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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211057901, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574829

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Proinflammatory and hypercoagulable states with marked elevation seen in D-Dimer levels have been accurately described in patients infected by the SARS- Cov2 even without pulmonary embolism (PE). OBJECTIVES: To compare D-dimers values in patients infected by the novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) with and without PE and to establish an optimal D-dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE, which guides pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTPA) indication. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled all COVID-19-patients admitted between October first and November 22th, 2020, at the University Hospital Center of Mohammed VI, Oujda (Morocco), suspected to have PE and underwent a CTPA. Demographic characteristics and blood test results were compared between PE-positive and PE-negative. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed to establish an optimal D-Dimer cut-off to predict the occurrence of PE. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 84 confirmed COVID-19-patients. The mean age was 64.93 years (SD 14.19). PE was diagnosed on CTPA in 31 (36.9%) patients. Clinical symptoms and in-hospital outcomes were similar in both groups except that more men had PE (p = .025). The median value of D-dimers in the group of patients with PE was significantly higher (14 680[IQR 33620-3450]ng/mL compared to the group of patients without PE 2980[IQR 6870-1600]ng/mL [P < .001]. A D-dimer at 2600 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off for predicting PE with a sensitivity of 90.3%, and AUC was .773[CI 95%, .667 -.876). CONCLUSION: A D-dimer cut-off value of 2600 ng/mL is a significant predictor of PE in COVID-19-patients with a sensitivity of 90.3%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
4.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2587-2597, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and thromboembolism including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was conducted covering the whole of Scotland's general population. The study population comprised individuals with confirmed (positive test) COVID-19 and at least one thromboembolic event between March 2018 and October 2020. Their incidence rates during the risk interval (5 days before to 56 days after the positive test) and the control interval (the remaining periods) were compared intrapersonally. RESULTS: Across Scotland, 1449 individuals tested positive for COVID-19 and experienced a thromboembolic event. The risk of thromboembolism was significantly elevated over the whole risk period but highest in the 7 days following the positive test (incidence rate ratio, 12.01; 95% CI, 9.91 to 14.56) in all included individuals. The association was also present in individuals not originally hospitalized for COVID-19 (incidence rate ratio, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.83 to 5.85). Risk of MI, stroke, PE, and DVT were all significantly higher in the week following a positive test. The risk of PE and DVT was particularly high and remained significantly elevated even 56 days following the test. CONCLUSION: Confirmed COVID-19 infection was associated with early elevations in risk with MI, ischemic stroke, and substantially stronger and prolonged elevations with DVT and PE both in hospital and community settings. Clinicians should consider thromboembolism, especially PE, among people with COVID-19 in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Scotland , Thromboembolism/diagnosis
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430921

ABSTRACT

In this article, we present the case of a 38-year-old female who suffered from serious respiratory distress. After an extensive pulmonary artery imaging diagnostic work-up (CTPA, MRA and PET), we were unable to differentiate between chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) vs. pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) due to extensive filling defects and extraluminal findings. Although surgery was postponed for nine months due to the COVID-19 pandemic, CTEPH diagnosis, due to a high-thrombus burden, was finally confirmed after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Conclusively, imaging findings of rare cases of CTEPH might mimic PAS and the surgical removal of the lesion are both needed for a final diagnosis. What is Already Known about This Topic? Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare but aggressive malignancy, which originates from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery (PA); Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is based on chronic, organized flow-limiting thrombi inside PA circulation and subsequent pulmonary hypertension. What Does This Study Contribute? Since radiological findings of CTEPH cases might rarely mimic PAS, pulmonary artery endarterectomy and subsequent histopathologic study are needed for a final diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Embolism , Sarcoma , Thrombosis , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Sarcoma/diagnostic imaging
8.
Emerg Med J ; 38(7): 361-363, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376518

ABSTRACT

A short cut review was carried out to establish the diagnostic characteristics of alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf) in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This is calculated from the arterial and end-tidal CO2 Three papers were selected to answer the clinical question. The author, study type, relevant outcomes, results and weaknesses are tabulated. It is concluded that there is good evidence to support the use of AVDSf within a clinical prediction model to exclude a PE in patients when there is a low pretest probability. However, the specificity is not sufficient to support it as a 'rule in' test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capnography/methods , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Capnography/instrumentation , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology
9.
Thromb Res ; 206: 29-32, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is still a global challenge in regard for management and therapy. Pulmonary embolism (PE) seems to have a higher prevalence in COVID-19 instead of non-COVID patients. Clinical and laboratory parameters related with PE are still unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective unicentre study in Alto Vicentino Hospital between March 1st, 2020, and January 31st, 2021 in patients admitted for COVID-19 tested with a RT-PCR nasal swab. Data about patients studied with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) because of PE suspicion were collected, as their clinical and laboratory parameters too. RESULTS: 2621 patients were admitted for COVID-19 in Alto Vicentino Hospital between March 1st, 2020, and January 31st, 2021 and in 267 of them a CTPA was performed finding 50 PE (18.7%). Only non-Caucasian race (OR = 5.44; 95% CI 1.22-24.35; p = 0.027) and previous VTE (OR = 5.3; 95% CI 1.09-26.17; p = 0.039) were found to be independently associated with PE. CONCLUSION: PE is a frequent complication of COVID-19 and clinician need high degree of suspicion because clinical and laboratoristic parameters cannot drive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(8): 903-906, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346177

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism from a "thrombotic storm"-like syndrome is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with active or "recovered" COVID-19. Patients should be risk-stratified, optimally by a pulmonary embolism (PE) response team (PERT), and considered for escalation of care if found with intermediate or high-risk PE. We present a series of patients with COVID-19-associated PE and thrombotic storm with D-dimer >10 000 ng/mL who underwent successful mechanical thrombectomy for intermediate to high-risk PE. All patients had immediate improvement in hemodynamics and large amounts of thrombi were retrieved.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombectomy , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 863-870, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329169

ABSTRACT

Aim: COVID-19 is a known risk factor for pulmonary embolism (PE). In this retrospective, multicenter study, we aimed to determine an optimal D-dimer cutoff to predict PE in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Materials & methods: A total of 193 patients underwent computerized tomographic pulmonary angiography imaging and were classified into PE positive and negative groups. Physiological, radiological and biochemical parameters were compared and receiver operator curve analysis was conducted to determine a predictive D-dimer threshold. Results: An optimal D-dimer cutoff of 2494 ng/ml was selected (Youden index: 0.906), giving a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 100-100) and specificity of 90.62% (95% CI: 90.5-90.8) for predicting PE. Conclusion: We propose that in the absence of other clinical signs, a D-dimer threshold of 2495 ng/ml could be used with high sensitivity and specificity to predict PE in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Lung , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Emerg Med J ; 38(7): 361-363, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280440

ABSTRACT

A short cut review was carried out to establish the diagnostic characteristics of alveolar dead space fraction (AVDSf) in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). This is calculated from the arterial and end-tidal CO2 Three papers were selected to answer the clinical question. The author, study type, relevant outcomes, results and weaknesses are tabulated. It is concluded that there is good evidence to support the use of AVDSf within a clinical prediction model to exclude a PE in patients when there is a low pretest probability. However, the specificity is not sufficient to support it as a 'rule in' test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Capnography/methods , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Capnography/instrumentation , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Chest Pain/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology
14.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 1037-1042, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258700

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events with thrombocytopenia were reported in several countries, in association with AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine. The European medicines agency conducted a detailed review and concluded that there was no evidence to suggest an association of thrombotic events with the use of COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca.Methods: King Abdulaziz Medical City is a 1500 bed tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; this study describes spontaneously reported vaccine adverse effects received through the hospital's internal electronic safety reporting system from December 2020 to 13 April 2021.We assessed each report for causality association utilizing the world health organization's (WHO) causality assessment of an adverse event following immunization (AEFI) classification 2nd Edition 2019.Results: The majority of the reported events were mild to moderate, there were five serious events, one reported cardiac arrest, two cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and two pulmonary embolism. Clinical and laboratory summary of the five patients are presented in detail.Conclusions: Efforts of pharmacovigilance in mediating the rare risk of thrombosis associated with COVID-19 vaccine are crucial in providing awareness on the possible risk factors and signs/symptoms that should raise red flags.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnosis , Young Adult
15.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
16.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106882, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies confirmed an association between COVID-19 and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Whether the risk of VTE significantly differed between COVID-19 cohorts and non-COVID-19 cohorts with similar disease severity remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to compare the rate of VTE between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts with similar disease severity. METHODS: A systematic literature search (MEDLINE, Embase and Google Scholar) was conducted from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 to identify studies reporting VTE in COVID-19. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for the effect measure with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Seven studies (41,768 patients) evaluated VTE in COVID-19 cohorts compared to non-COVID-19 cohorts. The overall risk of VTE (RR 1.18; 95%CI 0.79-1.77; p = 0.42; I2 = 54%), pulmonary embolism (RR 1.25; 95%CI 0.77-2.03; p = 0.36; I2 = 52%) and deep venous thrombosis (RR 0.92; 95%CI 0.52-1.65; p = 0.78; I2 = 0%) did not significantly differ between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts. However, subgroup analyses suggested an increased risk of VTE amongst CODID-19 versus non COVID-19 cohorts when only patients hospitalized within the intensive care unit (ICU) were considered (RR 3.10; 95%CI 1.54-6.23), which was not observed in cohorts of predominantly non-ICU patients (RR 0.95; 95%CI 0.81-1.11) (Pinteraction = 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was no signal for a difference in VTE in COVID-19 cohorts compared to non-COVID-19 cohorts, except for the subgroup of patients hospitalized in the ICU. These results should be viewed as exploratory and further studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Young Adult
17.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211019559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243797

ABSTRACT

In this article, we report a case of a 61-year-old male who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intubation and hemodynamic support, marked D-Dimer and troponin I elevation, worsening ST-elevation myocardial infarction on repeat electrocardiograms, and a negative coronary angiogram ruling out a coronary artery thrombosis or occlusion. With worsening diffuse ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms and reduced ejection fraction on echocardiography in the setting of systemic inflammation, fulminant myocarditis was highly suspected. Despite optimal medical treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated and was complicated by cardiac arrest that failed resuscitation. Although myocarditis was initially suspected, the autopsy revealed no evidence of myocarditis or pericarditis but did demonstrate multiple microscopic sites of myocardial ischemia together with thrombi in the left atrium and pulmonary vasculature. Additionally, scattered microscopic cardiomyocyte necrosis with pathological diagnosis of small vessel micro-thrombotic occlusions. These findings are potentially exacerbated by inflammation-induced coagulopathy, hypoxia, hypotension, and stress, that is, a multifactorial etiology. Further research and an improved understanding are needed to define the precise pathophysiology of the coagulopathic state causing widespread micro-thrombosis with subsequent myocardial and pulmonary injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic
19.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
20.
Postgrad Med ; 133(sup1): 36-41, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207179

ABSTRACT

Accumulating studies on COVID-19 patients report high incidences of thrombotic complications, but guidance on the best diagnostic approach for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients is lacking. Diagnosing PE in these patients is challenging as signs and symptoms of PE and COVID-19 show wide overlap, D-dimer levels are often elevated in the absence of thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) may be unfeasible in the case of severe renal impairment and/or hemodynamic instability.This narrative review discusses available literature and guidelines on current diagnostic algorithms for suspected PE in special patient populations, in particular COVID-19. A special focus is on reviewing the literature aimed at identifying symptoms with a high suspicion for PE and on the diagnostic performance of diagnostic algorithms for suspected PE in the setting of COVID-19.Based on available literature, the index of suspicion for PE should be high in the case of unexplained abrupt worsening of respiratory status, typical symptoms of deep-vein thrombosis and/or acute unexplained right ventricular dysfunction. Despite the lack of prospective diagnostic management studies, we propose to adhere to current diagnostic algorithms applying assessment of pretest probability and D-dimer testing as available evidence suggests that these might be considered safe. Preferably, algorithms using adjusted D-dimer thresholds are recommended as it likely improves the yield of the clinical decision rule/D-dimer combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Algorithms , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods
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