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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 643, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex clinical diagnosis with various possible etiologies. One common feature, however, is pulmonary permeability edema, which leads to an increased alveolar diffusion pathway and, subsequently, impaired oxygenation and decarboxylation. A novel inhaled peptide agent (AP301, solnatide) was shown to markedly reduce pulmonary edema in animal models of ARDS and to be safe to administer to healthy humans in a Phase I clinical trial. Here, we present the protocol for a Phase IIB clinical trial investigating the safety and possible future efficacy endpoints in ARDS patients. METHODS: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention study. Patients with moderate to severe ARDS in need of mechanical ventilation will be randomized to parallel groups receiving escalating doses of solnatide or placebo, respectively. Before advancing to a higher dose, a data safety monitoring board will investigate the data from previous patients for any indication of patient safety violations. The intervention (application of the investigational drug) takes places twice daily over the course of 7 days, ensued by a follow-up period of another 21 days. DISCUSSION: The patients to be included in this trial will be severely sick and in need of mechanical ventilation. The amount of data to be collected upon screening and during the course of the intervention phase is substantial and the potential timeframe for inclusion of any given patient is short. However, when prepared properly, adherence to this protocol will make for the acquisition of reliable data. Particular diligence needs to be exercised with respect to informed consent, because eligible patients will most likely be comatose and/or deeply sedated at the time of inclusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was prospectively registered with the EU Clinical trials register (clinicaltrialsregister.eu). EudraCT Number: 2017-003855-47 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Edema , Humans , Peptides, Cyclic , Permeability , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 293, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Re-expansion pulmonary edema is an uncommon complication following drainage of a pneumothorax or pleural effusion. While pneumothorax is noted to complicate COVID-19 patients, no case of COVID-19 developing re-expansion pulmonary edema has been reported. CASE REPRESENTATION: A man in his early 40 s without a smoking history and underlying pulmonary diseases suddenly complained of left chest pain with dyspnea 1 day after being diagnosed with COVID-19. Chest X-ray revealed pneumothorax in the left lung field, and a chest tube was inserted into the intrathoracic space without negative pressure 9 h after the onset of chest pain, resulting in the disappearance of respiratory symptoms; however, 2 h thereafter, dyspnea recurred with lower oxygenation status. Chest X-ray revealed improvement of collapse but extensive infiltration in the expanded lung. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with re-expansion pulmonary edema, and his dyspnea and oxygenation status gradually improved without any intervention, such as steroid administration. Abnormal lung images also gradually improved within several days. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the rare presentation of re-expansion pulmonary edema following pneumothorax drainage in a patient with COVID-19, which recovered without requiring treatment for viral pneumonia. Differentiating re-expansion pulmonary edema from viral pneumonia is crucial to prevent unnecessary medication for COVID-19 pneumonia and pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes , Pneumothorax/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 28(9): 755-761, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406396

ABSTRACT

Bradykinin and kallidin are endogenous kinin peptide hormones that belong to the kallikrein-kinin system and are essential to the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, coagulation and pain control. Des-Arg10-kallidin, the carboxy-terminal des-Arg metabolite of kallidin, and bradykinin selectively activate two G protein-coupled receptors, type 1 and type 2 bradykinin receptors (B1R and B2R), respectively. The hyperactivation of bradykinin receptors, termed 'bradykinin storm', is associated with pulmonary edema in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that bradykinin receptors are important targets for COVID-19 intervention. Here we report two G protein-coupled complex structures of human B1R and B2R bound to des-Arg10-kallidin and bradykinin, respectively. Combined with functional analysis, our structures reveal the mechanism of ligand selectivity and specific activation of the bradykinin receptor. These findings also provide a framework for guiding drug design targeting bradykinin receptors for the treatment of inflammation, cardiovascular disorders and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Kallidin/metabolism , Receptors, Bradykinin/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Enzyme Activation/physiology , Humans , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332158

ABSTRACT

Acute high-altitude illnesses are of great concern for physicians and people traveling to high altitude. Our recent article "Acute Mountain Sickness, High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema and High-Altitude Cerebral Edema, a View from the High Andes" was questioned by some sea-level high-altitude experts. As a result of this, we answer some observations and further explain our opinion on these diseases. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) can be better understood through the Oxygen Transport Triad, which involves the pneumo-dynamic pump (ventilation), the hemo-dynamic pump (heart and circulation), and hemoglobin. The two pumps are the first physiologic response upon initial exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Hemoglobin is the balancing energy-saving time-evolving equilibrating factor. The acid-base balance must be adequately interpreted using the high-altitude Van Slyke correction factors. Pulse-oximetry measurements during breath-holding at high altitude allow for the evaluation of high altitude diseases. The Tolerance to Hypoxia Formula shows that, paradoxically, the higher the altitude, the more tolerance to hypoxia. In order to survive, all organisms adapt physiologically and optimally to the high-altitude environment, and there cannot be any "loss of adaptation". A favorable evolution in HAPE and pulmonary hypertension can result from the oxygen treatment along with other measures.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Edema , Altitude , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypoxia , Oxygen , Pulmonary Edema/etiology
6.
SLAS Discov ; 26(9): 1079-1090, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314244

ABSTRACT

The recent renascence of phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is catalyzed by its ability to identify first-in-class drugs and deliver results when the exact molecular mechanism is partially obscure. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate that has increased in frequency due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite decades of laboratory and clinical study, no efficient pharmacological therapy for ARDS has been found. An increase in endothelial permeability is the primary event in ARDS onset, causing the development of pulmonary edema that leads to respiratory failure. Currently, the detailed molecular mechanisms regulating endothelial permeability are poorly understood. Therefore, the use of the PDD approach in the search for efficient ARDS treatment can be more productive than classic target-based drug discovery (TDD), but its use requires a new cell-based assay compatible with high-throughput (HTS) and high-content (HCS) screening. Here we report the development of a new plate-based image cytometry method to measure endothelial barrier function. The incorporation of image cytometry in combination with digital image analysis substantially decreases assay variability and increases the signal window. This new method simultaneously allows for rapid measurement of cell monolayer permeability and cytological analysis. The time-course of permeability increase in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in response to the thrombin and tumor necrosis factor α treatment correlates with previously published data obtained by transendothelial resistance (TER) measurements. Furthermore, the proposed image cytometry method can be easily adapted for HTS/HCS applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Image Cytometry/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cell Membrane Permeability/genetics , Drug Discovery , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phenotype , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/virology , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombin/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
7.
Anaesthesist ; 70(9): 795-808, 2021 09.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283771

ABSTRACT

Peripartum emergencies that require intensive medical care represent a major challenge for the interdisciplinary treatment team. Due to physiological changes in pregnant women symptoms can be masked and the initiation of treatment is delayed. Peripartum sepsis has a relatively high incidence. The anti-infective treatment depends on the spectrum of pathogens to be expected. Endocrinological emergencies are rare but can be fulminant and fatal. The development of ketoacidosis is favored by decreased bicarbonate buffer and placental hormones. In the case of thyrotoxicosis, propylthiouracil and thiamazole are available for treatment depending on the stage of gestation. Sheehan's syndrome is an infarction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland during a hemorrhage. Due to the loss of production of vital hormones, this can be fatal. The development of pulmonary edema is just as acute. This is favored by physiological changes during pregnancy. The differentiation between hypertensive and hypotensive pulmonary edema is important for the causal treatment.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Edema , Sepsis , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Peripartum Period , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/therapy
8.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(6): L1194-L1195, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279292
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 186, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injury. Whether EVLWi and PVPI are different between non-COVID-19 ARDS and the ARDS due to COVID-19 has never been reported. We aimed at comparing EVLWi, PVPI, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in patients with COVID-19 ARDS vs. ARDS of other origin. METHODS: Between March and October 2020, in an observational study conducted in intensive care units from three university hospitals, 60 patients with COVID-19-related ARDS monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution were compared to the 60 consecutive non-COVID-19 ARDS admitted immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak between December 2018 and February 2020. RESULTS: Driving pressure was similar between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, at baseline as well as during the study period. Compared to patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 exhibited higher EVLWi, both at the baseline (17 (14-21) vs. 15 (11-19) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.03) and at the time of its maximal value (24 (18-27) vs. 21 (15-24) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.01). Similar results were observed for PVPI. In COVID-19 patients, the worst ratio between arterial oxygen partial pressure over oxygen inspired fraction was lower (81 (70-109) vs. 100 (80-124) mmHg, respectively, p = 0.02) and prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were more frequently used than in patients without COVID-19. COVID-19 patients had lower maximal lactate level and maximal norepinephrine dose than patients without COVID-19. Day-60 mortality was similar between groups (57% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.45). The maximal value of EVLWi and PVPI remained independently associated with outcome in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: Compared to ARDS patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had similar lung mechanics, but higher EVLWi and PVPI values from the beginning of the disease. This was associated with worse oxygenation and with more requirement of prone positioning and ECMO. This is compatible with the specific lung inflammation and severe diffuse alveolar damage related to COVID-19. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 had fewer hemodynamic derangement. Eventually, mortality was similar between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04337983). Registered 30 March 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04337983 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Capillary Permeability , Extravascular Lung Water/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , COVID-19/complications , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Prognosis , Pulmonary Edema/metabolism , Thermodilution
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11524, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253988

ABSTRACT

Nearly 5% of patients suffering from COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) is a marker of pulmonary oedema which is associated with mortality in ARDS. In this study, we evaluate whether EVLWI is higher in patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS as compared to COVID-19 negative, ventilated patients with ARDS and whether EVLWI has the potential to monitor disease progression. EVLWI and cardiac function were monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution in 25 patients with COVID-19 ARDS subsequent to intubation and compared to a control group of 49 non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. At intubation, EVLWI was noticeably elevated and significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in the control group (17 (11-38) vs. 11 (6-26) mL/kg; p < 0.001). High pulmonary vascular permeability index values (2.9 (1.0-5.2) versus 1.9 (1.0-5.2); p = 0.003) suggested a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. By contrast, the cardiac parameters SVI, GEF and GEDVI were comparable in both cohorts. High EVLWI values were associated with viral persistence, prolonged intensive care treatment and in-hospital mortality (23.2 ± 6.7% vs. 30.3 ± 6.0%, p = 0.025). Also, EVLWI showed a significant between-subjects (r = - 0.60; p = 0.001) and within-subjects correlation (r = - 0.27; p = 0.028) to Horowitz index. Compared to non COVID-19 ARDS, COVID-19 results in markedly elevated EVLWI-values in patients with ARDS. High EVLWI reflects a non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in COVID-19 ARDS and could serve as parameter to monitor ARDS progression on ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extravascular Lung Water/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Capillary Permeability , Disease Progression , Extravascular Lung Water/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/blood supply , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/immunology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thermodilution/methods , Thermodilution/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Acta Clin Croat ; 59(4): 740-744, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237023

ABSTRACT

The world is struggling to deal with the corona pandemic. Effective therapies are still awaited due to the lack of understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of the disease. Bearing recent research and clinical observations in mind, the authors propose a novel physiological mechanism of COVID-19 and explain development of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 related hemoglobinopathy. It is a consistent observation that the radiological picture of COVID-19 related ARDS bears more resemblance to high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) than typical ARDS. There has been great controversy regarding this proposed similarity. The main argument from those objecting to this comparison is that the etiology is hypoxia in case of HAPE and inflammation in COVID-19 related ARDS. We propose that considering the recent bioinformatics prediction models, COVID-19 might first infect red blood cells via CD147 and cause hemoglobin damage. The resulting hypoxemia may cause pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction leading to HAPE-like lung lesions. The now introduced alveolar hypoxia further exaggerates hemoglobinopathy hypoxemia leading to a vicious cycle. In this review, the authors recommend laboratory experiments to prove these hypotheses. The proposed physiological mechanism has significant therapeutic implications. If proven, the authors suggest the use of exchange transfusion as adjunct therapy and development of anti-CD147 drugs.


Subject(s)
Altitude Sickness , COVID-19 , Hemoglobinopathies , Pulmonary Edema , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 378-386, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232491

ABSTRACT

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are an oxygen therapy device developed in the last years for the treatment of patients with acute or acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with different etiology and severity (including covid-19 pneumonia). HFNC combine the possibility of delivering high flows of gases, actively humidified and heated, with the use of a comfortable nasal interface, resulting generally well tolerated by most patients. In light of these characteristics, together with the simplicity of use and versatility, they have spread not only in intensive and semi-intensive care units but also in general medical ward in which they can play an important role in the treatment of elderly, frail patients with comorbidity where other more aggressive and invasive methods of ventilations are not indicated or not practicable.


Subject(s)
Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Acidosis, Respiratory/complications , Acidosis, Respiratory/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Equipment Design , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/therapy , Internal Medicine , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Palliative Care , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications
13.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620963567, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223701

ABSTRACT

The incidence of mechanical valve thrombosis (MVT) is around 0.4 per 100 patient-years. Mitral valve thrombosis has a higher incidence than aortic valve thrombosis with a nearly 5-fold increase. Various factors contribute to MVT. The most common cause of valve thrombosis is poor adherence/disruption of anticoagulation therapy. Low cardiac output is known to increase the risk of prosthetic valve thrombosis. Other factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and other patient comorbidities might also play a role. Decreased flow promotes hypercoagulability. Lower pressure in the left atrium (and higher velocities in the left ventricle) can partially contribute to the higher incidence of mitral MVT versus aortic MVT. The presenting symptoms usually depend on the severity of the valve thrombosis; nonobstructive valve thrombosis patients have progressive dyspnea, signs of heart failure, and systemic embolization with strokes being the most common complication. In this article, we present a case of a middle-aged woman with a history of mitral and aortic mechanical prosthesis who presented with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema due to mechanical aortic valve prosthesis thrombosis. She had an isolated mechanical aortic valve prosthesis thrombosis with intact mitral valve, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been described. We performed a literature review by searching PubMed and Embase using the keywords "mechanical valve," "thrombosis," "aortic," and "mitral," our search did not show similar cases.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Mitral Valve , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Cardiac Output, Low , Coronary Angiography , Echocardiography , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 143, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on cardiovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, and there are only a few case reports on coronavirus disease 2019 related cardiomyopathy in pregnancy. Differentiation between postpartum cardiomyopathy and coronavirus disease 2019 related cardiomyopathy in pregnant women who develop severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection during peripartum could be challenging. Here, we present a case of possible coronavirus disease 2019 related cardiomyopathy in a pregnant patient, followed by a discussion of potential differential diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we present the case of a young pregnant Iranian woman who developed heart failure with pulmonary edema after cesarean section. She was treated because of low left ventricular ejection fraction and impression of postpartum cardiomyopathy, and her severe dyspnea improved by intravenous furosemide. On day 3, she exhibited no orthopnea or leg edema, but she was complaining of severe and dry cough. Further evaluation showed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection should be considered in any pregnant woman who develops cardiomyopathy and pulmonary edema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Puerperal Disorders/diagnosis , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/drug therapy , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cesarean Section , Cough/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Furosemide/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Puerperal Disorders/drug therapy , Puerperal Disorders/physiopathology , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) or its most advanced form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory pulmonary process triggered by a variety of insults including sepsis, viral or bacterial pneumonia, and mechanical ventilator-induced trauma. Currently, there are no effective therapies available for ARDS. We have recently reported that a novel small molecule AVR-25 derived from chitin molecule (a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine) showed anti-inflammatory effects in the lungs. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of two chitin-derived compounds, AVR-25 and AVR-48, in multiple mouse models of ALI/ARDS. We further determined the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the lead compound AVR-48 in rats. METHODS: ALI in mice was induced by intratracheal instillation of a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg) for 24 h or exposed to hyperoxia (100% oxygen) for 48 h or undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure and observation for 10 days. RESULTS: Both chitin derivatives, AVR-25 and AVR-48, showed decreased neutrophil recruitment and reduced inflammation in the lungs of ALI mice. Further, AVR-25 and AVR-48 mediated diminished lung inflammation was associated with reduced expression of lung adhesion molecules with improvement in pulmonary endothelial barrier function, pulmonary edema, and lung injury. Consistent with these results, CLP-induced sepsis mice treated with AVR-48 showed a significant increase in survival of the mice (80%) and improved lung histopathology in the treated CLP group. AVR-48, the lead chitin derivative compound, demonstrated a good safety profile. CONCLUSION: Both AVR-25 and AVR-48 demonstrate the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents to treat ALI/ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Animals , Chitin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pulmonary Edema/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis/drug therapy
16.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(6): L1186-L1193, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124630

ABSTRACT

A significant number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that is associated with a poor outcome. The molecular mechanisms driving failure of the alveolar barrier upon severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remain incompletely understood. The Na,K-ATPase is an adhesion molecule and a plasma membrane transporter that is critically required for proper alveolar epithelial function by both promoting barrier integrity and resolution of excess alveolar fluid, thus enabling appropriate gas exchange. However, numerous SARS-CoV-2-mediated and COVID-19-related signals directly or indirectly impair the function of the Na,K-ATPase, thereby potentially contributing to disease progression. In this Perspective, we highlight some of the putative mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-driven dysfunction of the Na,K-ATPase, focusing on expression, maturation, and trafficking of the transporter. A therapeutic mean to selectively inhibit the maladaptive signals that impair the Na,K-ATPase upon SARS-CoV-2 infection might be effective in reestablishing the alveolar epithelial barrier and promoting alveolar fluid clearance and thus advantageous in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Tight Junctions/pathology , Biological Transport/physiology , Humans , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045120, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a portable, low-cost respiratory imaging tool but is challenged by user dependence and lack of diagnostic specificity. It is unknown whether the advantages of LUS implementation could be paired with deep learning (DL) techniques to match or exceed human-level, diagnostic specificity among similar appearing, pathological LUS images. DESIGN: A convolutional neural network (CNN) was trained on LUS images with B lines of different aetiologies. CNN diagnostic performance, as validated using a 10% data holdback set, was compared with surveyed LUS-competent physicians. SETTING: Two tertiary Canadian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 612 LUS videos (121 381 frames) of B lines from 243 distinct patients with either (1) COVID-19 (COVID), non-COVID acute respiratory distress syndrome (NCOVID) or (3) hydrostatic pulmonary edema (HPE). RESULTS: The trained CNN performance on the independent dataset showed an ability to discriminate between COVID (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 1.0), NCOVID (AUC 0.934) and HPE (AUC 1.0) pathologies. This was significantly better than physician ability (AUCs of 0.697, 0.704, 0.967 for the COVID, NCOVID and HPE classes, respectively), p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: A DL model can distinguish similar appearing LUS pathology, including COVID-19, that cannot be distinguished by humans. The performance gap between humans and the model suggests that subvisible biomarkers within ultrasound images could exist and multicentre research is merited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Canada , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans
19.
Nephrol Ther ; 17(4): 226-232, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on end stage renal disease patient who should initiated dialysis are limited in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. We sought to describe the epidemiologic and clinical profile of newly admitted patient in chronic haemodialysis during the COVID-19 pandemic in Cameroon and evaluate their survival between 90days of dialysis initiation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a cohort study of 6months from April to October 2020. End stage renal disease patients newly admitted in the haemodialysis facility of the General Hospital of Douala were included. Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were identified. Socio-demographic, clinical and biological data at dialysis initiation as well as mortality between the 90days of dialysis initiation were registered. RESULTS: A total of 57 incident patients were recorded from April to October 2020 with a monthly mean of 9.5 patients. The mean age was 46.95±13.12years. Twenty-four COVID-19 were identified with a frequency of 49% among emergency admission. Pulmonary œdema (79.2% vs. 42.4%; P=0.006) and uremic encephalopathy (83.4% vs. 53.6%; P=0.022) were more common in COVID-19. The overall survival at 90days was 48% with a tendency to poor survival among COVID-19 and patients with low socioeconomic level. In Cox regression, low socioeconomic level increase the risk of instant death by 3.08. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV2 seem to increase nephrology emergency and poor survival in haemodialysis at 90days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Renal Dialysis , Brain Diseases/epidemiology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Social Class , Uremia/epidemiology , Uremia/virology
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