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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0266944, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports of increased thrombosis risk with SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in venous thromboembolism (VTE) management. Real-world data on the prevalence, efficacy and harms of these changes informs best practices. OBJECTIVE: Define practice patterns and clinical outcomes related to VTE diagnosis, prevention, and management in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) using a multi-hospital US sample. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of 1121 patients admitted to 33 hospitals, exposure was dose of anticoagulant prescribed for VTE prophylaxis (standard, intensified, therapeutic), and primary outcome was VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]); secondary outcomes were PE, DVT, arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and bleeding events. Multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering by site and adjusted for risk factors were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Inverse probability weighting was used to account for confounding by indication. RESULTS: 1121 patients (mean age 60 ± 18, 47% female) admitted with COVID-19 between February 2, 2020 and December 31, 2020 to 33 US hospitals were included. Pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis was prescribed in 86%. Forty-seven patients (4.2%) had PE, 51 (4.6%) had DVT, and 23 (2.1%) had ATE. Forty-six patients (4.1%) had major bleeding and 46 (4.1%) had clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Compared to standard prophylaxis, adjusted odds of VTE were 0.67 (95% CI 0.21-2.1) with no prophylaxis, 1.0 (95% CI 0.06-17) with intensified, and 3.0 (95% CI 0.89-10) with therapeutic. Adjusted odds of bleeding with no prophylaxis were 5.6 (95% CI 3.0-11) and 5.3 (95% CI 3.0-10) with therapeutic (no events on intensified dosing). CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic anticoagulation was associated with a 3-fold increased odds of VTE and 5-fold increased odds of bleeding. While higher bleeding rates with high-intensity prophylaxis were likely due to full-dose anticoagulation, we conclude that high thrombosis rates were due to clinical concern for thrombosis before formal diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
BMJ ; 377: e069590, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding after covid-19. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. SETTING: National registries in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 057 174 people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 February 2020 and 25 May 2021 in Sweden, matched on age, sex, and county of residence to 4 076 342 control participants. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-controlled case series and conditional Poisson regression were used to determine the incidence rate ratio and risk ratio with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for a first deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or bleeding event. In the self-controlled case series, the incidence rate ratios for first time outcomes after covid-19 were determined using set time intervals and the spline model. The risk ratios for first time and all events were determined during days 1-30 after covid-19 or index date using the matched cohort study, and adjusting for potential confounders (comorbidities, cancer, surgery, long term anticoagulation treatment, previous venous thromboembolism, or previous bleeding event). RESULTS: Compared with the control period, incidence rate ratios were significantly increased 70 days after covid-19 for deep vein thrombosis, 110 days for pulmonary embolism, and 60 days for bleeding. In particular, incidence rate ratios for a first pulmonary embolism were 36.17 (95% confidence interval 31.55 to 41.47) during the first week after covid-19 and 46.40 (40.61 to 53.02) during the second week. Incidence rate ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 5.90 (5.12 to 6.80) for deep vein thrombosis, 31.59 (27.99 to 35.63) for pulmonary embolism, and 2.48 (2.30 to 2.68) for bleeding. Similarly, the risk ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 4.98 (4.96 to 5.01) for deep vein thrombosis, 33.05 (32.8 to 33.3) for pulmonary embolism, and 1.88 (1.71 to 2.07) for bleeding, after adjusting for the effect of potential confounders. The rate ratios were highest in patients with critical covid-19 and highest during the first pandemic wave in Sweden compared with the second and third waves. In the same period, the absolute risk among patients with covid-19 was 0.039% (401 events) for deep vein thrombosis, 0.17% (1761 events) for pulmonary embolism, and 0.101% (1002 events) for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that covid-19 is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding. These results could impact recommendations on diagnostic and prophylactic strategies against venous thromboembolism after covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
3.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 233-243, 2022 Apr.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, according to the PRISMA guidelines to determine the in-hospital incidence of acute PE, based on Italian studies published on this issue. We searched PubMed and Scopus to locate all articles published between February 2020 to October 15, 2021, reporting the incidence of acute PE in Italian COVID-19 patients. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was calculated using a random-effect model and presented with relative 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We analysed data from 3287 Italian COVID-19 patients (mean age 65.7 years) included in 20 studies. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was 20% (95% CI 13.4-28.7%; I2 = 95.1%); the incidence was lower among patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) (32.3%; 95% CI 20.2-44.0%; I2 = 77.2%) compared to those admitted in general wards (47.6%; 95% CI 18.7-78.2%; I2 = 94.4%). Meta-regression showed a significant direct correlation of acute PE incidence using age, male gender and previous coronary artery disease as moderating variables. Conversely, an inverse correlation was observed in relation to the use of anticoagulation at therapeutic dose. Prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation was administered in 80.2% of patients (95% CI 72.5-86.2%; I2 = 91.0%); the former regimen was more frequently used compared to the latter (63.5% vs 14.3%; p<0.001). Computed tomography angiography (CTPA) was used only in 10.7% of infected patients across 7 studies. CONCLUSIONS: One in five COVID-19 patients experienced acute PE as complication of the infection during hospitalization. The in-hospital incidence of acute PE was lower in ICU compared to general wards. CTPA was scantly used. Early prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with a lower incidence of acute PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263580, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolisms are frequently and prognostically in individuals infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); the incidence of pulmonary embolisms is varied across numerous studies. This study aimed to assess the pooled incidence of pulmonary embolic events and the prognostic value of such events in intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EmBase were systematically searched for eligible studies published on or before October 20, 2021. The pooled incidence of pulmonary embolism was calculated using the random-effects model. Moreover, the prognostic value was assessed by measuring the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR and NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Thirty-six studies involving 10,367 COVID-19 patients were selected for the final meta-analysis. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary embolism in patients with COVID-19 was 21% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 18-24%; P<0.001), and the incidence of pulmonary embolism in ICU and non-ICU patients was 26% (95%CI: 22-31%; P<0.001) and 17% (95%CI: 14-20%; P<0.001), respectively. The predictive role of pulmonary embolism in ICU admission was also assessed, and the sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and AUC were 0.31 (95%CI: 0.21-0.42), 0.84 (95%CI: 0.75-0.90), 1.88 (95%CI: 1.45-2.45), 0.83 (95%CI: 0.75-0.91), 2.25 (95%CI: 1.64-3.08), and 0.61 (95%CI: 0.57-0.65), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found that the incidence of pulmonary embolism was relatively high in COVID-19 patients, and the incidence of pulmonary embolism in ICU patients was higher than that in non-ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 171: 159-164, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729507

ABSTRACT

To date, the actual prevalence of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown, as systematic screening for PE is cumbersome. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on autoptic data to estimate the prevalence of histopathologic findings of acute PE and its relevance as a cause of death on patients with COVID-19. We searched MEDLINE-PubMed and Scopus to locate all articles published in the English language, up to August 10, 2021, reporting the autoptic prevalence of acute PE and evaluating PE as the underlying cause of death in patients with COVID-19. The pooled prevalence for both outcomes was calculated using a random-effects model and presenting the related 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the Higgins I2 statistic. We analyzed autoptic data of 749 patients with COVID-19 (mean age 63.4 years) included in 14 studies. In 10 studies, based on 526 subjects (mean age 63.8 years), a random-effect model revealed that autoptic acute PE findings were present in 27.5% of cases (95% CI 15.0 to 45.0%, I2 89.9%). Conversely, in 429 COVID-19 subjects (mean age 64.0 years) enrolled in 9 studies, acute PE was the underlying cause of death in 19.9% of cases (95% CI 11.0 to 33.3%, I2 83.3%). Autoptic findings of acute PE in patients with COVID-19 are present in about 30% of subjects, whereas a venous thromboembolic event represents the underlying cause of death in about 1 of 4 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 10-13, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults. However, the rate of PE in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 evaluated by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Determine PE rate in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 and compare to adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of CTPA studies, performed between March 2020 and January 2021 on pediatric patients with acute COVID-19, but not MIS-C, was performed. CTPAs performed on an adult cohort of acute COVID-19 patients during April 2020 were reviewed for comparison. Pediatric and chest radiologists independently reviewed CTPAs of pediatric and adult patients, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 355 acute COVID-19 pediatric patients treated during the study period, 14 (16.6 ± 4.8y, median-18.5y, 64% female) underwent CTPA. Of the 1868 acute COVID-19 adults treated during two weeks in April 2020, 50 (57.2 ± 17.0y, median-57.0y, 42% female) underwent CTPA. The PE rate was 14% in the pediatric group (2 patients) and 18% in the adult group (9 patients) (p = 1.0). Both pediatric patients with PE were obese, over 18y, and had asthma, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. No child<18y with acute COVID-19 had PE. In the adult cohort, higher alanine-aminotransferase and D-dimer levels were associated with PE (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite similar PE rates in pediatric and adult patients, PE occurred in acute COVID-19 pediatric patients who were >18y, obese, and had at least 1 comorbidity. Children <18y with COVID-19 did not have PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Child , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Thromb Res ; 212: 44-50, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism is a known complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epidemiological population data focusing on pulmonary embolism-related mortality is limited. METHODS: Veneto is a region in Northern Italy counting 4,879,133 inhabitants in 2020. All ICD-10 codes from death certificates (1st January 2018 to 31st December 2020) were examined. Comparisons were made between 2020 (COVID-19 outbreak) and the average of the two-year period 2018-2019. All-cause, COVID-19-related and the following cardiovascular deaths have been studied: pulmonary embolism, hypertensive disease, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and cerebrovascular diseases. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 56,412 deaths were recorded, corresponding to a 16% (n = 7806) increase compared to the period 2018-2019. The relative percentage increase during the so-called first and second waves was 19% and 44%, respectively. Of 7806 excess deaths, COVID-19 codes were reported in 90% of death certificates. The percentage increase in pulmonary embolism-related deaths was 27% (95%CI 19-35%), 1018 deaths during the year 2020, compared to 804 mean annual deaths in the period 2018-2019. This was more evident among men, who experience an absolute increase of 147 deaths (+45%), than in women (+67 deaths; +14%). The increase was primarily driven by deaths recorded during the second wave (+91% in October-December). An excess of deaths, particularly among men and during the second wave, was also observed for other cardiovascular diseases, notably hypertensive disease, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a considerable increase of all-cause mortality during the year 2020. This was mainly driven by COVID-19 and its complications. The relative increase in the number of pulmonary embolism-related deaths was more prominent during the second wave, suggesting a possible underdiagnosis during the first wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e054669, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the US incidence of thrombotic events and related rare diagnoses. DESIGN: Claims-based retrospective cohort study of incidence. SETTING: US commercial health insurance administrative claims database. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 25-64 years of age between 2015 and 2019 with a minimum of 12 consecutive thrombosis-free months of continuous enrolment beginning 2014 were selected. MAIN OUTCOMES: Age (10-year intervals) and sex stratum-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were determined for venous thromboembolism (VTE), cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) and other major venous thrombotic events, and events of special interest, including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). RESULTS: Of 13 249 229 enrollees (half female/male), incidence of venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), CVT or other major venous thrombotic conditions) was 247.89 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 245.96 to 249.84). Incidence of VTE was 213.79 with ICD codes alone (95% CI: 211.99 to 215.59) and 129.34 (95% CI: 127.95 to 130.75) when also requiring a filled anticoagulation prescription or an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Incidence was 6.37 for CVT (95% CI: 6.07 to 6.69), 26.06 for ITP (95% CI: 25.44 to 26.78), 0.94 for HUS (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.06) and 4.82 for HIT (95% CI: 4.56 to 5.10). The co-occurrence of CVT with either ITP or HIT (diagnoses within 14 days of one another) was 0.090 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.13). Incidence tended to increase with age and was higher for women under 55. Incidence for CVT, HUS and CVT with ITP or HIT was higher for women in all age groups. Incidence of PE and CVT increased significantly over the 5-year period, while DVT rates decreased. CONCLUSIONS: These results are the first US estimates for the incidence of thrombotic and rare events of interest in a large, commercially insured US population. Findings provide a critically important reference for determining excess morbidity associated with COVID-19 and more generally for vaccine pharmacovigilance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(5): e13735, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether higher doses of anticoagulants than recommended for thromboprophylaxis are necessary in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in general wards METHODS: This is a multicentre, open-label, randomized trial performed in 9 Italian centres, comparing 40 mg b.i.d. versus 40 mg o.d. enoxaparin in COVID-19 patients, between April 30 2020 and April 25 2021. Primary efficacy outcome was in-hospital incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE): asymptomatic or symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by serial compression ultrasonography (CUS), and/or symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) diagnosed by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Secondary endpoints included each individual component of the primary efficacy outcome and a composite of death, VTE, mechanical ventilation, stroke, myocardial infarction, admission to ICU. Safety outcomes included major bleeding. RESULTS: The study was interrupted prematurely due to slow recruitment. We included 183 (96%) of the 189 enrolled patients in the primary analysis (91 in b.i.d., 92 in o.d.). Primary efficacy outcome occurred in 6 patients (6.5%, 0 DVT, 6 PE) in the o.d. group and 0 in the b.id. group (ARR 6.5, 95% CI: 1.5-11.6). The absence of concomitant DVT and imaging characteristics suggests that most pulmonary artery occlusions were actually caused by local thrombi rather than PE. Statistically nonsignificant differences in secondary and safety endpoints were observed, with two major bleeding events in each arm. CONCLUSIONS: No DVT developed in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in general wards, independently of enoxaparin dosing used for thromboprophylaxis. Pulmonary artery occlusions developed only in the o.d. group. Our trial is underpowered and with few events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e052019, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate background rates of selected thromboembolic and coagulation disorders in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases. Records of hospitalisations and emergency department visits were searched to identify cases using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Canada diagnostic codes. PARTICIPANTS: All Ontario residents. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence rates of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and cerebral venous thrombosis during five prepandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million with 51% female. The mean annual rates per 100 000 population during 2015-2019 were 127.1 (95% CI 126.2 to 127.9) for ischaemic stroke, 22.0 (95% CI 21.6 to 22.3) for intracerebral haemorrhage, 9.4 (95% CI 9.2 to 9.7) for subarachnoid haemorrhage, 86.8 (95% CI 86.1 to 87.5) for deep vein thrombosis, 63.7 (95% CI 63.1 to 64.3) for pulmonary embolism, 6.1 (95% CI 5.9 to 6.3) for idiopathic thrombocytopaenia, 1.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.7) for disseminated intravascular coagulation, and 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for cerebral venous thrombosis. Rates were lower in 2020 than during the prepandemic years for ischaemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and idiopathic thrombocytopaenia. Rates were generally consistent over time, except for pulmonary embolism, which increased from 57.1 to 68.5 per 100 000 between 2015 and 2019. Rates were higher for females than males for subarachnoid haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and cerebral venous thrombosis, and vice versa for ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. Rates increased with age for most of these conditions, but idiopathic thrombocytopaenia demonstrated a bimodal distribution with incidence peaks at 0-19 years and ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates help contextualise observed events of these potential adverse events of special interest and to detect potential safety signals related to COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Respir Med ; 191: 106714, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have poor outcomes in the setting of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP in patients with COPD. The secondary objective is to compare outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 CAP with and without COPD. METHODS: In this analysis of two observational studies, three cohorts were analyzed: (1) patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP; (2) patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP; and (3) patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP without COPD. Outcomes included length of stay, ICU admission, cardiac events, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were compared to 1129 patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. 536 patients without COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP were analyzed for the secondary objective. Patients with COPD and SARS-CoV-2 CAP had longer hospital stay (15 vs 5 days, p < 0.001), 4.98 higher odds of cardiac events (95% CI: 3.74-6.69), and 7.31 higher odds of death (95% CI: 5.36-10.12) in comparison to patients with COPD and non-SARS-CoV-2 CAP. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD was associated with 1.74 (95% CI: 1.39-2.19) higher odds of ICU admission and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05-2.05) higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: In patients with COPD and CAP, presence of SARS-CoV-2 as an etiologic agent is associated with more cardiovascular events, longer hospital stay, and seven-fold increase in mortality. In patients with SARS-CoV-2 CAP, presence of COPD is associated with 1.5-fold increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Comorbidity , Edema, Cardiac/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 115: 93-100, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, several studies described an increased chance of developing pulmonary embolism (PE). Several scores have been used to predict the occurrence of PE. This systematic review summarizes the literature on predicting rules for PE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (HCPs). METHODS: PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched to identify articles (1 January 2020-28 April 2021) presenting data pertaining to the use of a prediction rule to assess the risk for PE in adult HCPs. The investigated outcome was the diagnosis of PE. Studies presenting data using a single laboratory assay for PE prediction were excluded. Included studies were appraised for methodological quality using the Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort Studies (NOS). RESULTS: We obtained a refined pool of twelve studies for five scoring systems (Wells score, Geneva score, CHADS2/CHA2DS2VASc/M-CHA2DS2VASc, CHOD score, Padua Prediction Score), and 4,526 patients. Only one score was designed explicitly for HCPs. Three and nine included studies were prospective and retrospective cohort studies, respectively. Among the examined scores, the CHOD score seems promising for predictive ability. CONCLUSION: New prediction rules, specifically developed and validated for estimating the risk of PE in HCP, differentiating ICU from non-ICU patients, and taking into account anticoagulation prophylaxis, comorbidities, and the time from COVID-19 diagnosis are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Circ J ; 85(12): 2208-2214, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reportedly causes venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the status of this complication in Japan was unclear.Methods and Results:The VTE and COVID-19 in Japan Study is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination at 22 centers in Japan between March 2020 and October 2020. Among 1,236 patients with COVID-19, 45 (3.6%) were evaluated with contrast-enhanced CT examination. VTE events occurred in 10 patients (22.2%), and the incidence of VTE in mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 was 0%, 11.8%, and 40.0%, respectively. COVID-19 patients with VTE showed a higher body weight (81.6 vs. 64.0 kg, P=0.005) and body mass index (26.9 vs. 23.2 kg/m2, P=0.04), and a higher proportion had a severe status for COVID-19 compared with those without. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients alive at discharge between patients with and without VTE (80.0% vs. 88.6%, P=0.48). Among 8 pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, all were low-risk PE. CONCLUSIONS: Among a relatively small number of patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT examination in Japanese real-world clinical practice, there were no VTE patients among those with mild COVID-19, but the incidence of VTE seemed to be relatively high among severe COVID-19 patients, although all PE events were low-risk without significant effect on mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
17.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 298, 2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on overall hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (PE) in France in comparison with previous years, and by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 status. METHODS: Hospitalization data (2017-2020) were extracted from the French National Discharge database (all public and private hospitals). We included all patients older than 18 years hospitalized during the 3 years and extracted PE status and COVID-19 status (from March 2020). Age, sex and risk factors for PE (such as obesity, cancer) were identified. We also extracted transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital death. The number of PE and the frequency of death in patients in 2019 and 2020 were described by month and by COVID-19 status. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the role of COVID-19 among other risk factors for PE in hospitalized patients. RESULTS: The overall number of patients hospitalized with PE increased by about 16% in 2020 compared with 2019, and mortality also increased to 10.3% (+ 1.2%). These increases were mostly linked to COVID-19 waves, which were associated with PE hospitalization in COVID-19 patients (PE frequency was 3.7%; 2.8% in non-ICU and 8.8% in ICU). The final PE odds ratio for COVID-19 hospitalized patients was 4 compared with other hospitalized patients in 2020. The analyses of PE in non-COVID-19 patients showed a 2.7% increase in 2020 compared with the previous three years. CONCLUSION: In 2020, the overall number of patients hospitalized with PE in France increased compared to the previous three years despite a considerable decrease in scheduled hospitalizations. Nevertheless, proactive public policy focused on the prevention of PE in all patients should be encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
18.
Stroke ; 52(12): 3978-3986, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The frequency of ischemic stroke in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies in the current literature, and risk factors are unknown. We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included patients with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) infection admitted in 16 Dutch hospitals participating in the international CAPACITY-COVID registry between March 1 and August 1, 2020. Patients were screened for the occurrence of acute ischemic stroke. We calculated the cumulative incidence of ischemic stroke and compared risk factors, cardiovascular complications, and in-hospital mortality in patients with and without ischemic stroke. RESULTS: We included 2147 patients with COVID-19, of whom 586 (27.3%) needed treatment at an intensive care unit. Thirty-eight patients (1.8%) had an ischemic stroke. Patients with stroke were older but did not differ in sex or cardiovascular risk factors. Median time between the onset of COVID-19 symptoms and diagnosis of stroke was 2 weeks. The incidence of ischemic stroke was higher among patients who were treated at an intensive care unit (16/586; 2.7% versus nonintensive care unit, 22/1561; 1.4%; P=0.039). Pulmonary embolism was more common in patients with (8/38; 21.1%) than in those without stroke (160/2109; 7.6%; adjusted risk ratio, 2.08 [95% CI, 1.52-2.84]). Twenty-seven patients with ischemic stroke (71.1%) died during admission or were functionally dependent at discharge. Patients with ischemic stroke were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (adjusted risk ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.13-2.15]) than patients without stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter cohort study, the cumulative incidence of acute ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was ≈2%, with a higher risk in patients treated at an intensive care unit. The majority of stroke patients had a poor outcome. The association between ischemic stroke and pulmonary embolism warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
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