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3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779332

ABSTRACT

A man in his 70s was admitted to hospital due to a fall, urinary tract infection and delirium. The patient had a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' order in place and a ward-based ceiling of care was agreed. He tested positive for COVID-19 while on a geriatric ward and subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli with haemodynamic instability. The patient had a significant bleeding risk; however, the expected morbidity and mortality risk from the pulmonary emboli was high. A decision was made to give the patient low-dose thrombolysis on the geriatric ward, following which he made a full recovery. Acute thrombolysis is normally performed in emergency department, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) settings; however, this was not possible in this case due to the burden the COVID-19 pandemic had placed on HDU/ICU services and bed capacity. Adaptation of treatment guidelines allowed for emergency life-saving treatment to be delivered to this patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745764

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Syncope, often as a consequence of impending haemodynamic collapse, is associated with increased mortality. While loss of consciousness owing to cerebral hypoperfusion and reduced left ventricular preload is a common cause of collapse with large volume PE, other syndromes can also cause neurological deficit in thromboembolic disease. Here, we describe a case of a woman in her 60s, presenting to the emergency department with features of high-risk PE. During clinical examination, the patient collapsed and became unresponsive with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 4/15 despite normal haemodynamics. Neurological signs were noted and CT revealed evidence of a large territory cerebral infarction. Further cardiovascular investigations identified a grade 4 patent foramen ovale. We describe a challenging case of established venous thromboembolism complicated by paradoxical embolism, highlighting the importance of thorough clinical examination and investigation and discuss the current evidence base of treatments.


Subject(s)
Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Embolism, Paradoxical/complications , Embolism, Paradoxical/diagnostic imaging , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Hemodynamics , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
5.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 118(2): 525-529, 2022 02.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737607

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in almost every country in the world since December 2019. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is often asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, but it may also lead to hypoxia, a hyperinflammatory state, and coagulopathy. The abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with thrombotic complications, including pulmonary embolism in COVID-19, but little is known about the mechanisms. The similarity of initial symptoms of both diseases can also be confusing, therefore the physicians should be aware of the potential for concurrent conditions. Herein, we present a case who did not have ground-glass opacities in the lungs, yet presented with pulmonary embolism and pleural effusions in association with COVID-19 infection.


A doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) foi relatada em quase todos os países do mundo desde dezembro de 2019. A infecção por SARS-CoV-2 é frequentemente assintomática ou com sintomas leves, mas também pode levar à hipóxia, um estado hiperinflamatório e coagulopatia. Os parâmetros de coagulação anormais estão associados a complicações trombóticas, incluindo embolia pulmonar na COVID-19, mas pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos. A semelhança dos sintomas iniciais de ambas as doenças também pode ser confusa, portanto, os médicos devem estar cientes do potencial para condições concomitantes. Apresentamos aqui um caso que não apresentava opacidades em vidro fosco nos pulmões, mas apresentava embolia pulmonar e derrame pleural em associação com infecção por COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 10-13, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults. However, the rate of PE in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 evaluated by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Determine PE rate in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 and compare to adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of CTPA studies, performed between March 2020 and January 2021 on pediatric patients with acute COVID-19, but not MIS-C, was performed. CTPAs performed on an adult cohort of acute COVID-19 patients during April 2020 were reviewed for comparison. Pediatric and chest radiologists independently reviewed CTPAs of pediatric and adult patients, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 355 acute COVID-19 pediatric patients treated during the study period, 14 (16.6 ± 4.8y, median-18.5y, 64% female) underwent CTPA. Of the 1868 acute COVID-19 adults treated during two weeks in April 2020, 50 (57.2 ± 17.0y, median-57.0y, 42% female) underwent CTPA. The PE rate was 14% in the pediatric group (2 patients) and 18% in the adult group (9 patients) (p = 1.0). Both pediatric patients with PE were obese, over 18y, and had asthma, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. No child<18y with acute COVID-19 had PE. In the adult cohort, higher alanine-aminotransferase and D-dimer levels were associated with PE (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite similar PE rates in pediatric and adult patients, PE occurred in acute COVID-19 pediatric patients who were >18y, obese, and had at least 1 comorbidity. Children <18y with COVID-19 did not have PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Child , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(4): 826-831.e1, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Great interest exists in standardizing the anticoagulant choice for patients requiring treatment of distal deep vein thrombosis (DDVT). In the present multicenter, retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with DDVT who had been treated with warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; ie, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran). METHODS: Queries were built for the TriNetX database (TriNetX LLC, Cambridge, Mass), a federated network of healthcare organizations across the United States that provides de-identified patient data through aggregated counts and statistical summaries. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, diagnostic codes were used to identify eligible patients. Data from January 1, 2013 to January 1, 2020 were reviewed. Statistical analyses, including propensity matching, were performed using TriNetX's internal software. The inclusion criterion was treatment with either warfarin or a DOAC started within the first 24 hours of diagnosis of an isolated thrombosis of the following veins: anterior tibial, posterior tibial, peroneal, or calf muscular veins. The exclusion criteria were a history of an adverse reaction to anticoagulant agents, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection, thrombophilia, mechanical heart valve, chronic proximal DVT (PDVT) and/or DDVT, and 6-month history of the following: acute PDVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), or anticoagulant usage. The outcomes measured included the incidence of mortality, PE, PDVT, stroke, myocardial infarction, and major bleeding within 6 months after initiating anticoagulation therapy. RESULTS: In a cohort of 6509 patients, 1570 were treated with warfarin and 4939 were treated with a DOAC drug. After propensity matching for age, sex, ethnicity, and comorbidities, the DOAC cohort had a significantly lower incidence of PE (1.795% vs 3.590%; P = .0020) and major bleeding (7.949% vs 10.513%; P = .0134). Differences in the incidence of mortality, PDVT, myocardial infarction, and stroke were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Before the present study, no strong evidence was available to suggest an optimal treatment modality for DDVT requiring anticoagulation therapy. The data from the present study suggest that patients receiving DOACs for the treatment of DDVT will have significantly lower rates of progression to PE and a lower incidence of major bleeding compared with patients receiving warfarin. This suggests that DOACs are superior to warfarin for treatment of DDVT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Venous Thrombosis , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/chemically induced , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects
10.
J Crit Care ; 69: 153992, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661863

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critically ill COVID-19 patients have an increased risk of developing pulmonary embolism (PE). Diagnosis of PE by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) might reduce the need for computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), while decreasing time-to-diagnosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: This prospective, observational study included adult ICU patients with COVID-19. Multi-organ (lungs, deep vein, cardiac) POCUS was performed within 24 h of CTPA, looking for subpleural consolidations, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and right ventricular strain (RVS). We reported the scan time, and calculated diagnostic accuracy measures for these signs separately and in combination. RESULTS: 70 consecutive patients were included. 23 patients (32.8%) had a PE. Median scan time was 14 min (IQR 11-17). Subpleural consolidations' diagnostic accuracy was: 42.9% (95%CI [34.1-52.0]). DVT's and RVS' diagnostic accuracy was: 75.6% (95%CI [67.1-82.9]) and 74.4% (95%CI [65.8-81.8]). Their sensitivity was: 24.0% (95%CI [9.4-45.1]), and 40.0% (95%CI [21.3-61.3]), while their specificity was: 88.8% (95%CI [80.8-94.3]), and: 83.0% (95%CI [74.2-89.8]), respectively. Multi-organ POCUS sensitivity was: 87.5% (95%CI [67.6-97.3]), and specificity was: 25% (95%CI [16.9-34.7]). CONCLUSIONS: Multi-organ rather than single-organ POCUS can be of aid in ruling out PE in critically ill COVID-19 and help select patients for CTPA. In addition, finding RVS can make PE more likely, while a DVT would preclude the need for a CTPA. REGISTRATION: www.trialregister.nl: NL8540.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
12.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 10(3): 578-584.e2, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650575

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the radiographic resolution of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) examinations in patients diagnosed with acute PE while hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to understand the mid-term and long-term implications of anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: We identified patients with acute PE per CECT and at least one follow-up CECT from March 11, 2020, to May 27, 2021, using a prospective registry of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection receiving care within a multicenter Health System. Initial and follow-up CECT examinations were reviewed independently by two radiologists to evaluate for PE resolution. The Modified Miller Score was used to assess for thrombus burden at diagnosis and on follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 6070 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection, 5.7% (348/6070) were diagnosed with acute PE and 13.5% (47/348) had a follow-up CECT examination. The mean ± standard deviation time to follow-up imaging was 44 ± 48 days (range, 3-161 days). Of 47 patients, 47 (72.3%) had radiographic resolution of PE, with a mean time to follow-up of 48 ± 43 days (range, 6-239 days). All patients received anticoagulation monotherapy for a mean of 149 ± 95 days and this included apixaban (63.8%), warfarin (12.8%), and rivaroxaban (8.5%), among others. The mean Modified Miller Score at PE diagnosis and follow-up was 4.8 ± 4.2 (range, 1-14) and 1.4 ± 3.3 (range, 0-16; P < .0001), respectively. Nine patients (19%) died at a mean of 13 ± 8 days after follow-up CECT (range, 1-27 days) and at a mean of 28 ± 16 days after admission (range, 11-68 days). Seen of the nine deaths (78%) deaths were associated with progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have a clinically apparent 5.7% rate of developing PE. In patients with follow-up imaging, 72.3% had radiographic thrombus resolution at a mean of 44 days while on anticoagulation. Prospective studies of the natural history of PEs with COVID-19 that include systematic follow-up imaging are warranted to help guide anticoagulation recommendations.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Circ J ; 85(12): 2208-2214, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reportedly causes venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the status of this complication in Japan was unclear.Methods and Results:The VTE and COVID-19 in Japan Study is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination at 22 centers in Japan between March 2020 and October 2020. Among 1,236 patients with COVID-19, 45 (3.6%) were evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT examination. VTE events occurred in 10 patients (22.2%), and the incidence of VTE in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 was 0%, 11.8%, and 40.0%, respectively. COVID-19 patients with VTE showed a higher body weight (81.6 vs. 64.0 kg, P=0.005) and body mass index (26.9 vs. 23.2 kg/m2, P=0.04), and a higher proportion had a severe status for COVID-19 compared with those without. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients alive at discharge between patients with and without VTE (80.0% vs. 88.6%, P=0.48). Among 8 pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, all were low-risk PE. CONCLUSIONS: Among a relatively small number of patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT examination in Japanese real-world clinical practice, there were no VTE patients among those with mild COVID-19, but the incidence of VTE seemed to be relatively high among severe COVID-19 patients, although all PE events were low-risk without significant effect on mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
14.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1068-1073, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525577

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have increased risk of pulmonary embolism (PE), but symptoms of both conditions overlap. Because screening algorithms for PE in COVID-19 patients are currently lacking, PE might be underdiagnosed. We evaluated a screening algorithm in which all patients presenting to the ED with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 routinely undergo D-dimer testing, followed by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) if D-dimer is ≥ 1.00 mg/L. Consecutive adult patients presenting to the ED of two university hospitals in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, between 01-10-2020 and 31-12-2020, who had a final diagnosis of COVID-19, were retrospectively included. D-dimer and CTPA results were obtained. Of 541 patients with a final diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to the ED, 25 (4.6%) were excluded because D-dimer was missing, and 71 (13.1%) because they used anticoagulation therapy. Of 445 included patients, 185 (41.6%; 95%CI 37.0-46.3) had a D-dimer ≥ 1.00 mg/L. CTPA was performed in 169 of them, which showed PE in 26 (15.4%; 95%CI 10.3-21.7), resulting in an overall detection rate of 5.8% (95%CI 3.9-8.4) in the complete study group. In patients with and without PE at CTPA, median D-dimer was 9.84 (IQR 3.90-29.38) and 1.64 (IQR 1.17-3.01), respectively (p < 0.001). PE prevalence increased with increasing D-dimer, ranging from 1.2% (95%CI 0.0-6.4) if D-dimer was 1.00-1.99 mg/L, to 48.6% (95%CI 31.4-66.0) if D-dimer was ≥ 5.00 mg/L. In conclusion, by applying this screening algorithm, PE was identified in a considerable proportion of COVID-19 patients. Prospective management studies should assess if this algorithm safely rules-out PE if D-dimer is < 1.00 mg/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Netherlands , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
17.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(3): 346-352, 2021.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444465

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess pulmonary embolism incidence, its relationship with D-dimer levels and other possible associated factors in addition to anticoagulation and contrast medium adverse effects. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study at a Chilean public hospital was performed. Intensive care unit mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients older than 18 years old between March and June 2020 were included. All patients received heparin thromboprophylaxis, which was increased to the anticoagulation dose with D-dimer greater than 3µg/mL. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients were followed up, of whom 73 underwent pulmonary computed tomography angiography (mean age, 54 ± 12 years; 49 men). Sixty-two of the 73 patients (84.9%) received full anticoagulation before computed tomography angiography. In addition, 18 of the 73 patients had pulmonary embolism (24.7%). When comparing patients with and without pulmonary embolism, no significant differences were observed in age, sex, obesity, smoking, Wells and revised Geneva scores, D-dimer or mortality. Anticoagulant use was similar in both groups. Days from the start of anticoagulation until computed tomography angiography were significantly lower in the pulmonary embolism group (p = 0.002). Three patients presented post contrast-acute kidney injury (4.1%), and one patient had major bleeding. CONCLUSION: Despite anticoagulation, one in four COVID-19 patients connected to mechanical ventilation and evaluated with pulmonary computed tomography angiography had pulmonary embolism. With a longer the delay in performing computed tomography angiography once empirical anticoagulation was started, significantly less pulmonary embolism was identified.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de embolia pulmonar, seu relacionamento com os níveis de dímero D e outros possíveis fatores associados, além dos efeitos adversos da anticoagulação e meios de contraste. MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva em um hospital público chileno. Foram incluídos os pacientes com idade acima de 18 anos com COVID-19, mecanicamente ventilados na unidade de terapia intensiva, admitidos entre março e junho de 2020. Todos os pacientes receberam tromboprofilaxia com heparina, que foi aumentada até uma dose de anticoagulação com níveis de dímero D acima de 3µg/mL. RESULTADOS: Foram acompanhados 127 pacientes, dos quais 73 foram submetidos à angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (média de idade de 54 ± 12 anos; 49 homens). Sessenta e dois dos 73 pacientes (84,9%) receberam anticoagulação total antes da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada. Além disso, 18 dos 73 pacientes tiveram embolia pulmonar (24,7%). Na comparação entre pacientes com e sem embolia pulmonar, não se observaram diferenças significantes em termos de idade, sexo, obesidade, tabagismo, escores de Wells e Genebra revisado, dímero D ou mortalidade. O uso de anticoagulantes foi similar em ambos os grupos. O número de dias desde o início da anticoagulação até a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada foi significantemente menor no grupo com embolia pulmonar (p = 0,002). Três pacientes tiveram lesão renal aguda após o contraste (4,1%), e um paciente teve sangramento importante. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da anticoagulação, um em cada quatro pacientes com COVID-19 submetidos à ventilação mecânica e avaliados com angiografia por tomografia computadorizada apresentou embolia pulmonar. Com uma maior demora para realização da angiografia por tomografia computadorizada após início de anticoagulação empírica, identificou-se um número significantemente menor de embolias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
18.
Echocardiography ; 38(11): 1959-1965, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443254

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary artery and pulmonary valve sarcoma are malignant and very rare vascular tumors with aggressive clinical course and very poor outcomes. Patients affected by coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are at a higher risk for thromboembolism complication. We describe a young woman with a history of coronavirus pneumonia and progressive dyspnea, hemodynamic disturbance, edema with initial evaluation, and clinical diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. But further imaging study and pathology demonstrated giant sarcoma of pulmonary valve, obstructing pulmonary valve and extending to right ventricular outflow tract and main of pulmonary artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Pulmonary Valve , Sarcoma , Vascular Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Artery , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Valve/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430921

ABSTRACT

In this article, we present the case of a 38-year-old female who suffered from serious respiratory distress. After an extensive pulmonary artery imaging diagnostic work-up (CTPA, MRA and PET), we were unable to differentiate between chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) vs. pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) due to extensive filling defects and extraluminal findings. Although surgery was postponed for nine months due to the COVID-19 pandemic, CTEPH diagnosis, due to a high-thrombus burden, was finally confirmed after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). Conclusively, imaging findings of rare cases of CTEPH might mimic PAS and the surgical removal of the lesion are both needed for a final diagnosis. What is Already Known about This Topic? Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is a rare but aggressive malignancy, which originates from the intimal layer of the pulmonary artery (PA); Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is based on chronic, organized flow-limiting thrombi inside PA circulation and subsequent pulmonary hypertension. What Does This Study Contribute? Since radiological findings of CTEPH cases might rarely mimic PAS, pulmonary artery endarterectomy and subsequent histopathologic study are needed for a final diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Pulmonary Embolism , Sarcoma , Thrombosis , Adult , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/surgery , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Sarcoma/diagnostic imaging
20.
Radiol Med ; 126(12): 1553-1560, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415086

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recently coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused a global pandemic, characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of our study was to detect pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with severe form of COVID-19 infection using pulmonary CT angiography, and its associations with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: From March to December 2020, we performed a prospective monocentric study collecting data from 374 consecutive patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR) assay of nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We subsequently selected patients with at least two of the following inclusion criteria: (1) severe acute respiratory symptoms (such as dyspnea, persistent cough, fever > 37.5 °C, fatigue, etc.); (2) arterial oxygen saturation ≤ 93% at rest; (3) elevated D-dimer (≥ 500 ng/mL) and C-reactive protein levels (≥ 0.50 mg/dL); and (4) presence of comorbidities. A total of 63/374 (17%) patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent CT angiography during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent (Iomeprol 400 mgI/mL). Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: About, 26/60 patients (40%) were found positive for PE at chest CT angiography. In these patients, D-dimer and CRP values were significantly higher, while a reduction in SaO2 < 93% was more common than in patients without PE (P < 0.001). Median time between illness onset and CT scan was significantly longer (15 days; P < 0.001) in patients with PE. These were more likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (19/26 vs. 11/34 patients; P < 0.001) and required mechanical ventilation more frequently than those without PE (15/26 patients vs. 9/34 patients; P < 0.001). Vascular enlargement was significantly more frequent in patients with PE than in those without (P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Our results pointed out that patients affected by severe clinical features of COVID-19 associated with comorbidities and significant increase of D-dimer levels developed acute mono- or bi-lateral pulmonary embolism in 40% of cases. Therefore, the use of CT angiography rather than non-contrast CT should be considered in these patients, allowing a better evaluation, that can help the management and improve the outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results
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