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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 3337-3346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581602

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 tends to cause more severe disease in patients with COPD once they are infected. We aimed to investigate the rates of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination uptake in patients with COPD and to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread vaccination against COVID-19 had any impact on the intention to accept influenza vaccines in these patients. Methods: We conducted a multi-center and cross-sectional survey in seven tertiary hospitals in Beijing and consecutively recruited outpatients with COPD from June 1st to July 30th, 2021. The survey included patient's clinical characteristics, uptake of influenza, pneumococcal and COVID-19 vaccination, vaccine knowledge, attitude towards vaccines, and the change of intention to receive influenza vaccination after COVID-19 epidemic and COVID-19 vaccination in Beijing. Results: A total of 264 patients were enrolled. The rate of COVID-19 vaccination during the study period was 39.0%. The rates of influenza vaccination in the past season and pneumococcal vaccination in the past year were 22.7% and 5.7%, respectively. Of the patients who had not received COVID-19 vaccination (n = 161), only 16.2% reported that COVID-19 vaccination was recommended by clinicians, while 23.5% had no knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination. About 51.1% of the patients reported that their intention to receive influenza vaccination was influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination was independently associated with a positive change in intention to receive influenza vaccination. Conclusion: The coverage rate of COVID-19 vaccination among patients with COPD in Beijing was 39.0%, and that of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination was very low. The COVID-19 pandemic and the COVID-19 vaccination campaign showed a significant, positive impact on patients with COPD in terms of influenza vaccination. Improving awareness of the effectiveness and safety of vaccines among both healthcare professionals and patients could increase vaccination coverage in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intention , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1415-1425, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings of hospitalized asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with COVID-19 and demonstrate that they have different symptoms and/or laboratory results and outcomes than COVID-19 patients with comorbidity (CoV-com) and without comorbidity (CoV-alone). METHODOLOGY: The data of the demographic, clinical, laboratory findings of hospitalized CoV-alone, asthma, COPD patients with COVID-19 (CoV-asthma, CoV-COPD, respectively), and CoV-com were analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 1082 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 585 (54.1%) had CoV-alone, 40 (3.7%) had CoV-asthma, 46 (4.3%) had CoV-COPD and 411 (38%) had CoV-com. Cough, shortness of breath, fever and weakness were the most common four symptoms seen in all COVID-19 patients. Shortness of breath, myalgia, headache symptoms were more common in CoV-asthma than the other groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05 respectively). Sputum was more common in CoV-COPD than other groups (p < 0.01). COPD group most frequently had increased values, different from the other groups with CRP>5ng/mL in 91.3%, D-dimer > 0.05mg/dL in 89.1%, troponin > 0.014micg/L in %63.9, INR>1.15 in 52.2%, CK-MB>25U/L in 48.5%, PT>14s in 40.9% of patients (p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, respectively). NT-ProBNP was found to have the highest AUC value and the best differentiating parameter for CoV-asthma from CoV-alone. Typical CT findings were present in 44.4% of CoV-alone, 57.5% of CoV-asthma, 28.3% of CoV-COPD and 38.9% of CoV-com groups. CoV-COPD and CoV-com patients died more frequently than other groups (17.8%, 18.5%). CONCLUSIONS: CoV-asthma and CoV-COPD patients might have different symptoms and laboratory parameters than other COVID-19 patients which can guide the physicians.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Asthma/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Turkey/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients vary greatly with age and underlying comorbidities. We aimed to determine the demographic and clinical factors, particularly baseline chronic conditions, associated with an increased risk of severity in COVID-19 patients from a population-based perspective and using data from electronic health records (EHR). METHODS: Retrospective, observational study in an open cohort analyzing all 68,913 individuals (mean age 44.4 years, 53.2% women) with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 15 June and 19 December 2020 using exhaustive electronic health registries. Patients were followed for 30 days from inclusion or until the date of death within that period. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between each chronic disease and severe infection, based on hospitalization and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: 5885 (8.5%) individuals showed severe infection and old age was the most influencing factor. Congestive heart failure (odds ratio -OR- men: 1.28, OR women: 1.39), diabetes (1.37, 1.24), chronic renal failure (1.31, 1.22) and obesity (1.21, 1.26) increased the likelihood of severe infection in both sexes. Chronic skin ulcers (1.32), acute cerebrovascular disease (1.34), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.21), urinary incontinence (1.17) and neoplasms (1.26) in men, and infertility (1.87), obstructive sleep apnea (1.43), hepatic steatosis (1.43), rheumatoid arthritis (1.39) and menstrual disorders (1.18) in women were also associated with more severe outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Age and specific cardiovascular and metabolic diseases increased the risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections in men and women, whereas the effects of certain comorbidities are sex specific. Future studies in different settings are encouraged to analyze which profiles of chronic patients are at higher risk of poor prognosis and should therefore be the targets of prevention and shielding strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
7.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L978-L982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506058

ABSTRACT

Early in the COVID pandemic there were concerns about the outcomes for patients with COPD who developed COVID-19. Although the pandemic has made the diagnosis and routine management of COPD more difficult, the risk of patients developing COVID or of having poor outcomes is less than anticipated and there have been some unexpected findings that may lead to significant improvements in the management of COPD in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504421

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive lung diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and smoking are associated with greater risk of respiratory infections and hospitalisations, but conflicting data exist regarding their association with severity of COVID-19, and few studies have evaluated whether these associations differ by age. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between asthma, COPD and smoking on the severity of COVID-19 among a cohort of hospitalised patients, and to test for effect modification by age. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data of patients admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, assigning the maximal WHO Clinical Progression Scale score for each patient during the first 28 days following hospital admission. Using ordered logistic regression, we measured the association between maximal severity score and asthma, COPD and smoking and their interaction with age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1391 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, we found an increased risk of severe disease among patients with COPD and prior smoking, independent of age. We also found evidence of effect modification by age with asthma and current smoking; in particular, asthma was associated with decreased COVID-19 severity among older adults, and current smoking was associated with decreased severity among younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: This cohort study identifies age as a modifying factor for the association between asthma and smoking on severity of COVID-19. Our findings highlight the complexities of determining risk factors for COVID-19 severity, and suggest that the effect of risk factors may vary across the age spectrum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
10.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211049738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive lung diseases may be at risk of hospitalization and/or death due to COVID-19. AIM: To estimate the frequency of severe COVID-19, and COVID-19-related mortality in a well-defined large population of patients with asthma and chronic inflammatory lung disease (COPD). Further to assess the frequency of asthma and COPD as registered comorbidities at discharge from hospital, and in death certificates. METHODS: At the start of the pandemic, the Swedish National Airway Register (SNAR) included 271,404 patients with a physician diagnosis of asthma and/or COPD. In September 2020, after the first COVID-19 wave in Sweden, the database was linked with the National Patient Register (NPR), the Swedish Intensive Care Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register, which all provide data about COVID-19 based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes. Severe COVID-19 was defined as hospitalization and/or intensive care or death due to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among patients in SNAR, 0.5% with asthma, and 1.2% with COPD were identified with severe COVID-19. Among patients < 18 years with asthma, only 0.02% were severely infected. Of hospitalized adults, 14% with asthma and 29% with COPD died. Further, of patients in SNAR, 56% with asthma and 81% with COPD were also registered in the NPR, while on death certificates the agreement was lower (asthma 24% and COPD 71%). CONCLUSION: The frequency of severe COVID-19 in asthma and COPD was relative low. Mortality for those hospitalized was double as high in COPD compared to asthma. Comorbid asthma and COPD were not always identified among patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Registries , Severity of Illness Index , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L983-L987, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455765

ABSTRACT

World COPD Day raises awareness about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD accounts for over 150,000 US deaths per year. A major challenge is that COPD receives only a fraction of the research funding provided to other major diseases. Control of COPD is dependent on developing new approaches to diagnose the disease earlier with a recognition of either pre-COPD or established COPD based on symptoms, lung structural change and/or loss of lung function that occurs before meeting long established criteria for a population-based definition of obstruction. Optimization of current therapies improves lung function, exercise capacity, quality of life, and survival. New pathways of disease progression are being identified creating new opportunities for development of therapies that could stop or cure this disease.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Premature Birth , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Child , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life
12.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
13.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L978-L982, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443660

ABSTRACT

Early in the COVID pandemic there were concerns about the outcomes for patients with COPD who developed COVID-19. Although the pandemic has made the diagnosis and routine management of COPD more difficult, the risk of patients developing COVID or of having poor outcomes is less than anticipated and there have been some unexpected findings that may lead to significant improvements in the management of COPD in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 909-923, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death. INTERPRETATION: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Class
16.
Respir Investig ; 59(6): 810-818, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The fourth wave of COVID-19 in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, caused a medical crisis. Here, we aim to identify the risk factors for COVID-19 severity and compare patients between the first-third waves and the fourth wave. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective study of COVID-19 cases at the National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center. RESULTS: We identified 404 patients (median age: 71.0 years [interquartile range: 56.0-80.0]), of whom 199 (49.1%) had mild disease, 142 (35.2%) had moderate disease, and 63 (15.6%) had severe disease. The overall mortality rate was 5.4% (22/404). Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, cardiovascular disease, fever, dyspnea, and several inflammatory biomarkers were independent risk factors for moderate to severe disease. For every 1 mg/dL increase in C-reactive protein, 10 IU/L increase in lactate dehydrogenase, and 100 ng/mL increase in ferritin, the risk for moderate to severe disease increased by 18.3%, 12.9%, and 8.9%, respectively. Overall disease severity in the fourth wave was higher than in the first-third waves. However, there was no significant difference in mortality. Because of a shortage of beds, four of the 28 severe patients (14.3%) in the fourth wave could not be transferred to the advanced hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular disease, fever, dyspnea, and several inflammatory biomarkers were risk factors for moderate to severe COVID-19 in our cohort. During the fourth wave, COVID-19 severity worsened, increasing the number of patients who could not be transferred to beds for severe cases, resulting in a medical crisis in Osaka.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Infection Control , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 269-292, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401261

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales and are known causes of respiratory and intestinal disease in various mammalian and avian species. Species of coronaviruses known to infect humans are referred to as human coronaviruses (HCoVs). While traditionally, HCoVs have been a significant cause of the common cold, more recently, emergent viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Here, we discuss coronavirus disease (COVID-19) biology, pathology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and recent clinical trials involving promising treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/immunology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/therapy , Fever , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
18.
COPD ; 18(5): 549-556, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390332

ABSTRACT

To limit the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing was introduced globally in the first half of 2020. COPD-patients were identified as a group at special risk in connection with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hence, social distancing has been important in this group of patients. However, little is known of the motives and consequences of social distancing in these vulnerable patients. The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences on social distancing among COPD-patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients in this qualitative study were selected strategically, equally allocated between gender and age to obtain maximum variation. Data were collected using individual semi-structured telephone interviews during June and July 2020. The interview guide focused on three themes; life before, under and after the COVID-19 lockdown. A total of 18 patients (8 females, 10 males) participated. Four themes were identified as important for social distancing among COPD-patients: 'Being at high-risk and obtaining control', 'Protecting one life while missing on another', 'Social relationships and distancing' and 'Looking into the future'. The results increased our knowledge of patients' experiences of living with COPD during COVID-19 in which anxiety and fear of getting infected made patients control their surroundings through strict precautions. This led to a feeling of loneliness due to social distance and an altered life-illness balance, as they protected one life while missing on another.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
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