinic is associated with increased odds of receiving influenza (OR = 1.97, [95% CI 1.07, 3.65]) and pneumococcal vaccinations (PCV13 OR = 3.55, [1.47, 8.54]; PPSV23 OR = 4.92, [1.51, 16.02]). These data suggest that partnerships between primary care physicians and pulmonologists can potentially improve the vaccination rates for patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Medicine , Referral and Consultation , Vaccination , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL