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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779332

ABSTRACT

A man in his 70s was admitted to hospital due to a fall, urinary tract infection and delirium. The patient had a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' order in place and a ward-based ceiling of care was agreed. He tested positive for COVID-19 while on a geriatric ward and subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli with haemodynamic instability. The patient had a significant bleeding risk; however, the expected morbidity and mortality risk from the pulmonary emboli was high. A decision was made to give the patient low-dose thrombolysis on the geriatric ward, following which he made a full recovery. Acute thrombolysis is normally performed in emergency department, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) settings; however, this was not possible in this case due to the burden the COVID-19 pandemic had placed on HDU/ICU services and bed capacity. Adaptation of treatment guidelines allowed for emergency life-saving treatment to be delivered to this patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 277, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the RECOVERY trial showed that dexamethasone was efficacious for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), its impact on the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and other serious procoagulant events was not assessed. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a previously healthy 83-year-old woman with COVID-19, without any genetic predisposition to thrombosis. She developed moderate respiratory distress 12 days after symptom onset and a 10-day course of dexamethasone therapy was initiated. Her clinical condition and imaging findings improved initially; however, they deteriorated after the completion of dexamethasone therapy, despite the improvement in her pneumonia and viral clearance. Laboratory tests showed markedly raised serum D-dimer, ferritin, and sIL-2R levels, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the left iliac vein and PE of the right pulmonary artery. The DVT and PE were successfully treated using intravenous heparin administration. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates the potential risk of rebound inflammation and procoagulant events following dexamethasone withdrawal. We believe that COVID-19-induced DVT and PE can be affected by dexamethasone therapy. Although dexamethasone reduces procoagulant factors, increases anticoagulant factors, and modulates cytokines, which can suppress/delay thrombus formation during treatment, it confers the risk for rebound cytokine production after treatment completion, triggering cytokine and coagulation cascades that can lead to thromboembolic diseases. In this critical clinical period, the patient's deteriorating condition may be overlooked because of the masking effects of dexamethasone treatment on fever and other clinical conditions and laboratory changes. Clinicians should follow-up coagulation markers carefully and contrast-enhanced computed tomography is useful for detecting coagulation; and, if PE occurs, therapeutic heparin administration is essential because emboli can also generate cytokines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
4.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 54-58, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636663

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have established indications, according to recent guidelines for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE), with a safer profile compared to vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in terms of a lower risk for major bleeding and no need of blood coagulation tests. However, DOACs are not indicated in the treatment of patients with triple-positive antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This limitation is often extended in clinical practice to patients with isolated positivity. The COVID-19 pandemic has sometimes made it difficult to maintain a safe VKA treatment, due to the practical difficulties of performing INR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 39 patients with a previous unprovoked VTE/PE, who were no longer eligible for VKA treatment due to the difficulty of performing INR during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, in Italy. All patients had a positive LAC and refused a long-term anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin. They were shifted to edoxaban. RESULTS: Any recurrence of VTE/PE occurred during the observation period (up to eight months of treatment), while only one minor bleeding event was recorded (Hazard ratio=0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.11, p=0.094). No arterial events occurred during the observation period. Hemoglobin, platelets, and creatinine were unchanged during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Edoxaban treatment may be safe and effective in preventing the recurrence of VTE/PE in patients with isolated LAC positivity, without the occurrence of arterial events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/drug effects , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quarantine , Thiazoles/adverse effects
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 154-156, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587620

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has emerged as a rare side effect of adenoviral vector-based vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is most frequently reported after use of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) vaccine. This report describes a case of severe thrombocytopenia associated with massive pulmonary embolism and portal vein thrombosis occurring 13 days after the administration of the single-dose adenoviral vector-based vaccine Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen Vaccines). Based on early clinical suspicion, the patient quickly received treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, followed by a rapid increase in platelet count that allowed timely administration of full-dose anticoagulation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, however, could mask the ability of anti-platelet factor 4-heparin antibodies to bind and activate platelets in the presence of heparin, leading to false-negative results on the immunoassay functional test. Therefore, if VITT is suspected, blood samples for diagnostic confirmation should be collected prior to any treatment to improve diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Platelets ; 33(1): 48-53, 2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541393

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is an evident complication of COVID-19 with predominance of a prothrombotic state. Platelet activation plays a key role. The terms "hyper-reactivity" and "hyperactivity" used in recent literature may not be clear or sufficient to explain the pathological events involved in COVID-related thrombosis (CRT). Inflammation may play a bigger role compared to thrombosis in COVID-related mortality because a smaller percentage of patients with COVID-19 die due to direct effects of thrombosis. Not all COVID-19 patients have thrombocytopenia and a few show thrombocytosis. We believe the platelet pathology is more complex than just activation or hyper-activation, particularly due to the platelets' role in inflammation. Understanding the pathology and consequences of platelets' role may help optimize management strategies and diminish CRT-associated morbidity and mortality. In this viewpoint report, we examine the published evidence of platelet hyper-reactivity in COVID-19 with a focused analysis of the key pathologies, diverse alterations, disease outcomes, and therapeutic targets. We believe that COVID-19 is a disease of inflammation and pathologic platelets, and based on the complexity and diverse pathologies, we propose the term "thrombocytopathy" as a more reflective term of the platelets' involvement in COVID-19. In our opinion, thrombocytopathy is the unpredictable pathologic alterations of platelets in function, morphology and number, caused by different factors with a variety of presentations.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Abciximab/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(3): 576-580, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487532

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic complications are common in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia with important consequences on the diagnostic and therapeutic management. We report a consecutive series of five patients on long-term oral anticoagulation therapy who presented to our hospital for severe COVID-19 pneumonia associated with segmental acute pulmonary embolism despite adherence to therapy and with an adequate anticoagulant range at the time of the event. Four patients were receiving a direct oral anticoagulant (two with edoxaban, one with rivaroxaban and one with apixaban) and one patient a vitamin K antagonist. No significant thrombotic risk factors, active cancer, or detectable venous thromboembolism were present. In all cases, elevated d-dimer and fibrinogen levels with a parallel rise in markers of inflammation were documented. The combination of these findings seems to support the hypothesis that considers the local vascular damage determined by severe viral infection as the main trigger of thrombi detected in the lungs, rather than emboli from peripheral veins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 226, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inferior vena cava thrombosis is cited to be a complication of inferior vena cava filter placement and post coronary artery bypass surgery. Often only mild symptoms arise from these thrombi; however, due to the chronic nature of some thrombi and the recanalization process, more serious complications can arise. Although anticoagulation remains the gold standard of treatment, some patients are unable to be anticoagulated. In this case, we present a 65-year-old male who underwent IVC filter placement and open-heart surgery who later developed extensive femoral and iliocaval thrombosis leading to right heart failure, which required thrombus extraction with an AngioVac suction device. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 65-year-old male who presented with bilateral pulmonary emboli with extensive right lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Upon investigation he had ischemic heart disease and underwent a five-vessel coronary artery bypass for which he had an IVC filter placed preoperatively. On post operative day 3 to 4, he was decompensated and was diagnosed with an IVC thrombus. He progressed to right heart failure and worsening cardiogenic shock despite therapeutic anticoagulation and was taken for a suction thrombectomy using the AngioVac (AngioDynamics, Latham, NY) aspiration thrombectomy device. The thrombectomy was successful and he was able to recover and was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Despite being a rare complication, IVC thrombosis can have detrimental effects. This case is an example of how IVC thrombus in the post-operative setting can lead to mortality. The gold standard is therapeutic anticoagulation but despite that, this patient continued to have worsening cardiogenic shock. Other therapies have been described but because of its rarity, they are only described in case reports. This case shows that the AngioVac device is a successful treatment option for IVC thrombus and can have the possibility of future use.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Shock, Cardiogenic/surgery , Thrombectomy , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/surgery , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/surgery , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Thrombectomy/instrumentation , Treatment Outcome , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211039288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448131

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease that can be life-threatening involving immune and inflammatory responses, and that can result in potentially lethal complications, including venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Forming an integrative approach to thrombo-prophylaxis and coagulation treatment for COVID-19 patients ensues. We aim at reviewing the literature for anticoagulation in the setting of COVID-19 infection to provide a summary on anticoagulation for this patient population. COVID-19 infection is associated with a state of continuous inflammation, which results in macrophage activation syndrome and an increased rate of thrombosis. Risk assessment models to predict the risk of thrombosis in critically ill patients have not yet been validated. Currently published guidelines suggest the use of prophylactic intensity over intermediate intensity or therapeutic intensity anticoagulant for patients with critical illness or acute illness related to COVID-19 infection. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who are diagnosed with acute VTE are considered to have a provoking factor, and, therefore, treatment duration should be at least 3 months. Patients with proximal deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism should receive parenteral over oral anticoagulants with low-molecular-weight heparin or fondaparinux preferred over unfractionated heparin. In patients with impending hemodynamic compromise due to PE, and who are not at increased risk for bleeding, reperfusion may be necessary. Internists should remain updated on new emerging evidence regarding anticoagulation for COVID-19 patients. Awaiting these findings, we invite internists to perform individualized decisions that are unique for every patient and to base them on clinical judgment for risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Consensus , Critical Illness , Disease Management , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fondaparinux/adverse effects , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk , Thrombophilia/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
12.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(2): 101000, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433112

ABSTRACT

The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19 patients is a growing problem. Thromboembolic complications are associated with the infection by SARSCoV-2, with an estimated incidence up to 25%-30% of VTE in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Here in, we present a case of a patient with severe pneumonia due to COVID-19 who is admitted with mild pneumothorax secondary to COVID-19 and high-intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE), who underwent successfully a highflow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygenation bridge with subsequent successful half-doses of systemic thrombolysis with intravenous alteplase. Prospective studies are warranted in this subset of patients with intermediate-high and high-risk PE, to further explore HFNC oxygenation with or without diverse reperfusion strategies, with the aim to identify the best individualized therapeutic approach in each patient with significant COVID-19 associated VTE and optimize outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Cannula , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy
13.
J Emerg Med ; 61(5): e103-e107, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory compromise caused by complications of COVID-19, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or thromboembolic disease, is a complex syndrome with unique challenges in treatment. Management often requires time and intensive care through a multiprofessional, multispecialty approach. Initial management is particularly challenging within the limited-resource environment of the emergency department (ED). The emergency physician's toolbox of treatments with reasonably rapid onset remains limited to respiratory support, prone positioning, steroids, and anticoagulation. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a patient with COVID-19 complicated by ARDS and bilateral pulmonary emboli with severe right ventricular dysfunction and systemic hypotension treated with nebulized nitroglycerin and systemic thrombolytic therapy in the ED. Serial evaluation of right ventricular function using point of care ultrasound over the next 2 h showed improvement of function with both agents as well as improvement in the patient's respiratory rate and work of breathing. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case describes a novel use of a widely available medication for patients with COVID-19-induced right ventricular dysfunction. Nebulized nitroglycerin may be an option to improve right ventricular function when other inhaled pulmonary vasodilators are not available in the initial ED setting. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Humans , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
17.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(10): 1289-1294, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the clinical performance of edoxaban for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis selecting hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to our Institution from 20 May 2020 to 20 November 2020 with computer tomography (CT) detected PE at admission, treated with edoxaban after initial parenteral therapy. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without ARDS at admission and between those with and without CT confirmed PE resolution. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. Mean follow-up was 42.5 ± 10 days. No baseline differences were found between patients with ARDS (30%) and those without ARDS at admission. Patients with PE resolution (84%) were younger (P = 0.03), had a shorter duration of fondaparinux therapy (9.9 ± 3.8 vs 15.8 ± 7.5 days; P = 0.0015) and length of hospitalization (36 ± 8 vs 46 ± 9 days: P = 0.0023) compared with those without PE resolution. 2 patients experienced major bleedings. At multivariate analysis the time to edoxaban switch was the only predictor of the PE resolution (HR: 0.92; 95% C.I. 0.86 to 0.99). CONCLUSION: Edoxaban was an effective and safe treatment for acute PE in COVID-19 setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Female , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 77: 79-82, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356137

ABSTRACT

A rare case of aortic thrombosis in a young COVID-19 positive patient is presented in this case report. Arterial thrombosis developed despite the administration of anticoagulants for treating DVT and PE. The patient underwent axillobifemoral bypass surgery. Limited surgical surveillance, administered steroids and critical health status resulted in wound site infection and consequent graft removal. Aortic endarterectomy and autovenous-patch plasty were performed after the patient's condition improved. Etiopathogenesis of arterial events in the setting of COVID-19 is not entirely understood. It has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection strongly affects vascular endothelial glycocalyx (VEGLX), causes systemic inflammation - reactive microvascular endotheliosis (SIRME), and consequently results in arterial thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Thoracic , Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Rare Diseases , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Computed Tomography Angiography , Endarterectomy/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
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