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1.
Ter Arkh ; 95(3): 243-247, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a high level of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant social and economic damage to the health system and society. COPD and COVID-19 have many potentially negative relationships that can lead to worse outcomes of COVID-19, including impaired lung function, old age and the presence of concomitant diseases Aim. To assess efficacy and safety of the drug Tixagevimab + Cilgavimab for the pre-contact prevention of COVID-19 infection in patients with COPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 324 male patients were included in the study, who were treated or monitored at the Regional Clinic Hospital №3 and the Regional Pulmonological Center of Chelyabinsk in April-May 2022. The main endpoints of observation, for 3 and 6 months, to assess the effectiveness were the dynamics of shortness of breath according to The Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale - mMRC, the The forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the number of exacerbations, emergency calls, hospitalizations, polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2. Local and general reactions after immunization were evaluated. The drug Evusheld (150 mg Tixsagevimab +150 mg Cilgavimab, AstraZeneca) was used for immunization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of pre-contact prevention of COVID-19 was 88.8%. The administration of the drug does not provoke an exacerbation of the underlying disease. The main clinical and functional indicators have positive dynamics by the 6th month of follow-up. The drug is well tolerated and has no significant both early and late complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Immunization , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 926, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves the outcomes of patients hospitalized with severe COPD exacerbation, and NIV is recommended as the first-line therapy for these patients. Yet, several studies have demonstrated substantial variation in NIV use across hospitals, leading to preventable morbidity and mortality. In addition, prior studies suggested that efforts to increase NIV use in COPD need to account for the complex and interdisciplinary nature of NIV delivery and the need for team coordination. Therefore, our initial project aimed to compare two educational strategies: online education (OLE) and interprofessional education (IPE), which targets complex team-based care in NIV delivery. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on recruitment and planned intervention, we had made several changes in the study design, statistical analysis, and implementation strategies delivery as outlined in the methods. METHODS: We originally proposed a two-arm, pragmatic, cluster, randomized hybrid implementation-effectiveness trial comparing two education strategies to improve NIV uptake in patients with severe COPD exacerbation in 20 hospitals with a low baseline rate of NIV use. Due to logistical constrains and slow recruitment, we changed the study design to an opened cohort stepped-wedge design with three steps which will allow the institutions to enroll when they are ready to participate. Only the IPE strategy will be implemented, and the education will be provided in an online virtual format. Our primary outcome will be the hospital-level risk-standardized NIV proportion for the period post-IPE training, along with the change in rate from the period prior to training. Aim 1 will compare the change over time of NIV use among patients with COPD in the step-wedged design. Aim 2 will explore the mediators' role (respiratory therapist autonomy and team functionality) on the relationship between the implementation strategies and effectiveness. Finally, in Aim 3, through interviews with providers, we will assess the acceptability and feasibility of the educational training. CONCLUSION: The changes in study design will result in several limitation. Most importantly, the hospitals in the three cohorts are not randomized as they enroll based on their readiness. Second, the delivery of the IPE is virtual, and it is not known if remote education is conducive to team building. However, this study will be among the first to test the impact of IPE in the inpatient setting carefully and may generalize to other interventions directed to seriously ill patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04206735 . Registered on December 20, 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Chron Respir Dis ; 20: 14799731231172518, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313784

ABSTRACT

Patients' perspectives on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their access to asthma and COPD healthcare could inform better, more equitable care delivery. We demonstrate this topic using British Columbia (BC), Canada, where the impact of the pandemic has not been described. We co-designed a cross-sectional survey with patient partners and administered it to a convenience sample of people living with asthma and COPD in BC between September 2020 and March 2021. We aimed to understand how access to healthcare for these conditions was affected during the pandemic. The survey asked respondents to report their characteristics, access to healthcare for asthma and COPD, types of services they found disrupted and telehealth (telephone or video appointment) use during the pandemic. We analysed 433 responses and found that access to healthcare for asthma and COPD was lower during the pandemic than pre-pandemic (p < 0.001). Specialty care services were most frequently reported as disrupted, while primary care, home care and diagnostics were least disrupted. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that access during the pandemic was positively associated with self-assessed financial ability (OR = 22.0, 95% CI: 7.0 - 84.0, p < 0.001, reference is disagreeing with having financial ability) and living in medium-sized urban areas (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 - 5.2, p = 0.04, reference is rural areas). These disparities in access should be validated post-pandemic to confirm whether they still persist. They also indicate the continued relevance of exploring approaches for more equitable healthcare.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , British Columbia/epidemiology , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Asthma/complications , Health Services Accessibility , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Eur Respir Rev ; 32(167)2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294022

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of COPD patients (∼40%) continue smoking despite knowing that they have the disease. Smokers with COPD exhibit higher levels of nicotine dependence, and have lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, which affects their ability to quit smoking. Treatment should be adapted to the needs of individual patients with different levels of tobacco dependence. The combination of counselling plus pharmacotherapy is the most effective cessation treatment for COPD. In patients with severe COPD, varenicline and bupropion have been shown to have the highest abstinence rates compared with nicotine replacement therapy. There is a lack of evidence to support that smoking cessation reduction or harm reduction strategies have benefits in COPD patients. The long-term efficacy and safety of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation need to be evaluated in high-risk populations; therefore, it is not possible to recommend their use for smoking cessation in COPD. Future studies with the new generation of nicotine vaccines are necessary to determine their effectiveness in smokers in general and in COPD patients.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoking Cessation , Humans , Nicotinic Agonists/adverse effects , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices/adverse effects , Bupropion/therapeutic use , Varenicline/adverse effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Vaccination
6.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 33(1): 15, 2023 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302550

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on general practitioners' (GP) care for patients with asthma and/or COPD is largely unknown. To describe the impact of the pandemic on asthma or COPD-related GP care, we analysed routinely recorded electronic health records data from Dutch general practices and out-of-hours (OOH) services. During the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), the contact rates for asthma and/or COPD were significantly lower in GP practices and OOH services compared with the pre-pandemic period (2019) (respectively, 15% lower and 28% lower). The proportion of telephone contacts increased significantly with 13%-point in GP practices and 12%-point at OOH services, while the proportion of face-to-face contacts decreased. Furthermore, the proportion of high urgent contacts with OOH services decreased by 8.5%-point. To conclude, the overall contact rates in GP practices and OOH services decreased, while more contacts were remote. Lower contact rates have, after a short follow-up, not resulted in more patients with exacerbations in OOH care. However, this might still be expected after a longer follow-up.


Subject(s)
After-Hours Care , Asthma , COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pandemics , After-Hours Care/methods , Primary Health Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 612, 2023 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Aboriginal communities in Australia, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) have limited knowledge about effective management. AIM: To evaluate an online education program, co-designed with AHWs and exercise physiologists (EPs) or physiotherapists (PTs), to increase knowledge about COPD and its management. METHODS: AHWs and EPs from four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHS) were recruited. An Aboriginal researcher and a physiotherapist experienced in COPD management and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) delivered seven online education sessions. These sessions used co-design principles and an Aboriginal pedagogy framework '8 Ways of learning', which incorporates Aboriginal protocols and perspectives to realign teaching techniques and strengthen learning outcomes. Topics covered were: How the lungs work; What is COPD; Medications and how to use inhalers and COPD Action Plans; Why exercise is important; Managing breathlessness; Healthy eating; Managing anxiety and depression. After each session, AHWs with support from EPs, co-designed education 'yarning' resources using Aboriginal ways of learning to ensure topics were culturally safe for the local Aboriginal community and practiced delivering this at the following session. At the end of the program participants completed an anonymous online survey (5-point Likert scale) to assess satisfaction, and a semi-structured interview about their experience of the online education. RESULTS: Of the 12 participants, 11 completed the survey (7 AHWs, 4 EPs). Most (90%) participants strongly agreed or agreed that the online sessions increased knowledge and skills they needed to support Aboriginal patients with COPD. All (100%) participants felt: their cultural perspectives and opinions were valued and that they were encouraged to include cultural knowledge. Most (91%) reported that delivering their own co-designed yarning scripts during the online sessions improved their understanding of the topics. Eleven participants completed semi-structured interviews about participating in online education to co-design Aboriginal 'yarning' resources. Themes identified were: revealing the Aboriginal lung health landscape; participating in online learning; structuring the online education sessions; co-designing with the facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Online education using co-design and 8 Ways of learning was rated highly by AHWs and EPs for improving COPD knowledge and valuing cultural perspectives. The use of co-design principles supported the cultural adaptation of COPD resources for Aboriginal people with COPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42019111405).


Subject(s)
Health Services, Indigenous , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Patient Education as Topic
9.
J Med Econ ; 26(1): 335-341, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256257

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the comorbidity profile, use of health care resources and medical costs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated at the hospital level in Spain. METHODS: Admission records of patients with COPD and at least two admissions registered between January 2016 and December 2020 were obtained from a Spanish hospital discharge database and analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study. RESULTS: 95,140 patients met the inclusion criteria; 69.1% were males with a median age of 75 years. Mean Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was 1.9 in the index admission, increasing to 2.1 during the follow-up period. An acute exacerbation of COPD was registered in 93.6% of patients in the index admission; other secondary diagnoses included respiratory failure (56.8%), essential hypertension (36.9%), hypercholesterolemia (26.7%) and diabetes (26.3%). The age-adjusted incidence rate of COPD was 22.6 per 10,000 persons over the study period, decreasing significantly in the year 2020. Mortality rate was 4.1% for COPD patients, increasing to 6.6% in the year 2020. The year 2020, 191 patients registered a COVID-19 infection, with a mortality rate of 23.0%. Length of hospital stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay increased in the follow-up period versus the index admission, similar to admission costs. Mean admission cost was €3212 in the index admission, with cost increases being associated with age, length of stay, ICU stay and CCI. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' condition worsened significantly over the follow-up period, in terms of comorbidity and dependence on respirator, with an increased mortality rate and higher admission costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Male , Humans , Aged , Female , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Length of Stay , Hospitals
10.
Palliat Med ; 37(6): 844-855, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COPD causes high morbidity and mortality, emphasizing the need for palliative care. AIM: To assess the effectiveness of palliative care in patients with COPD. DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled trial (COMPASSION study; Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NL7644, 07-04-2019). Healthcare providers within the intervention group were trained to implement palliative care components into routine COPD care. Patients completed questionnaires at baseline, after 3 and 6 months; medical records were assessed after 12 months. The primary outcome was quality of life (FACIT-Pal). Secondary outcomes were anxiety, depression, spiritual well-being, satisfaction with care, acute healthcare use, documentation of life-sustaining treatment preferences and place of death. Generalized linear mixed modelling was used for analyses. SETTING: Eight hospital regions in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalized for an acute exacerbation of COPD and positive ProPal-COPD score. RESULTS: Of 222 patients included, 106 responded to the questionnaire at 6 months. Thirty-six of 98 intervention patients (36.7%) received the intervention. Intention-to-treat-analysis showed no effect on the primary outcome (adjusted difference: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: -5.44 to 7.60). In the intervention group, fewer intensive care admissions for COPD took place (adjusted odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.81) and strong indications were found for fewer hospitalizations (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-1.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that palliative care improves quality of life in patients with COPD. However, it can potentially reduce acute healthcare use. The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic led to suboptimal implementation and insufficient power, and may have affected some of our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Palliative Care/methods , Quality of Life , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Empathy , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care
11.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 80(4): 135-140, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the largest causes of morbidity and chronic mortality and a public health problem of high importance. In Italy, COPD afflicts 5.6% of adult (3.5 million people) and is responsible for 55% of all deaths related to respiratory diseases. Smokers have a higher risk, in fact up to 40% develop the disease. From the Covid-19 pandemic, the most affected population is the elderly (mean age 80 years old), with previous chronic diseases, in 18% with chronic respiratory. The aim of the present work was to validate and measure the outcomes produced by the recruitment and care of COPD patients enrolled by an Healthcare Local Authority in the corresponding Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) in order to measure how a multidisciplinary, systemic and e-health monitored care impacts upon mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enrolled patients were stratified through the GOLD guidelines classification, a unified method to discriminate the various degrees of severity of COPD, using specific spirometric cut-points and providing homogeneous classes of patients. Monitoring examinations include simple spirometry, global spirometry, diffusing capacity measurement, pulse oximetry, EGA, 6-minute walk test. Chest Rx, chest CT, ECG may also be required. The severity of COPD identifies the timing of monitoring, which involves a fixed annual re-assessment for mild offset clinical forms, biannually in case of exacerbation, a quarterly cadence in moderate forms that becomes bimonthly in severe forms. RESULTS: In 2344 enrolled patients (46% women and 54% men, mean age 78 yo) 18% had GOLD severity 1, 35% GOLD 2, 27% GOLD 3 and 20% GOLD 4. In addition, 73% of patients had at least one other chronic comorbidity, mainly diabetes or hypertension, and in 48% both. The data analysis showed that the population followed in e-health presented a 49% reduction in improper hospital admissions and a 68% reduction in clinical exacerbations compared to the population enrolled in the ICPs but not followed also in e-health. Smoking habits present at the time of patient enrollment in the ICPs remained in 49% of the total population enrolled and in 37% of the population enrolled in e-health. The patients enrolled in GOLD 1 and 2 obtained the same benefits both if treated in e- health and if treated in the clinic. However, GOLD 3 and 4 patients instead presented better compliance if treated in e-health and continuous monitoring allowed punctual and early interventions such as to reduce complications and hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The e-health approach made possible to ensure proximity medicine and personalization of care. Indeed, the implemented diagnostic treatment protocols, if properly followed and monitored, are able to control complications and impact the mortality and disability of chronic disease. The advent of e-health and ICT tools are demonstrating a great support capacity for care taking that also allows greater adherence to patient care pathways, even more than the protocols up to now identified, characterized by a monitoring programmed over time, enhancing a patients and their families quality of life improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Aged , Male , Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Pathways , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Quality of Health Care
12.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(3): 199-208, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the type of the non-invasive ventilatory treatment for patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with respiratory status deteriorated by COVID-19 pneumonia, and in need of treatment in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a one-year period in the medical intensive care units of two hospitals. As the patients' clinical condition deteriorated and the parameters of the arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis worsened, oxygen support was applied via a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). According to the control values of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and the parameters of ABG, the patients were enabled to be transferred between the two types of non-invasive ventilatory support. The primary outcome was the length of hospital stay, while secondary outcomes were the rate of intubation, the mortality rate, and respiratory supportfree days. RESULTS: Out of 21 critical patients with COPD and COVID-19, 11 (52.4%) were initially treated with NPPV and 10 (47.6%) with HFNC. The ages (67±9.79 in NPPV group vs. 70.10±10.25 in HFNC group) and severity of illness (SOFA score 5 (3.5) in NPPV group vs. 5 (2.8) in HFNC group) were similar between the two groups. Switching the mode of respiratory support was more common in NPPV (58.3% in survivor group vs. 41.7% in non-survivor group). Patients treated with NPPV compared to HFNC had a nominally longer length of stay (15 (11) vs. 11.5 (4.25)), and higher risk of intubation (66.7% vs. 33.3%) and mortality (66.7% vs. 33.3%), but the comparisons did not reach statistical significance. Survivors had significantly longer Medical Intensive Care Unit and hospital stays, but significantly lower FiO2 (0.60 vs.1) and higher values of PaO2/FiO2 (78(32.4) vs. 56.3(17.8)) than non-survivors. All patients were treated with corticosteroids, and the duration of treatment was similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients with COPD and COVID-19, both HFNC and NPPV were commonly used as the initial mode of ventilation. Switching to a different mode and adverse patient outcomes were more frequent in patients initially treated with NPPV. Survivors had higher values of PaO2/FiO2 than non-survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Cannula , Cross-Sectional Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Intensive Care Units
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 18: 349-364, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287062

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the real-world situation for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and poorly controlled disease risk factors in the Chinese community. Methods: This retrospective multicentre study analysed data from COPDMICand MICHC in Shanghai Songjiang District, Shanghai, China. The differences in COPD Assessment Test (CAT), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and the number of emergency cases, emergency visits, inpatient cases, and hospitalisations from January 2018 to December 2020 were analysed. The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on COPD management was also assessed. Results: For 2020 versus 2018, analysis of 468 COPD cases from COPDMIC matched with MICHC data showed significantly more patients with improved mMRC grades, significantly fewer emergency cases and emergency visits, and significantly fewer hospitalisation cases and hospitalisations. Differences in the number of emergency visits and hospitalisations per capita were statistically significant. Compared to GOLD 3-4, GOLD 1-2 patients showed significant improvements in CAT score, mMRC grade, the number of emergency visits and hospitalisations per capita. Treatment adherence from 2018 to 2020 was 25%, 29.1%, and 6.8%, and the proportion of medication regimens consistent with guidelines was 43.44%, 50.98%, and 71.87%, respectively. Higher treatment adherence resulted in significantly improved CAT scores and mMRC grades and fewer emergency department visits and hospitalisations per capita. Conclusion: Combined with remote management tools, patients with COPD achieved continuous improvement in symptoms and exacerbations over 3 years. In the context of COVID-19 prevention/control measures, improvements were significant for patients with GOLD 1-2 COPD but limited with GOLD 3-4. Pharmacologic treatment significantly improved clinical symptoms and reduced emergency visits and hospitalisations. Severe airflow limitation and poor adherence to pharmacologic treatment were important risk factors for lack of disease remission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Community Health Services
14.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 2329-2341, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237160

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Hospitalization for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is considered as severe exacerbations. Readmission for severe exacerbations is a crucial event for COPD patients. However, factors associated with readmission for severe exacerbations are incomplete. The study aimed to investigate different characteristics between the severe and non-severe exacerbation groups. Patients and Methods: Patients hospitalized for severe AECOPD were included in multi-centers, and their exacerbations in next 12 months after discharge were recorded. According to exacerbations, patients were separated into the severe-exacerbation group and the non-severe exacerbation group. Propensity-score matching (PSM) and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the baseline characteristics of two groups. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test and receiver operating characteristic curve were applied to evaluate how well the model could identify clusters. Results: The cohort included 550 patients with severe AECOPD across 27 study centers in China, and 465 patients were finally analyzed. A total of 41.5% of patients underwent readmission for AECOPD within 1 year. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups after PSM. Severe exacerbations in the 12 months were related to some factors, eg, the duration of COPD (13 vs 8 years, P<0.001), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score (20 vs 17, P<0.001), the blood eosinophil percentage (1.5 vs 2.0, P<0.05), and their inhaler therapies. Patients readmitted with AECOPD had a longer time of diagnosis (≥9 years), more symptoms (CAT ≥10), and lower blood eosinophils (Eos <2%). A clinical model was derived to help identify patients at risk of readmission with severe exacerbations. Conclusion: These analyses confirmed the relevance of COPD at admission with future severe exacerbations. A lower blood eosinophils percentage appears to be related to readmission when combined with clinical history. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether this study can predict the risk of exacerbations.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Disease Progression , Humans , Patient Readmission , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
15.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 1507-1521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233203

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A comprehensive and detailed understanding of COPD care pathways from pre-diagnosis to acute care is required to understand the common barriers to optimal COPD care across diverse health systems. Methods: Country-specific COPD care pathways were created for four high-income countries using international recommendations and country-specific guidelines, then populated with published epidemiological, clinical, and economic data. To refine and validate the pathways, semi-structured interviews using pre-prepared discussion guides and country-specific pathway maps were held with twenty-four primary and secondary care respiratory healthcare professionals. Thematic analysis was then performed on the interview transcripts. Results: The COPD care pathway showed broad consistency across the countries. Three key themes relating to barriers in optimal COPD management were identified across the countries: journey to diagnosis, treatment, and the impact of COVID-19. Common barriers included presentation to healthcare with advanced COPD, low COPD consideration, and sub-optimal acute and chronic disease management. COVID-19 has negatively impacted disease management across the pathway but presents opportunities to retain virtual consultations. Structural factors such as insurance and short duration of appointments also impacted the diagnosis and management of COPD. Conclusion: COPD is an important public health issue that needs urgent prioritization. The use of Evidenced Care Pathways with decision-makers can facilitate evidence-based decision making on interventions and policies to improve care and outcomes for patients and reduce unnecessary resource use and associated costs for the healthcare provider/payer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Critical Pathways , Germany , Humans , Japan , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 98, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), commonly categorized as a rare disease, have been affected by the changes in healthcare management brought about by COVID-19. This study's aim was to identify the changes that have taken place in AATD patient care as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain and to propose experts' recommendations aimed at ensuring humanized and quality care for people with AATD in the post-pandemic situation. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive case study with a holistic single-case design was conducted, using focus groups with experts in AATD clinical management, including 15 health professionals with ties to the Spanish health system (12 pneumologists and 2 hospital pharmacists from 11 different hospitals in Spain) and 1 patient representative. RESULTS: COVID-19 has had a major impact on numerous aspects of AATD clinical patient management in Spain, including diagnostic, treatment, and follow-up phases. The experts concluded that there is a need to strengthen coordination between Primary Care and Hospital Care and improve the coordination processes across all the organizations and actors involved in the healthcare system. Regarding telemedicine and telecare, experts have concluded that it is necessary to promote this methodology and to develop protocols and training programs. Experts have recommended developing personalized and precision medicine, and patient participation in decision-making, promoting self-care and patient autonomy to optimize their healthcare and improve their quality of life. The possibility of monitoring and treating AATD patients from home has also been proposed by experts. Another result of the study was the recommendation of the need to ensure that plasma donations are made on a regular basis by a sufficient number of healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: The study advances knowledge by highlighting the challenges faced by health professionals and changes in AATD patient management in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also proposes experts' recommendations aimed at ensuring humanized and quality care for people with AATD in the post-pandemic situation. This work could serve as a reference study for physicians on their daily clinical practice with AATD patients and may also provide guidance on the changes to be put in place for the post-pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
17.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214521

ABSTRACT

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species - be it animal or human - there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
18.
Skinmed ; 20(6): 463-465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2169882

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old woman presented to the emergency to be department with diarrhea, asthenia, cough, and dysgeusia. The patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and was found infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On physical examination, a small basal cell carcinoma (BCC) lesion was identified on her scalp; however, following the administration of noninvasive ventilation, the appearance of both macroscopic and microscopic BCC worsened dramatically. Our findings point to positive pressure noninvasive ventilation used to treat COVID-19 associated with COPD as a possible causative agent for the progression of cutaneous BCC. (SKINmed. 2022;20:463-465).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Skin Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
19.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 3111-3121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162753

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with worsened outcomes in COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). However, data remain fraught with heterogeneity and bias from comorbid conditions. Additionally, data on the impact of COPD-specific factors, such as pre-hospital medications and pulmonologist involvement, remain sparse. Objective: We report a single-center analysis of COPD patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to those without COPD. Primary outcomes include ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. Methods: We evaluated all patients ≥40 years admitted with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 between February 2020 and February 2021. COPD was defined by documented ICD-10 diagnosis of COPD, confirmed smoking history, and active bronchodilator use. We compared outcomes between COPD patients and the remainder of the COVID-19 cohort. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and comorbid conditions. Results: Of 1537 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 122 (7.9%) carried a diagnosis of COPD. The COPD cohort was older (74 ± 13 vs 66 ± 15 years, P < 0.001) and more often former smokers (P < 0.001). Comorbid conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease were more prevalent in the COPD group (P < 0.001). After adjusting for comorbid conditions, the COPD cohort had higher severity scores and trended towards fewer hospital-free days. Among patients with COPD, pre-hospital use of aspirin was associated with decreased ICU admissions (aHR 0.56, P = 0.049) and mechanical ventilation (aHR 0.25, P = 0.008), while LAMAs (long-acting muscarinic antagonists) were associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (aHR 0.34, P = 0.047). Involvement of pulmonology in pre-hospital management of COPD was not found to significantly affect outcomes. Conclusion: When corrected for comorbid illnesses, COPD was associated with more severe disease but not with increased ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, or in-hospital mortality rates. Among COPD patients, prehospital treatment with aspirin and COPD-directed therapies were associated with improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Cohort Studies , Aspirin
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060994, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) length of treatment effect on survival of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in a medium-sized UK Hospital, and how this effect changes according to the patient's comorbidity and COVID-19 route of acquisition (community or nosocomial) during the two waves in 2020. SETTING: The acute inpatient unit in Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh Teaching Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (WWL), a medium-sized NHS Trust in north-west of England. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of all confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted in WWL during 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 1830 patients (568 first wave, 1262 s wave) with antigen confirmed COVID-19 disease and severe acute respiratory syndrome admitted between 17 March 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case) and 31 December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURE: COVID-19 survival rate in all patients and survival rate in potentially hospital-acquired COVID-19 (PHA) patients were modelled using a predictor set which include comorbidities (eg, obesity, diabetes, chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)), wave, age, sex and care home residency, and interventions (remdesivir, dexamethasone, CPAP, intensive care unit (ICU), intubation). Secondary outcome measure was CPAP length, which was modelled using the same predictors of the survival rate. RESULTS: Mortality rate in the second wave was significantly lower than in the first wave (43.4% vs 28.1%, p<0.001), although for PHA COVID-19 patients mortality did not reduce, remaining at very high levels independently of wave and CPAP length. For all cohort, statistical modelling identified CPAP length (HR 95% CI 0.86 to 0.96) and women (HR 95% CI 0.71 to 0.81) were associated with improved survival, while being older age (HR 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) admitted from care homes (HR 95% CI 2.22 to 2.39), IHD (HR 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24), CKD (HR 95% CI 1.14 to 1.25), obesity (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.28) and COPD-emphysema (HR 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57) were associated with reduced survival. Despite the detrimental effect of comorbidities, patients with CKD (95% CI 16% to 30% improvement in survival), IHD (95% CI 1% to 10% improvement in survival) and asthma (95% CI 8% to 30% improvement in survival) benefitted most from CPAP length, while no significant survival difference was found for obese and patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of an Acute Trust during the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 is documented and indicates the importance of care home and hospitals in disease acquisition. Death rates fell between the first and second wave only for community-acquired COVID-19 patients. The fall was associated to CPAP length, especially for some comorbidities. While uncovering some risk and protective factors of mortality in COVID-19 studies, the study also unravels how little is known about PHA COVID-19 and the interaction between CPAP and some comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , State Medicine , Comorbidity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Hospitals , Obesity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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