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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390702

ABSTRACT

Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a uniquely destructive serine protease with the ability to unleash a wave of proteolytic activity by destroying the inhibitors of other proteases. Although this phenomenon forms an important part of the innate immune response to invading pathogens, it is responsible for the collateral host tissue damage observed in chronic conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and in more acute disorders such as the lung injuries associated with COVID-19 infection. Previously, a combinatorially selected activity-based probe revealed an unexpected substrate preference for oxidised methionine, which suggests a link to oxidative pathogen clearance by neutrophils. Here we use oxidised model substrates and inhibitors to confirm this observation and to show that neutrophil elastase is specifically selective for the di-oxygenated methionine sulfone rather than the mono-oxygenated methionine sulfoxide. We also posit a critical role for ordered solvent in the mechanism of HNE discrimination between the two oxidised forms methionine residue. Preference for the sulfone form of oxidised methionine is especially significant. While both host and pathogens have the ability to reduce methionine sulfoxide back to methionine, a biological pathway to reduce methionine sulfone is not known. Taken together, these data suggest that the oxidative activity of neutrophils may create rapidly cleaved elastase "super substrates" that directly damage tissue, while initiating a cycle of neutrophil oxidation that increases elastase tissue damage and further neutrophil recruitment.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Methionine/analogs & derivatives , Neutrophils/immunology , Biocatalysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Enzyme Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Leukocyte Elastase/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Methionine/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Neutrophil Infiltration , Neutrophils/enzymology , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Proteolysis/drug effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Substrate Specificity/immunology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678661, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337638

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19, but the mechanisms are unclear. Besides, patients with severe COVID-19 have been reported to have increased levels of several immune mediators. Methods: Ninety-two proteins were quantified in 315 plasma samples from 118 asthmatics, 99 COPD patients and 98 healthy controls (age 40-90 years), who were recruited in Colombia before the COVID-19 pandemic. Protein levels were compared between each disease group and healthy controls. Significant proteins were compared to the gene signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection reported in the "COVID-19 Drug and Gene Set Library" and with experimentally tested protein biomarkers of severe COVID-19. Results: Forty-one plasma proteins showed differences between patients and controls. Asthmatic patients have increased levels in IL-6 while COPD patients have a broader systemic inflammatory dysregulation driven by HGF, OPG, and several chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CXCL1, MCP-3, MCP-4, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL11). These proteins are involved in chemokine signaling pathways related with response to viral infections and some, were found up-regulated upon SARS-CoV-2 experimental infection of Calu-3 cells as reported in the COVID-19 Related Gene Sets database. An increase of HPG, CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-6, MCP-3, TNF and EN-RAGE has also been experimentally detected in patients with severe COVID-19. Conclusions: COPD patients have altered levels of plasma proteins that have been reported increased in patients with severe COVID-19. Our study suggests that COPD patients have a systemic dysregulation in chemokine networks (including HGF and CXCL9) that could make them more susceptible to severe COVID-19. Also, that IL-6 levels are increased in some asthmatic patients (especially in females) and this may influence their response to COVID-19. The findings in this study depict a novel panel of inflammatory plasma proteins in COPD patients that may potentially associate with increased susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and might be useful as a biomarker signature after future experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL9/blood , Female , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
3.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 820-828, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225511

ABSTRACT

Efficient immune responses against viral infection are determined by sufficient activation of nucleic acid sensor-mediated innate immunity1,2. Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains an ongoing global pandemic. It is an urgent challenge to clarify the innate recognition mechanism to control this virus. Here we show that retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) sufficiently restrains SARS-CoV-2 replication in human lung cells in a type I/III interferon (IFN)-independent manner. RIG-I recognizes the 3' untranslated region of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome via the helicase domains, but not the C-terminal domain. This new mode of RIG-I recognition does not stimulate its ATPase, thereby aborting the activation of the conventional mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein-dependent pathways, which is in accordance with lack of cytokine induction. Nevertheless, the interaction of RIG-I with the viral genome directly abrogates viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mediation of the first step of replication. Consistently, genetic ablation of RIG-I allows lung cells to produce viral particles that expressed the viral spike protein. By contrast, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was restored by all-trans retinoic acid treatment through upregulation of RIG-I protein expression in primary lung cells derived from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, our findings demonstrate the distinctive role of RIG-I as a restraining factor in the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Lung/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Lung/virology , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/immunology , Sf9 Cells , Signal Transduction/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/immunology
4.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186898

ABSTRACT

Macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune responses of organ systems, including the lungs, to particles and pathogens. Cumulative results show that macrophages contribute to the development and progression of acute or chronic inflammatory responses through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and the activation of transcription factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, such as acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ARDS related to COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)), allergic asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This review summarizes the functions of macrophages and their associated underlying mechanisms in the development of ALI, ARDS, COVID-19-related ARDS, allergic asthma, COPD, and IPF and briefly introduces the acute and chronic experimental animal models. Thus, this review suggests an effective therapeutic approach that focuses on the regulation of macrophage function in the context of inflammatory lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Animals , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Allergy ; 76(2): 483-496, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of chronic airway diseases on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are far from understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity on disease expression and outcomes, and the potential underlying mechanisms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 961 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a definite clinical outcome (death or discharge) were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical records. Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with various cytokines. RESULTS: In this cohort, 21 subjects (2.2%) had COPD and 22 (2.3%) had asthma. After adjusting for confounding factors, COPD patients had higher risk of developing severe illness (OR: 23.433; 95% CI 1.525-360.135; P < .01) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 19.762; 95% CI 1.461-267.369; P = .025) than asthmatics. COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics. COPD patients had increased, whereas asthmatics had decreased ACE2 protein expression in lower airways, compared with that in control subjects without asthma and COPD. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated, but TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION: Patients with asthma and COPD likely have different risk of severe COVID-19, which may be associated with different ACE2 expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6646923, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093883

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory lung disease results in a high global burden of death and disability. There are no effective treatments for the most severe forms of many inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, corticosteroid-resistant asthma, and coronavirus disease 2019; hence, new treatment options are required. Here, we review the role of oxidative imbalance in the development of difficult-to-treat inflammatory lung diseases. The inflammation-induced overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) means that endogenous antioxidants may not be sufficient to prevent oxidative damage, resulting in an oxidative imbalance in the lung. In turn, intracellular signaling events trigger the production of proinflammatory mediators that perpetuate and aggravate the inflammatory response and may lead to tissue damage. The production of high levels of ROS in inflammatory lung diseases can induce the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, the inactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling and histone deacetylase 2, a decrease in glucocorticoid binding to its receptor, and thus resistance to glucocorticoid treatment. Hence, antioxidant treatment might be a therapeutic option for inflammatory lung diseases. Preclinical studies have shown that antioxidants (alone or combined with anti-inflammatory drugs) are effective in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, although the clinical evidence of efficacy is weaker. Despite the high level of evidence for the efficacy of antioxidants in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, the discovery and clinical investigation of safer, more efficacious compounds are now a priority.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/immunology , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
8.
Comput Biol Med ; 128: 104126, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996804

ABSTRACT

Genes act in groups known as gene modules, which accomplish different cellular functions in the body. The modular nature of gene networks was used in this study to detect functionally enriched modules in samples obtained from COPD patients. We analyzed modules extracted from COPD samples and identified crucial genes associated with the disease COVID-19. We also extracted modules from a COVID-19 dataset and analyzed a suspected set of genes that may be associated with this deadly disease. We used information available for two other viruses that cause SARS and MERS because their physiology is similar to that of the COVID-19 virus. We report several crucial genes associated with COVID-19: RPA2, POLD4, MAPK8, IRF7, JUN, NFKB1, NFKBIA, CD40LG, FASLG, ICAM1, LIFR, STAT2 and CCR1. Most of these genes are related to the immune system and respiratory organs, which emphasizes the fact that COPD weakens this system and makes patients more susceptible to developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(2): 510-519.e5, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying altered susceptibility and propensity to severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in at-risk groups such as patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in COPD, but the extent to which these therapies protect or expose patients to risk of severe COVID-19 is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICSs following pulmonary expression of the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). METHODS: We evaluated the effect of ICS administration on pulmonary ACE2 expression in vitro in human airway epithelial cell cultures and in vivo in mouse models of ICS administration. Mice deficient in the type I IFN-α/ß receptor (Ifnar1-/-) and administration of exogenous IFN-ß were used to study the functional role of type-I interferon signaling in ACE2 expression. We compared sputum ACE2 expression in patients with COPD stratified according to use or nonuse of ICS. RESULTS: ICS administration attenuated ACE2 expression in mice, an effect that was reversed by exogenous IFN-ß administration, and Ifnar1-/- mice had reduced ACE2 expression, indicating that type I interferon contributes mechanistically to this effect. ICS administration attenuated expression of ACE2 in airway epithelial cell cultures from patients with COPD and in mice with elastase-induced COPD-like changes. Compared with ICS nonusers, patients with COPD who were taking ICSs also had reduced sputum expression of ACE2. CONCLUSION: ICS therapies in COPD reduce expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2. This effect may thus contribute to altered susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
10.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110284, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779456

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be more vulnerable to Covid-19, whereas they seem to be protected against severe Covid-19. That paradox has important practical implications for the use of the drug Tocilizumab in Covid-19. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) orchestrates the so-called cytokine storm leading to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the life-threatening condition that is responsible for Covid-19 deaths. However, IL-6 has a paradoxical effect in many viral infections. For pathogens such as HIV and Hepatitis B for example, high elevations show a toxic effect and are associated with higher mortality (e.g. they promote progression to AIDS in HIV patients), whereas mild elevations show a protective effect. IL-6 can be therefore considered as being both a pro-inflammatory and an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Several studies have shown that severe COPD is associated with extremely-high levels of IL-6, whereas mild COPD is associated with mild elevations of IL-6. It is plausible that the chronic, mildly-elevated concentrations of IL-6 found in mild COPD patients is protective against the deterioration of Covid-19, as it is the case for other viral diseases. That may explain why COPD is surprisingly an uncommon comorbidity in Covid-19 intensive care units. This may have an important practical implication for the treatment of Covid-19 patients: our hypothesis is that Tocilizumab must be used exclusively in patients with an ongoing cytokine storm. Otherwise, an early use of Tocilizumab can be harmful, especially in patients affected by COPD or other conditions with mildly-elevated IL-6.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727401

ABSTRACT

The preservation of cellular homeostasis requires the synthesis of new proteins (proteostasis) and organelles, and the effective removal of misfolded or impaired proteins and cellular debris. This cellular homeostasis involves two key proteostasis mechanisms, the ubiquitin proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosome pathway. These catabolic pathways have been known to be involved in respiratory exacerbations and the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis (CF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Briefly, proteostasis and autophagy processes are known to decline over time with age, cigarette or biomass smoke exposure, and/or influenced by underlying genetic factors, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded proteins and cellular debris, elevating apoptosis and cellular senescence, and initiating the pathogenesis of acute or chronic lung disease. Moreover, autophagic dysfunction results in an impaired microbial clearance, post-bacterial and/or viral infection(s) which contribute to the initiation of acute and recurrent respiratory exacerbations as well as the progression of chronic obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. In addition, the autophagic dysfunction-mediated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) immune response impairment further exacerbates the lung disease. Recent studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel autophagy augmentation strategies, in alleviating the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive or restrictive lung diseases and exacerbations such as those commonly seen in COPD, CF, ALI/ARDS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Disease Progression , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cystic Fibrosis/immunology , Cystic Fibrosis/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Food Funct ; 11(4): 3516-3526, 2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726012

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with few successful treatments, and is strongly associated with cigarette smoking (CS). Since the novel coronavirus has spread worldwide seriously, there is growing concern that patients who have chronic respiratory conditions like COPD can easily be infected and are more prone to having severe illness and even mortality because of lung dysfunction. Loquat leaves have long been used as an important material for both pharmaceutical and functional applications in the treatment of lung disease in Asia, especially in China and Japan. Total flavonoids (TF), the main active components derived from loquat leaves, showed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, their protective activity against CS-induced COPD airway inflammation and oxidative stress and its underlying mechanism still remain not well-understood. The present study uses a CS-induced mouse model to estimate the morphological changes in lung tissue. The results demonstrated that TF suppressed the histological changes in the lungs of CS-challenged mice, as evidenced by reduced generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and diminished the protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Moreover, TF also inhibited phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB and increased p-Akt. Interestingly, TF could inhibit CS-induced oxidative stress in the lungs of COPD mice. TF treatment significantly inhibited the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, TF markedly downregulated TRPV1 and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and upregulated the expression of SOD-2, while the p-JNK level was observed to be inhibited in COPD mice. Taken together, our findings showed that the protective effect and putative mechanism of the action of TF resulted in the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress through the regulation of TRPV1 and the related signal pathway in lung tissues. It suggested that TF derived from loquat leaves could be considered to be an alternative or a new functional material and used for the treatment of CS-induced COPD.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Eriobotrya/chemistry , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , TRPV Cation Channels/immunology , Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smoke/adverse effects , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Superoxide Dismutase/immunology , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(10): e13382, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706530

ABSTRACT

In barely nine months, the pandemic known as COVID-19 has spread over 200 countries, affecting more than 22 million people and causing over than 786 000 deaths. Elderly people and patients with previous comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes are at an increased risk to suffer a poor prognosis after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although the same could be expected from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), current epidemiological data are conflicting. This could lead to a reduction of precautionary measures in these patients, in the context of a particularly complex global health crisis. Most COPD patients have a long history of smoking or exposure to other harmful particles or gases, capable of impairing pulmonary defences even years after the absence of exposure. Moreover, COPD is characterized by an ongoing immune dysfunction, which affects both pulmonary and systemic cellular and molecular inflammatory mediators. Consequently, increased susceptibility to viral respiratory infections have been reported in COPD, often worsened by bacterial co-infections and leading to serious clinical outcomes. The present paper is an up-to-date review that discusses the available research regarding the implications of coronavirus infection in COPD. Although validation in large studies is still needed, COPD likely increases SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and increases COVID-19 severity. Hence, specific mechanisms to monitor and assess COPD patients should be addressed in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Biomass , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Smoke , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/immunology
16.
Allergy ; 75(11): 2829-2845, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is accelerating worldwide, and novel clinical presentations of COVID-19 are often reported. The range of human cells and tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2, its potential receptors and associated regulating factors are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors and related molecules in the extensive collection of primary human cells and tissues from healthy subjects of different age and from patients with risk factors and known comorbidities of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), and CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and plasmablasts. We analyzed the material from healthy children and adults, and from adults in relation to their disease or COVID-19 risk factor status. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA andPPIB), CD26 (DPP4), and related molecules were expressed in both epithelium and in immune cells. We also observed a distinct age-related expression profile of these genes in the PBMCs and T cells from healthy children and adults. Asthma, COPD, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and male gender status generally led to the higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the bronchial biopsy, BAL, or blood. Additionally, CD147-related genes correlated positively with age and BMI. Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest different receptor repertoire potentially involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the epithelial barriers and in the immune cells. Altered expression of these receptors related to age, gender, obesity and smoking, as well as with the disease status, might contribute to COVID-19 morbidity and severity patterns.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Basigin/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/genetics , Asthma/immunology , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
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