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1.
J Med Life ; 16(3): 447-450, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315884

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential impact of this disease on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with established cardiovascular (CV) disease are at increased risk of severe infection and hospital-acquired adverse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. We analyzed data from 220 patients who previously contracted COVID-19. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The average age of the patients was 54.6 ± 11.4 years, and arterial hypertension (AH) was the most common comorbidity, affecting 55% of patients. Obesity was observed in one-third of patients, while coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary heart failure (CHF) were reported in 17.7% and 11.8% of patients, respectively. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), atrial fibrillation (AF), and obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were less common. Cardiovascular diseases, particularly AH, were the most frequent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the prevalence and characteristics of comorbidities in COVID-19 patients is crucial for developing appropriate management strategies and improving clinical outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and managing comorbidities in COVID-19 patients to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 and improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Comorbidity , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
2.
Chron Respir Dis ; 20: 14799731231172518, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313784

ABSTRACT

Patients' perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their access to asthma and COPD healthcare could inform better, more equitable care delivery. We demonstrate this topic using British Columbia (BC), Canada, where the impact of the pandemic has not been described. We co-designed a cross-sectional survey with patient partners and administered it to a convenience sample of people living with asthma and COPD in BC between September 2020 and March 2021. We aimed to understand how access to healthcare for these conditions was affected during the pandemic. The survey asked respondents to report their characteristics, access to healthcare for asthma and COPD, types of services they found disrupted and telehealth (telephone or video appointment) use during the pandemic. We analysed 433 responses and found that access to healthcare for asthma and COPD was lower during the pandemic than pre-pandemic (p < 0.001). Specialty care services were most frequently reported as disrupted, while primary care, home care and diagnostics were least disrupted. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that access during the pandemic was positively associated with self-assessed financial ability (OR = 22.0, 95% CI: 7.0 - 84.0, p < 0.001, reference is disagreeing with having financial ability) and living in medium-sized urban areas (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 - 5.2, p = 0.04, reference is rural areas). These disparities in access should be validated post-pandemic to confirm whether they still persist. They also indicate the continued relevance of exploring approaches for more equitable healthcare.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , British Columbia/epidemiology , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/complications , Health Services Accessibility , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 33(1): 15, 2023 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302550

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practitioners' (GP) care for patients with asthma and/or COPD is largely unknown. To describe the impact of the pandemic on asthma or COPD-related GP care, we analysed routinely recorded electronic health records data from Dutch general practices and out-of-hours (OOH) services. During the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), the contact rates for asthma and/or COPD were significantly lower in GP practices and OOH services compared with the pre-pandemic period (2019) (respectively, 15% lower and 28% lower). The proportion of telephone contacts increased significantly with 13%-point in GP practices and 12%-point at OOH services, while the proportion of face-to-face contacts decreased. Furthermore, the proportion of high urgent contacts with OOH services decreased by 8.5%-point. To conclude, the overall contact rates in GP practices and OOH services decreased, while more contacts were remote. Lower contact rates have, after a short follow-up, not resulted in more patients with exacerbations in OOH care. However, this might still be expected after a longer follow-up.


Subject(s)
After-Hours Care , Asthma , COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , After-Hours Care/methods , Primary Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
6.
Allergol Int ; 72(3): 394-401, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The considerable prevalence and worse outcomes of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in COPD have been reported, and optimal introduction of ICS is essential for ACO. However, diagnostic criteria for ACO consist of multiple laboratory tests, which is challenging during this COVID-19 era. The purpose of this study was to create a simple questionnaire to diagnose ACO in patients with COPD. METHODS: Among 100 COPD patients, 53 were diagnosed with ACO based on the Japanese Respiratory Society Guidelines for ACO. Firstly, 10 candidate questionnaire items were generated and further selected by a logistic regression model. An integer-based scoring system was generated based on the scaled estimates of items. RESULTS: Five items, namely a history of asthma, wheezing, dyspnea at rest, nocturnal awakening, and weather- or season-dependent symptoms, contributed significantly to the diagnosis of ACO in COPD. History of asthma was related to FeNO >35 ppb. Two points were assigned to history of asthma and 1 point to other items in the ACO screening questionnaire (ACO-Q), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.883 (95% CI: 0.806-0.933). The best cutoff point was 1 point, and the positive predictive value was 100% at a cutoff of 3 points or higher. The result was reproducible in the validation cohort of 53 patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: A simple questionnaire, ACO-Q, was developed. Patients with scores ≥3 could be reasonably recommended to be treated as ACO, and additional laboratory testing would be recommended for patients with 1 and 2 points.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Dyspnea , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 18: 349-364, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287062

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the real-world situation for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and poorly controlled disease risk factors in the Chinese community. Methods: This retrospective multicentre study analysed data from COPDMICand MICHC in Shanghai Songjiang District, Shanghai, China. The differences in COPD Assessment Test (CAT), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and the number of emergency cases, emergency visits, inpatient cases, and hospitalisations from January 2018 to December 2020 were analysed. The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on COPD management was also assessed. Results: For 2020 versus 2018, analysis of 468 COPD cases from COPDMIC matched with MICHC data showed significantly more patients with improved mMRC grades, significantly fewer emergency cases and emergency visits, and significantly fewer hospitalisation cases and hospitalisations. Differences in the number of emergency visits and hospitalisations per capita were statistically significant. Compared to GOLD 3-4, GOLD 1-2 patients showed significant improvements in CAT score, mMRC grade, the number of emergency visits and hospitalisations per capita. Treatment adherence from 2018 to 2020 was 25%, 29.1%, and 6.8%, and the proportion of medication regimens consistent with guidelines was 43.44%, 50.98%, and 71.87%, respectively. Higher treatment adherence resulted in significantly improved CAT scores and mMRC grades and fewer emergency department visits and hospitalisations per capita. Conclusion: Combined with remote management tools, patients with COPD achieved continuous improvement in symptoms and exacerbations over 3 years. In the context of COVID-19 prevention/control measures, improvements were significant for patients with GOLD 1-2 COPD but limited with GOLD 3-4. Pharmacologic treatment significantly improved clinical symptoms and reduced emergency visits and hospitalisations. Severe airflow limitation and poor adherence to pharmacologic treatment were important risk factors for lack of disease remission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Health Services
8.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 80(4): 135-140, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the largest causes of morbidity and chronic mortality and a public health problem of high importance. In Italy, COPD afflicts 5.6% of adult (3.5 million people) and is responsible for 55% of all deaths related to respiratory diseases. Smokers have a higher risk, in fact up to 40% develop the disease. From the Covid-19 pandemic, the most affected population is the elderly (mean age 80 years old), with previous chronic diseases, in 18% with chronic respiratory. The aim of the present work was to validate and measure the outcomes produced by the recruitment and care of COPD patients enrolled by an Healthcare Local Authority in the corresponding Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) in order to measure how a multidisciplinary, systemic and e-health monitored care impacts upon mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients were stratified through the GOLD guidelines classification, a unified method to discriminate the various degrees of severity of COPD, using specific spirometric cut-points and providing homogeneous classes of patients. Monitoring examinations include simple spirometry, global spirometry, diffusing capacity measurement, pulse oximetry, EGA, 6-minute walk test. Chest Rx, chest CT, ECG may also be required. The severity of COPD identifies the timing of monitoring, which involves a fixed annual re-assessment for mild offset clinical forms, biannually in case of exacerbation, a quarterly cadence in moderate forms that becomes bimonthly in severe forms. RESULTS: In 2344 enrolled patients (46% women and 54% men, mean age 78 yo) 18% had GOLD severity 1, 35% GOLD 2, 27% GOLD 3 and 20% GOLD 4. In addition, 73% of patients had at least one other chronic comorbidity, mainly diabetes or hypertension, and in 48% both. The data analysis showed that the population followed in e-health presented a 49% reduction in improper hospital admissions and a 68% reduction in clinical exacerbations compared to the population enrolled in the ICPs but not followed also in e-health. Smoking habits present at the time of patient enrollment in the ICPs remained in 49% of the total population enrolled and in 37% of the population enrolled in e-health. The patients enrolled in GOLD 1 and 2 obtained the same benefits both if treated in e- health and if treated in the clinic. However, GOLD 3 and 4 patients instead presented better compliance if treated in e-health and continuous monitoring allowed punctual and early interventions such as to reduce complications and hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The e-health approach made possible to ensure proximity medicine and personalization of care. Indeed, the implemented diagnostic treatment protocols, if properly followed and monitored, are able to control complications and impact the mortality and disability of chronic disease. The advent of e-health and ICT tools are demonstrating a great support capacity for care taking that also allows greater adherence to patient care pathways, even more than the protocols up to now identified, characterized by a monitoring programmed over time, enhancing a patients and their families quality of life improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Pathways , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Health Care
9.
Respiration ; 102(3): 203-206, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has a great impact on numberless aspects of our society. In our bronchoscopic lung volume reduction interventional program, we work with severe COPD patients on a daily basis. OBJECTIVES: We were interested in the prevalence and outcome of COVID-19, impact of the pandemic on daily life, and the vaccination coverage in our severe COPD patients who have been treated with one-way endobronchial valves. METHOD: A questionnaire, which consisted of questions related to the infection rate, treatment, and outcome of COVID-19 infections; feelings of anxiety related to the pandemic; adherence to preventive measures; and willingness to be vaccinated; was sent to our patients in June 2021. RESULTS: The questionnaire was sent to 215 patients, and the response rate was 100%. The vaccination rate was 97% in our surveyed population. The majority of patients (63%) indicated that they were quite or very anxious to get infected with COVID-19. Twenty-five (11.5%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19, with none of these patients having been vaccinated at the time of infection. The infection rate reported in this study is comparable to that of the general Dutch population. However, the hospital admission rate and mortality rates are higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in severe COPD patients treated with endobronchial valves was comparable with the general population; however, the hospital admission and mortality rates were worse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pneumonectomy/methods , Prevalence , Pandemics , Bronchoscopy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery
10.
Respir Med ; 212: 107223, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256583

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess changes in prevalence and the effects on hospital outcomes of dementia among patients hospitalized with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD); and to evaluate sex-differences, as well as the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in this relationship. METHODS: We used a nationwide discharge database to select patients admitted with AE-COPD in Spain from 2011 to 2020. We identified those with any type of dementia, vascular dementia (VaD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESULTS: We identified 658,429 hospitalizations with AE-COPD (4.45% had any type of dementia, 0.79% VaD and 1.57% AD). The presence of any type of dementia remained stable from 2011 to 2015, and increased significantly between 2016 and 2020. For VaD, the time trend showed no change until 2020, when a significant increment was found. The probability of AD decreased significantly overtime. The in-hospital mortality (IHM) among patients with any type of dementia remained stable overtime until 2020, when it increased significantly. Older age, higher comorbidity, COVID-19, and use of mechanical ventilation were variables associated to IHM. Women had lower risk of dying in the hospital than men in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: After a previous period of stability, the prevalence of any type of dementia increased over the last 5 years of the study, although we identified different trends depending on the specific cause of dementia. The IHM remained stable overtime until 2020, when it increased, probably related to the COVID-19 pandemic. It is remarkable the protective effect of female sex for IHM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Male , Humans , Female , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Incidence , Dementia/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Arthroplasty ; 38(6): 1010-1015.e2, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a surge of same-day discharge (SDD) for total joint arthroplasty. However, SDD may not be beneficial for all patients. Therefore, continued investigation into the safety of SDD is necessary as well as risk stratification for improved patient outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 31,851 elective SDD hip and knee arthroplasties from 2016 to 2020 in a large national database. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient variables and preoperative comorbidities that contribute to postoperative complication or readmission with SDD. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: SDD increased from 1.4% in 2016 to 14.6% in 2020. SDD is associated with lower odds of readmission (AOR: 0.994, CI: 0.992-0.996) and postoperative complications (AOR: 0.998, CI: 0.997-1.000). Patients who have preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.03, CI: 1.02-1.04, P < .001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .002), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.00-1.03, P < .001), had higher odds of postoperative complications. Patients who had preoperative dyspnea (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03), hypertension (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.01-1.03, P = .003), chronic corticosteroid use (AOR: 1.02, CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), bleeding disorder (AOR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.03, P < .001), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR: 1.01, CI: 1.00-1.02, P = .038), had higher odds of readmission. CONCLUSION: SDD is safe with certain comorbidities. Preoperative screening for cardiopulmonary comorbidities (eg, dyspnea, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), chronic corticosteroid use, bleeding disorder, and hypoalbuminemia may improve SDD outcomes.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Hypoalbuminemia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Hypoalbuminemia/complications , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Dyspnea/complications , Length of Stay , Hypertension/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects
12.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 1507-1521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233203

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A comprehensive and detailed understanding of COPD care pathways from pre-diagnosis to acute care is required to understand the common barriers to optimal COPD care across diverse health systems. Methods: Country-specific COPD care pathways were created for four high-income countries using international recommendations and country-specific guidelines, then populated with published epidemiological, clinical, and economic data. To refine and validate the pathways, semi-structured interviews using pre-prepared discussion guides and country-specific pathway maps were held with twenty-four primary and secondary care respiratory healthcare professionals. Thematic analysis was then performed on the interview transcripts. Results: The COPD care pathway showed broad consistency across the countries. Three key themes relating to barriers in optimal COPD management were identified across the countries: journey to diagnosis, treatment, and the impact of COVID-19. Common barriers included presentation to healthcare with advanced COPD, low COPD consideration, and sub-optimal acute and chronic disease management. COVID-19 has negatively impacted disease management across the pathway but presents opportunities to retain virtual consultations. Structural factors such as insurance and short duration of appointments also impacted the diagnosis and management of COPD. Conclusion: COPD is an important public health issue that needs urgent prioritization. The use of Evidenced Care Pathways with decision-makers can facilitate evidence-based decision making on interventions and policies to improve care and outcomes for patients and reduce unnecessary resource use and associated costs for the healthcare provider/payer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Critical Pathways , Germany , Humans , Japan , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
13.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(12): 1695-1703, 2022 Dec 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in elderly and patients with chronic respiratory diseases (COPD) had a poor prognosis. COPD is one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. We explore the epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 with COPD patients in order to provide medical evidence for the prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical baseline characteristics, treatment strategies, disease progression and prognosis of 557 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from January 29, 2020 to April 8, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 465 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in the study, including 248 (53.3%) males and 217 (46.7%) females. The median age of severe COVID-19 patients was 62.0 years, and 53 patients were complicated with COPD. Common symptoms at the onset included fever (78.5%), dry cough (67.1%), shortness of breath (47.3%) and fatigue (40.9%). Compared with non-COPD patients, patients with COPD had significantly lower levels of SpO2 in admission (90.0% vs 92.0%, P=0.014). In terms of laboratory examinations, patients with COPD had higher levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity troponin I, and D-dimer, while had lower levels of platelet counts, albumin and apolipoprotein AI. Severe COVID-19 patients with COPD had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores [3.0(2.0, 3.0) vs 2.0(2.0, 3.0), P=0.038] and CURB-65 score [1.0(1.0, 2.0) vs1.0(0.0, 1.0), P<0.001], and a higher proportion of progressing to critical illness (28.3% vs 10.0%, P<0.001) with more complications [e.g. septic shock (15.1% vs 6.1%, P=0.034)], had higher incidence rates of antibiotic therapies (90.6% vs 77.2%, P=0.025), non-invasive (11.3% vs 1.7%, P<0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (17.0% vs 8.3%, P=0.039), ICU admission (17.0% vs 7.5%, P=0.021) and death (15.1% vs 6.1%, P=0.016). Cox proportion hazard model was carried out, and the results showed that comorbid COPD was an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 patients progressing to critical type, after adjusting for age and gender [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=2.38(1.30-4.37), P=0.005] and additionally adjusting for chronic kidney diseases, hypertension, coronary heart disease [AHR=2.63(1.45-4.77), P<0.001], or additionally adjusting for some statistically significant laboratory findings [AHR=2.10(1.13-3.89), P=0.018]. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 patients with COPD have higher levels of disease severity, proportion of progression to critical illness and mortality rate. Individualized treatment strategies should be adopted to improve the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Critical Illness , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
14.
Intern Med J ; 53(4): 615-618, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223355

ABSTRACT

A series of studies has reported weight gain in association with COVID-19 lockdowns; typically, this research has had short-term follow-up in populations that tended to gain weight. In this study, the effect of prolonged lockdowns on weight was assessed in a population of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Before lockdown subjects gained an average of 0.022 kg per month; after lockdown this trend reversed with subjects losing weight at 0.032 kg per month, a trend that was highly significant (P < 0.001).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Communicable Disease Control , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Weight Gain
15.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214521

ABSTRACT

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species - be it animal or human - there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
16.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 18(1): 59, 2023 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the incidence of postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality in patients ≥ 70 years old with hip fracture following hip arthroplasty (HA) and independent risk factors associated with postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted, patients ≥ 70 years old with HA for hip fracture under general anesthesia were included during COVID-19 and before COVID-19 pandemic. The outcome was defined as postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. The baseline characteristics and risk factors were collected, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for postoperative medical complications and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1096 patients were included during COVID-19 pandemic and 1149 were included before COVID-19 pandemic in the study. Patients ≥ 70 years with hip fracture for HA had longer fracture to operation duration (7.10 ± 3.52 vs. 5.31 ± 1.29, P < 0.001), and the incidence of postoperative medical complications (21.90% vs. 12.53%, P < 0.001) and 3-month mortality (5.20% vs. 3.22%, P = 0.025) was higher during COVID-2019 pandemic. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dementia (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.37-5.44; P = 0.004), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.92-4.71; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.19-1.30; P < 0.001) were associated with increased risk for postoperative medical complications. COPD (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.05-4.17; P = 0.035), dementia (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.11-7.94; P = 0.031), postoperative medical complications (OR 4.99; 95% CI 2.68-9.28; P < 0.001), longer fracture to operation duration (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.19; P = 0.002) were associated with increased risk for 3-month mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that postoperative medical morbidity and 3-month mortality in patients with hip fracture underwent HA were 21.90% and 5.20%, respectively, during the COVID-19. COPD, dementia and longer fracture to operation duration were associated with negative outcome in patients with hip fracture underwent HA during the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , COVID-19 , Dementia , Hip Fractures , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hip Fractures/surgery , Risk Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Incidence , Dementia/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery
17.
BMC Prim Care ; 24(1): 9, 2023 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of chronic diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically been reduced worldwide due to disruptions in healthcare systems. The aim of our study is to analyse the trends in the incidence of 7 commonly managed primary care chronic diseases during the last 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic in Catalonia. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective population-based study using data from primary care electronic health records from January 2018 to August 2022 (5.1 million people older than 14 years). We divided the study period into two: a pre-pandemic period (before 14 March 2020) and a pandemic period. We performed a segmented regression analysis of daily incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants of 7 chronic diseases: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. In addition, we compared annual incidence between pandemic years (2020, 2021 and 2022) and 2019. Associated incidence rate ratios (IRR) were also calculated. Finally, we estimated the number of expected diagnoses during the pandemic period using data from 2019 and we compared it with the observed data. RESULTS: We analysed 740,820 new chronic diseases' diagnoses. Daily incidence rates of all 7 chronic diseases were drastically interrupted on 14 March 2020, and a general upward trend was observed during the following months. Reductions in 2020 were around 30% for all conditions except COPD which had greater reductions (IRR: 0.58 [95% CI: 0.57 to 0.6]) and HF with lesser drops (IRR: 0.86 [95% CI: 0.84 to 0.88]). Some of the chronic conditions have returned to pre-pandemic diagnosis levels, except asthma, COPD and IHD. The return to pre-pandemic diagnosis levels compensated for the drops in 2020 for T2DM and HF, but not for hypertension which presented an incomplete recovery. We also observed an excess of hypercholesterolemia diagnoses of 8.5% (95%CI: 1.81% to 16.15%). CONCLUSIONS: Although primary care has recovered the pre-pandemic diagnosis levels for some chronic diseases, there are still missing diagnoses of asthma, COPD and IHD that should be addressed.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Hypercholesterolemia , Hypertension , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Hypertension/epidemiology
18.
J Clin Periodontol ; 50(6): 842-887, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192725

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate (1) whether periodontitis has an influence on the prevalence/incidence of respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], asthma, community-acquired pneumonia [CAP], obstructive sleep apnoea [OSA] and COVID-19), and (2) what is the impact of periodontal therapy on the onset or progression of respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed on Pubmed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases up to October 2021, to identify studies answering the PECOS and PICOS questions. RESULTS: Seventy-five articles were selected. Meta-analyses identified statistically significant associations of periodontitis with COPD (nstudies  = 12, odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16; 1.42], p < .001), and OSA (ns  = 6, OR = 1.65, 95% CI [1.21; 2.25], p = .001), but not for asthma (ns  = 9, OR = 1.53, 95% CI [0.82; 2.86], p = .181). For acute conditions, two studies were found for CAP, while for COVID-19, significant associations were found for the need of assisted ventilation (ns  = 2, OR = 6.24, 95% CI [2.78; 13.99], p < .001) and COVID-related mortality (ns  = 3, OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.36, 3.77], p = .002). Only four intervention studies were found, showing positive effects of periodontal treatment on COPD, asthma and CAP. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between periodontitis and COPD, OSA and COVID-19 complications has been found, while there is a lack of intervention studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Periodontitis , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Periodontitis/complications , Periodontitis/epidemiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
19.
Ann Med ; 55(1): 285-291, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The exhaustive information about non-communicable diseases associated with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are getting easier to find in the literature. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructed pulmonary disease (COPD), with numerous infections in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Priority is placed on determining the patient's prognosis based on the presence or absence of TB and COPD. Additionally, a comparison is made between the risk of death and the likelihood of recovery in terms of time in COVID-19 patients who have either COPD or TB. METHODOLOGY: At the DHQ Hospital in Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan, 498 COVID-19 patients with TB and COPD were studied retrospectively. The duration of study started in February 2022 and concluded in August 2022. The Kaplan-Meier curves described time-to-death and time-to-recovery stratified by TB and COPD status. The Wilcoxon test compared the survival rates of people with TB and COPD in two matched paired groups and their status differences with their standard of living. RESULTS: The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with TB was 1.476 times higher than in those without (95% CI: 0.949-2.295). The recovery risk in COVID-19 patients with TB was 0.677 times lower than in those without (95% CI: 0.436-1.054). Similarly, patients with TB had a significantly shorter time to death (p=.001) and longer time to recovery (p=.001). CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings, the most significant contributor to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in TB and COPD patients was the COVID-19.KEY MESSAGESSARS-Cov-19 is a new challenge for the universe in terms of prevention and treatment for people with tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, among other diseases.Propensity score matching to control for potential biases.Compared to hospitalized patients with and without (TB and COPD) had an equivalently higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tuberculosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
20.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(2): 182-189, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surges amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there is limited comorbidities data associated with viral shedding time (VST). We aimed to investigate the effect of comorbidities on VST in asymptomatic and mild patients with omicron. METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted from March 12, 2022 to May 24, 2022 in Shanghai. The analysis was adjusted for patients' baseline demographic, using log-rank test and logistic regression model. RESULTS: The study enrolled 198,262 subjects. The median duration of viral shedding time (VST) was 8.29 days. The number of cumulative viral shedding events was significantly lower in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hyperlipidemia, diabetes, urinary system disease, and cardiocerebrovascular disease than in the no corresponding comorbidities group. Patients with comorbidities had a lower incidence of viral shedding, and the most significant independent risk factor is COPD (aOR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.53-2.08, p < 0.001). Across different age ranges, the comorbidities affecting viral shedding also differ, with the greatest risk factors for viral shedding being hyperlipidemia (aOR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.50-3.31, p < 0.001) and COPD (aOR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.50-2.28, p < 0.001) between ages of 18-39 and 40-64, and thyroid dysfunction (aOR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.60-3.47, p < 0.001) above age 64. CONCLUSIONS: Omicron-infected patients with comorbidities might prolong the VST. The independent risk factors also differ across age ranges, suggesting that providing targeted effective prevention and control guidance and allocating appropriate resources to different populations should be a crucial strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding , China/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
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