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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060994, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) length of treatment effect on survival of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in a medium-sized UK Hospital, and how this effect changes according to the patient's comorbidity and COVID-19 route of acquisition (community or nosocomial) during the two waves in 2020. SETTING: The acute inpatient unit in Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (WWL), a medium-sized NHS Trust in north-west of England. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of all confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted in WWL during 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1830 patients (568 first wave, 1262 s wave) with antigen confirmed COVID-19 disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome admitted between 17 March 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case) and 31 December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURE: COVID-19 survival rate in all patients and survival rate in potentially hospital-acquired COVID-19 (PHA) patients were modelled using a predictor set which include comorbidities (eg, obesity, diabetes, chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)), wave, age, sex and care home residency, and interventions (remdesivir, dexamethasone, CPAP, intensive care unit (ICU), intubation). Secondary outcome measure was CPAP length, which was modelled using the same predictors of the survival rate. RESULTS: Mortality rate in the second wave was significantly lower than in the first wave (43.4% vs 28.1%, p<0.001), although for PHA COVID-19 patients mortality did not reduce, remaining at very high levels independently of wave and CPAP length. For all cohort, statistical modelling identified CPAP length (HR 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96) and women (HR 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81) were associated with improved survival, while being older age (HR 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) admitted from care homes (HR 95% CI 2.22 to 2.39), IHD (HR 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24), CKD (HR 95% CI 1.14 to 1.25), obesity (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.28) and COPD-emphysema (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57) were associated with reduced survival. Despite the detrimental effect of comorbidities, patients with CKD (95% CI 16% to 30% improvement in survival), IHD (95% CI 1% to 10% improvement in survival) and asthma (95% CI 8% to 30% improvement in survival) benefitted most from CPAP length, while no significant survival difference was found for obese and patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of an Acute Trust during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 is documented and indicates the importance of care home and hospitals in disease acquisition. Death rates fell between the first and second wave only for community-acquired COVID-19 patients. The fall was associated to CPAP length, especially for some comorbidities. While uncovering some risk and protective factors of mortality in COVID-19 studies, the study also unravels how little is known about PHA COVID-19 and the interaction between CPAP and some comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , State Medicine , Comorbidity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Hospitals , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Lancet ; 399(10342): 2227-2242, 2022 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132757

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and health-care use worldwide. COPD is caused by exposure to inhaled noxious particles, notably tobacco smoke and pollutants. However, the broad range of factors that increase the risk of development and progression of COPD throughout the life course are increasingly being recognised. Innovations in omics and imaging techniques have provided greater insight into disease pathobiology, which might result in advances in COPD prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Although few novel treatments have been approved for COPD in the past 5 years, advances have been made in targeting existing therapies to specific subpopulations using new biomarker-based strategies. Additionally, COVID-19 has undeniably affected individuals with COPD, who are not only at higher risk for severe disease manifestations than healthy individuals but also negatively affected by interruptions in health-care delivery and social isolation. This Seminar reviews COPD with an emphasis on recent advances in epidemiology, pathophysiology, imaging, diagnosis, and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Smoke
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276774, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098758

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in patients with COVID-19 varies, as well as their risks of mortality. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and to determine their risks of mortality in patients with COVID-19 using a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed clinical studies that reported the comorbidities of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19. We searched various databases including PubMed (from inception to 27 September 2021) for eligible studies written in English. A meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model for measuring the prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO as comorbidities, and the mortality risk of asthma, COPD, and ACO in patients with COVID-19 was estimated. A stratified analysis was conducted according to country. RESULTS: One hundred one studies were eligible, and 1,229,434 patients with COVID-19 were identified. Among them, the estimated prevalence of asthma, COPD, and ACO using a meta-analysis was 10.04% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.79-11.30), 8.18% (95% CI, 7.01-9.35), and 3.70% (95% CI, 2.40-5.00), respectively. The odds ratio for mortality of pre-existing asthma in COVID-19 patients was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.55-1.4; p = 0.630), while that in pre-existing COPD in COVID-19 patients was 3.79 (95% CI, 2.74-5.24; p<0.001). France showed the highest prevalence of asthma followed by the UK, while that of COPD was highest in the Netherlands followed by India. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing asthma and COPD are associated with the incidence of COVID-19. Having COPD significantly increases the risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. These differences appear to be influenced by the difference of locations of disease pathophysiology and by the daily diagnosis and treatment policy of each country.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Asthma/epidemiology , Comorbidity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 101-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. AS and COPD patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify a major depressive disorder risk. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients diagnosed with AS or COPD aged 18 to 69 (M=60.4, SD=17.6) participated. The risk of major depression was assessed using the PHQ-9 sent online after telephone contact with the participants. 30.7% of the patients during the last month reported a risk of major depression, and it was associated with a history of major depressive disorder (OR=4.39, 95% CI 1.53-12.67) and medical comorbidity (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: The depression risk is associated with a history of depressive disorder and medical comorbidity in patients with AS and COPD. Medical history is the leading risk factor for depression during confinement. It is recommended to carry out studies with many participants and study other variables that may mediate said associations during confinement by SAR-CoV-2 in the Colombian Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066070

ABSTRACT

Mortality related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during the COVID-19 pandemic is possibly underestimated by sparse available data. The study aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on COPD-related mortality by means of time series analyses of causes of death data. We analyzed the death certificates of residents in Veneto (Italy) aged ≥40 years from 2008 to 2020. The age-standardized rates were computed for COPD as the underlying cause of death (UCOD) and as any mention in death certificates (multiple cause of death-MCOD). The annual percent change (APC) in the rates was estimated for the pre-pandemic period. Excess COPD-related mortality in 2020 was estimated by means of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models. Overall, COPD was mentioned in 7.2% (43,780) of all deaths. From 2008 to 2019, the APC for COPD-related mortality was -4.9% (95% CI -5.5%, -4.2%) in men and -3.1% in women (95% CI -3.8%, -2.5%). In 2020 compared to the 2018-2019 average, the number of deaths from COPD (UCOD) declined by 8%, while COPD-related deaths (MCOD) increased by 14% (95% CI 10-18%), with peaks corresponding to the COVID-19 epidemic waves. Time series analyses confirmed that in 2020, COPD-related mortality increased by 16%. Patients with COPD experienced significant excess mortality during the first year of the pandemic. The decline in COPD mortality as the UCOD is explained by COVID-19 acting as a competing cause, highlighting how an MCOD approach is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062305, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064157

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a computer-based decision support tool (DST) for key decision makers to safely explore the impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care of service changes driven by restrictions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. DESIGN: The DST is powered by discrete event simulation which captures the entire patient pathway. To estimate the number of COPD admissions under different scenario settings, a regression model was developed and embedded into the tool. The tool can generate a wide range of patient-related and service-related outputs. Thus, the likely impact of possible changes (eg, COVID-19 restrictions and pandemic scenarios) on patients with COPD and care can be estimated. SETTING: COPD services (including outpatient and inpatient departments) at a major provider in central London. RESULTS: Four different scenarios (reflecting the UK government's Plan A, Plan B and Plan C in addition to a benchmark scenario) were run for 1 year. 856, 616 and 484 face-to-face appointments (among 1226 clinic visits) are expected in Plans A, B and C, respectively. Clinic visit quality in Plan A is found to be marginally better than in Plans B and C. Under coronavirus restrictions, lung function tests decreased more than 80% in Plan C as compared with Plan A. Fewer COPD exacerbation-related admissions were seen (284.1 Plan C vs 395.1 in the benchmark) associated with stricter restrictions. Although the results indicate that fewer quality-adjusted life years (in terms of COPD management) would be lost during more severe restrictions, the wider impact on physical and mental health must also be established. CONCLUSIONS: This DST will enable COPD services to examine how the latest developments in care delivery and management might impact their service during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic, and in the event of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Life , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Participation restriction has detrimental effects for older adults but it is unknown how participation differs for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to older adults of the same age without respiratory conditions. We compared scores on the Late Life Disability Instrument (LLDI) between people with COPD (study group) and a random sample of older adults (control group). METHODS: Participants with COPD (study group) were recruited from two hospitals in Ontario and age- and sex-matched with a ratio of 1:2 with participants from a random sample of community-dwelling older adults who did not report having respiratory conditions (control group). The study group completed the LLDI prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and the control group completed the LLDI at the end of the first wave of the pandemic. LLDI frequency and limitation scores were compared between groups using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. RESULTS: Forty-six study group participants (mean age 74.2 (SD 5.5) years) and 92 control group participants (mean age 74.4 (SD 5.4) years) were included. Fifty-four percent of the participants were female. The majority of the study group had severe COPD (median forced expiratory volume in one second of 34.5 (25th-75th percentile 27.0-56.0) % predicted). LLDI sores were lower for the study group compared to the control group for both the frequency (median difference -5.4 points, p<0.001) and limitation (median difference -7.6 points, p<0.001) domains. The personal subscale demonstrated the largest magnitude of difference between groups (median difference -13.4 points) and the social subscale demonstrated the smallest magnitude of difference (-5.2 points). CONCLUSION: People with COPD had greater participation restrictions than a random sample of older adults without ongoing respiratory conditions. The differences seen in participation between the two groups may have been reduced due to temporal confounding from the COVID-19 pandemic. While participation is relevant to all older adults, our results suggest that it is especially important that it be assessed in those with COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(6): 1172-1182, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal respiratory viral infections are associated with exacerbations and morbidity among patients with COPD. The real-world clinical outcomes associated with seasonal viral infections are less well established among hospitalized patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: To estimate the association between seasonal respiratory viral infections, 30-day mortality, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission among hospitalized COPD patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted an analysis of a national prospective multicenter cohort of COPD patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness during winter seasons (2011-2015) in Canada. Nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on all patients at the onset of hospital admission for diagnosis of viral infection. Primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and ICU admissions. Secondary outcomes included invasive/non-invasive ventilation use. RESULTS: Among 3931 hospitalized patients with COPD, 28.5% (1122/3931) were diagnosed with seasonal respiratory viral infection. Viral infection was associated with increased admission to ICU (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9) and need for mechanical ventilation (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5), but was not associated with mortality (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.4). Patients with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were equally likely to require ICU admission (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.67-1.78), and more likely to need non-invasive ventilation (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.8-5.1) compared to patients with influenza. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest COPD patients requiring hospitalization for respiratory symptoms should routinely receive viral testing at admission, especially for RSV and influenza, to inform prognosis, clinical management, and infection control practices during winter seasons. Patients with COPD will be an important target population for newly developed RSV therapeutics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01517191.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 207, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is projected to become the third cause of mortality worldwide. COPD shares several pathophysiological mechanisms with cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. However, no definite answers are available on the prognostic role of COPD in the setting of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially during COVID-19 pandemic, among patients undergoing primary angioplasty, that is therefore the aim of the current study. METHODS: In the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19 registry we included retrospectively patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between March and June of 2019 and 2020 from 109 high-volume primary PCI centers in 4 continents. RESULTS: A total of 15,686 patients were included in this analysis. Of them, 810 (5.2%) subjects had a COPD diagnosis. They were more often elderly and with a more pronounced cardiovascular risk profile. No preminent procedural dissimilarities were noticed except for a lower proportion of dual antiplatelet therapy at discharge among COPD patients (98.9% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.038). With regards to short-term fatal outcomes, both in-hospital and 30-days mortality occurred more frequently among COPD patients, similarly in pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 era. However, after adjustment for main baseline differences, COPD did not result as independent predictor for in-hospital death (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 0.913[0.658-1.266], P = 0.585) nor for 30-days mortality (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 0.850 [0.620-1.164], P = 0.310). No significant differences were detected in terms of SARS-CoV-2 positivity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This is one of the largest studies investigating characteristics and outcome of COPD patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty, especially during COVID pandemic. COPD was associated with significantly higher rates of in-hospital and 30-days mortality. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Furthermore, COPD did not significantly affect SARS-CoV-2 positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04412655 (2nd June 2020).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors driving acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is key to reducing their impact on human health and well-being. METHODS: 5997 people with COPD, mean 66 years, 64% female, completed an online survey between December 2020 and May 2021 about living with COPD, developed by the charity Asthma + Lung UK. RESULTS: The 3731 (62.2%) survey participants reporting frequent (≥2/year) exacerbations were more likely to smoke (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.70, 95% CI 1.470 to 1.98), have lower annual household income (≤£20 000 (AOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.17), live in a cold and damp home (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.11) and report previous occupational exposure to dust, fumes and chemicals. Smokers were more likely to report attending hospital to manage their most recent acute exacerbation of COPD compared with ex-smokers (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.59). DISCUSSION: Strategies to improve COPD outcomes must address issues of deprivation and social justice.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Asthma/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E34, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As of November 2021, older adults (aged ≥65 y) accounted for 81% of all deaths from COVID-19 in the US. Chronic lung diseases increase the risk for severe COVID-19 illness and death. The aim of this research was to examine the association between town-level rates of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and deaths from COVID-19 in 208 towns in Connecticut and Rhode Island. METHODS: We conducted a multistep analysis to examine the association between town-level chronic lung conditions and death from COVID-19. Pairwise correlations were estimated and bivariate maps were created to assess the relationship between COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 people and 1) asthma prevalence and 2) COPD prevalence among adults aged 65 years or older. We used multiple linear regression models to examine whether chronic lung conditions and other town-level factors were associated with COVID-19 death rates in Connecticut and Rhode Island. RESULTS: Initial bivariate correlation and mapping analyses suggested positive correlations between asthma and COPD prevalence and COVID-19 death rates. However, after controlling for town-level factors associated with chronic lung conditions and COVID-19 death rates, multiple linear regression models did not support an association, but town-level factors (African American race and Hispanic ethnicity, age ≥65 y, and low educational attainment) were significant predictors of COVID-19 death rates. CONCLUSION: We found significant associations between town-level factors and COVID-19, adding to the current understanding of the impact of social determinants of health on outcomes.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cities , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Lung , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Rhode Island/epidemiology
16.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 15(4): 172-178, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903575

ABSTRACT

Preventing acute care transfers from skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is a challenge secondary to residents' associated debilitated status and comorbidities. Acute care transfers often result in serious complications and unnecessary health care expenditure. Literature implies that approximately two thirds of these acute care transfers could be prevented using proactive interventions. The purpose of the current study was to identify the predictors of acute care transfers for SNF residents in developing relevant prevention strategies. A retrospective chart review using multivariate logistic regression analysis showed increased odds of SNF hospitalization was significantly associated with impaired cognition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease, whereas decreased odds of hospitalization was identified among non-Hispanic White residents. Study recommendations include prompt assessment of comorbid symptomatology among SNF residents for the timely management and prevention of unnecessary acute care transfers. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 15(4), 172-178.].


Subject(s)
Hospitalization , Medical Overuse , Patient Transfer , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Medical Overuse/prevention & control , Medical Overuse/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Skilled Nursing Facilities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
17.
Addiction ; 117(7): 2027-2036, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smoking increases the risk of severe COVID-19, but whether lung function or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mediate the underlying associations is unclear. We conducted the largest Mendelian randomization study to date, to our knowledge, to address these questions. DESIGN: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), FinnGen and UK Biobank. The main analysis was the inverse variance weighted method, and we included a range of sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the findings. SETTING: GWAS which included international consortia, FinnGen and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: The sample size ranged from 193 638 to 2 586 691. MEASUREMENTS: Genetic determinants of life-time smoking index, lung function [e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 )], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and different severities of COID-19. RESULTS: Smoking increased the risk of COVID-19 compared with population controls for overall COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19 per standard deviation (SD) of life-time smoking index, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.27], hospitalized COVID-19 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.42-1.97) or severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.10-1.98), with directionally consistent effects from sensitivity analyses. Lung function and COPD liability did not appear to mediate these associations. CONCLUSION: There is genetic evidence that smoking probably increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and possibly also milder forms of COVID-19. Decreased lung function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to mediate the effect of smoking on COVID-19 risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Lung , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects
18.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884388

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: We aimed to assess the effect of COPD in the incidence of hospital admissions for COVID-19 and on the in-hospital mortality (IHM) according to sex. (2) Methods: We used national hospital discharge data to select persons aged ≥40 years admitted to a hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in 2020 in Spain. (3) Results: The study population included 218,301 patients. Age-adjusted incidence rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations for men with and without COPD were 10.66 and 9.27 per 1000 persons, respectively (IRR 1.14; 95% CI 1.08-1.20; p < 0.001). The IHM was higher in men than in women regardless of the history of COPD. The COPD was associated with higher IHM among women (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) but not among men. The COPD men had a 25% higher risk of dying in the hospital with COVID-19 than women with COPD (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.1-1.42). (4) Conclusions: Sex differences seem to exist in the effect of COPD among patients suffering COVID-19. The history of COPD increased the risk of hospitalization among men but not among women, and COPD was only identified as a risk factor for IHM among women. In any case, we observed that COPD men had a higher mortality than COPD women. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these sex differences could help predict the patient outcomes and inform clinical decision making to facilitate early treatment and disposition decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Spain/epidemiology
19.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(4): 652-660, 2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a common, preventable, and treatable disease. Here, we conducted a systematic review of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its risk factors in Nepal for the last two decades. METHODS: We systematically searched databases to find all relevant Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease research papers from 2000 to 2020. Two reviewers screened the literature using Covidence based on the study protocol. Data extraction was done using Microsoft Excel from selected studies. Final data analysis was done using CMA v.3. Our review protocol is available in PROSPERO (CRD42020215486) on 20 November 2020. RESULTS: The database search revealed 1416 studies of which 13 were included in quantitative analysis. The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the adult population was 22·7% (CI, 12·5-37·7) of whom 54·9% were female (CI, 51·9-57·9). Nearly three-fourth of the participants (73·1%) of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients had informal education (CI, 58·6-84·0). The commonest primary occupation was agriculture and farming in 39·4% (CI, 31·3-48·2), followed by homemaker (36·8%). It was observed that 28·5% of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were former smokers, 25·8% non-smokers, and 59·4% were current smokers. More than two-third (76·2%) of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients relied upon traditional firewood cooking, whereas only 14.6% was adopted fireless cooking. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Nepal was significantly high with more cases in females compared to males. Smoking and traditional firewood cooking were major risk factors among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease cases in Nepal.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
20.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268772, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The available data to determine the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) burden in Saudi Arabia are scarce. Therefore, this study closely examines and tracks the trends of the COPD burden in Saudi Arabia from 1990 to 2019 using the dataset of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019. METHODS: This study used the GBD 2019 dataset to analyse the COPD prevalence, incidence, morbidity and mortality rates in the Saudi Arabian population from 1990 to 2019, stratified by sex and age. The age-standardised rate was used to determine the prevalence, incidence, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and deaths. RESULTS: In 2019, an estimated 434,560.64 people (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI) 396,011.72-473,596.71) had COPD in Saudi Arabia, corresponding to an increase of 329.82% compared with the number of diagnosed people in 1990 [101,104.05 (95% UI 91,334.4-111,223.91)]. The prevalence rate of COPD increased by 49%, from 1,381.26 (1,285.35-1,484.96) cases per 100,000 in 1990 to 2,053.04 (1918.06-2194.29) cases per 100,000 in 2019, and this trend was higher in males than females. The incidence rate of COPD in 2019 was 145.06 (136.62-154.76) new cases per 100,000, representing an increase of 43.4% from the 1990 incidence rate [101.18 (95.27-107.86)]. In 2019, the DALYs rate was 508.15 (95% UI 434.85-581.58) per 100,000 population. This was higher in males than females, with a 14.12% increase among males. In 2019, YLLs contributed to 63.6% of DALYs due to COPD. The death rate due to COPD was 19.6 (95% UI 15.94-23.39) deaths per 100 000 in 2019, indicating a decrease of 41.44% compared with the death rate in 1990 [33.55 deaths per 100 000 (95% UI 25.13-47.69)]. In 2019, COPD deaths accounted for 1.65% (1.39-1.88) of the total of deaths in Saudi Arabia and 57% of all deaths caused by chronic respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: Over the period 1990-2019, the prevalence and incidence of COPD in Saudi Arabia have been steadily rising. Even though COPD morbidity and death rates have been decreasing, they remain higher in men and older age. The holistic assessment and interventions with careful attention to optimising the community-based primary care management, such as screening for early diagnosis, smoking cessation programs and pulmonary rehabilitation, are likely to be the most successful strategies to reduce the burden of COPD in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Female , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
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