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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(20): e33754, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. This novel coronavirus is classified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neurological manifestations are commonly associated with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare immune-mediated postinfectious neuropathy but there has been an increase in the number of cases of GBS associated with COVID-19, supporting the present body of global evidence of the notable association between the 2 conditions. We present the first proven case of GBS and pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 infection in Ghana, West Africa. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year-old apparently healthy female presented in August 2020 to the COVID-19 treatment center of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana from a referral facility following a week's history of low-grade fever, chills, rhinorrhoea, and generalized flaccid limb weakness. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test result was recorded 3 days after the onset of symptoms and the patient had no known chronic medical condition. Following cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neurophysiological studies and a chest computed tomography pulmonary angiogram, Guillain-Barre syndrome and pulmonary embolism were confirmed. The patient was however managed supportively and then discharged after 12 days on admission, as he made mild improvement in muscular power and function. CONCLUSION: This case report adds to the body of evidence of the association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly from West Africa. It further highlights the need to anticipate potential neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2, particularly GBS even in mild respiratory symptoms for prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy to improve outcomes and avert long-term deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Ghana , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Muscle Weakness , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications
3.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(3): 379-388, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243594

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The magnitude of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection among the elderly population is expected to rise. Our study compares the clinical and computed tomographical (CT) features of pulmonary thromboembolic (PTE) disease associated with COVID-19 infection in geriatric and non-geriatric cases, and explores the 60-day mortality rate in these two groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Selangor, Malaysia. Patients admitted in April 2021 and May 2021 with concomitant COVID-19 infection and PTE disease were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were retrieved, whilst CTPA images were analysed by a senior radiologist. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were recruited, comprising 45 geriatric patients and 105 non-geriatric patients. The prevalence rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia were higher among the geriatric cohort. Evidently, the percentage of patients with fever and diarrhoea were significantly higher among the non-geriatric cohort. The geriatric cohort also recorded a significantly lower absolute lymphocyte count at presentation and albumin level during admission. Despite earlier presentation, the geriatric cohort suffered from more severe diseases. Analysis of the CT features demonstrated that the most proximal pulmonary thrombosis specifically limited to the segmental and subsegmental pulmonary arteries in both cohorts. The elderly suffered from a significantly higher inhospital mortality rate and their cumulative probability of survival was significantly lower. CONCLUSION: Typical COVID-19 symptoms may be absent among the elderly, prompting a lower threshold of suspicion during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, the elderly demonstrated a higher probability of adverse outcomes despite earlier presentation and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
4.
J Intensive Care Med ; 38(6): 491-510, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312442

ABSTRACT

Background: Trauma is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Due to contraindications or delay in starting pharmacological prophylaxis among trauma patients with a high risk of bleeding, the inferior vena cava (IVC) filter has been utilized as alternative prevention for pulmonary embolism (PE). Albeit, its clinical efficacy has remained uncertain. Therefore, we performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic IVC filters in severely injured patients. Methods: Three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane) were searched from August 1, 2012, to October 27, 2021. Independent reviewers performed data extraction and quality assessment. Relative risk (RR) at 95% confidence interval (CI) pooled in a randomized meta-analysis. A parallel clinical practice guideline committee assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. The outcomes of interest included VTE, PE, deep venous thrombosis, mortality, and IVC filter complications. Results: We included 10 controlled studies (47 140 patients), of which 3 studies (310 patients) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 7 were observational studies (46 830 patients). IVC filters demonstrated no significant reduction in PE and fatal PE (RR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.06-1.28 and RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.01-7.84, respectively) by pooling RCTs with low certainty. However, it demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of PE and fatal PE (RR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55 and RR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.011-0.81, respectively) by pooling observational studies with very low certainty. IVC filter did not improve mortality in both RCTs and observational studies (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.86-2.43 and RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.3-1.31, respectively). Conclusion: In trauma patients, moderate risk reduction of PE and fatal PE was demonstrated among observational data but not RCTs. The desirable effect is not robust to outweigh the undesirable effects associated with IVC filter complications. Current evidence suggests against routinely using prophylactic IVC filters.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Vena Cava Filters , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Adult , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 350-369, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293343

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has caused an unprecedented pandemic with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although most cases are mild, there are a considerable number of patients who develop pneumonia or even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After having recovered from the initial disease, many patients continue with various symptoms (fatigue, dry cough, fever, dyspnea, anosmia, and chest pain, among others.), which has led to consider the possible existence of "post-COVID-19 syndrome". Although the definition and validity of this syndrome are not clear yet, several studies report that individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 may have persistent symptoms, radiological abnormalities, and compromised respiratory function. Current evidence suggests that there is a large number of pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 pneumonia (interstitial thickening, ground glass opacities, crazy paving pattern, and bronchiectasis, among others.). Likewise, it seems that pulmonary function tests (spirometry, DLCO, 6MWT, and measurement of maximum respiratory pressures), in addition to high-resolution computed axial tomographies (CAT scan), are useful for the assessment of these post-COVID-19 pulmonary sequelae. This review aims to describe the possible pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 pneumonia, as well as to suggest diagnostic procedures for their correct assessment and follow-up; thus, allowing proper management by a multidisciplinary medical team.


COVID-19 es la enfermedad causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, la cual ha ocasionado una pandemia sin precedentes, con gran cantidad de infectados y muertos en el mundo. Aunque la mayoría de los casos son leves, existe una cantidad considerable de pacientes que desarrollan neumonía o, incluso, síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA). Luego de recuperarse del cuadro inicial, muchos pacientes continúan con diversos síntomas (fatiga, tos seca, fiebre, disnea, anosmia, dolor torácico, entre otras), lo que ha llevado a considerar la posible existencia del "síndrome pos-COVID-19". Aunque la definición y validez de este síndrome aún no son claras, varios estudios reportan que los individuos recuperados de la COVID-19 pueden tener persistencia de síntomas, anormalidades radiológicas y compromiso en la función respiratoria. La evidencia actual sugiere que existe gran cantidad de secuelas pulmonares despues de una neumonía por COVID-19 (engrosamiento intersticial, infiltrado en vidrio esmerilado, patrón en empedrado, bronquiectasias, entre otras.). De igual forma, parece ser que las pruebas de función pulmonar (espirometría, prueba de difusión pulmonar de monóxido de carbono, prueba de caminata de seis minutos y la medición de las presiones respiratorias máximas), además de la tomografía axial computarizada de alta resolución, son útiles para evaluar las secuelas pulmonares pos-COVID-19. En esta revisión se pretende describir las posibles secuelas a nivel pulmonar posteriores a neumonía por COVID-19, así como sugerir procedimientos diagnósticos para su correcta evaluación y seguimiento, que permitan el manejo adecuado por parte de un equipo médico multidisciplinario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Convalescence , Lung Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Bronchiectasis/etiology , Bronchiectasis/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Oxygen/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 57(6): 592-598, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260910

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess heterogeneity within patients with resolved COVID-19 to broaden the vision about post-discharge thrombotic cases and postulate possible related mechanisms in search of better anticoagulation guidelines. This study details patients' characteristics, medical history, treatment, and outcomes of readmitted patients with late acute thrombosis through a systematic review of the literature and patients from our academic center database. METHODS: We extracted the records of patients readmitted for venous thrombosis complications after discharge from the database of the first 2000 patients admitted with COVID-19 in our academic center; we also performed a systematic review of the literature using the Medical Subject Headings terms "late thrombosis," "COVID-19," + "venous thrombosis" in PubMed and Google Scholar according to PRISMA guideline. RESULTS: The literature review found 20 patients suitable for review matching the inclusion criteria. These patients were added to those in our database, summing up a total of 26 patients. The median age was 50 years old, 76.9% were male, and most were overweight or had grade 1 obesity (n = 11, 42.3%). None had a previous thrombotic history, but 50% had an underlying comorbidity. Thrombotic events presented on a median of 20 days (range: 4-150 days) from discharge. Pulmonary embolisms occurred in 23 patients (88.46%), deep vein thrombosis in 4, mesenteric thrombosis, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 1, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found that most patients readmitted for thrombotic events after COVID-19 discharge were middle-aged men with Venous Thrombo Embolism events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , Patient Readmission , Aftercare , Treatment Outcome , Patient Discharge , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 18(1): 42, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249375

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary artery thrombosis in-situ is a term used to describe a pulmonary embolism occurs in the absence of deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities. Most cases occur in a patient who had a recent traumatic injury to the chest. Other risk factors include the presence of hypercoagulable conditions, including inflammatory state, hypoxia and vascular endothelial injury. Although it has been discussed extensively in the acute COVID-19 disease, pulmonary artery thrombosis in-situ that occur in the setting of Post-Acute COVID-19 syndrome is not commonly reported and poorly understood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Pulmonary Artery , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
9.
Med J Malaysia ; 78(2): 155-162, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283466

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The co-existence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary thromboembolic (PTE) disease poses a great clinical challenge. To date, few researches have addressed this important clinical issue among the South-East Asian populations. The objectives of this study were as follow: (1) to describe the clinical characteristics and computed tomographical (CT) features of patients with PTE disease associated with COVID-19 infection and (2) to compare these parameters with those COVID-19 patients without PTE disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study with retrospective record review was conducted in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Selangor, Malaysia. We included all hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who had undergone CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) examinations for suspected PTE disease between April 2021 and May 2021. Clinical data and laboratory data were extracted by trained data collectors, whilst CT images retrieved were analysed by a senior radiologist. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. RESULTS: We studied 184 COVID-19 patients who were suspected to have PTE disease. CTPA examinations revealed a total of 150 patients (81.5%) suffered from concomitant PTE disease. Among the PTE cohort, the commonest comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (n=78, 52.0%), hypertension (n=66, 44.0%) and dyslipidaemia (n=25, 16.7%). They were generally more ill than the non-PTE cohort as they reported a significantly higher COVID-19 disease category during CTPA examination with p=0.042. Expectedly, their length of both intensive care unit stays (median number of days 8 vs. 3; p=0.021) and hospital stays (median number of days 14.5 vs. 12; p=0.006) were significantly longer. Intriguingly, almost all the subjects had received either therapeutic anticoagulation or thromboprophylactic therapy prior to CTPA examination (n=173, 94.0%). Besides, laboratory data analysis identified a significantly higher peak C-reactive protein (median 124.1 vs. 82.1; p=0.027) and ferritin levels (median 1469 vs. 1229; p=0.024) among them. Evaluation of CT features showed that COVID-19 pneumonia pattern (p<0.001) and pulmonary angiopathy (p<0.001) were significantly more profound among the PTE cohort. To note, the most proximal pulmonary thrombosis was located in the segmental (n=3, 2.0%) and subsegmental pulmonary arteries (n=147, 98.0%). Also, the thrombosis predominantly occurred in bilateral lungs with multilobar involvement (n=95, 63.3%). CONCLUSION: Overall, PTE disease remains prevalent among COVID-19 patients despite timely administration of thromboprophylactic therapy. The presence of hyperinflammatory activities, unique thrombotic locations as well as concurrent pulmonary parenchyma and vasculature aberrations in our PTE cohort implicate immunothrombosis as the principal mechanism of this novel phenomenon. We strongly recommend future researchers to elucidate this important clinical disease among our post- COVID vaccination populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(7): e32887, 2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287997

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected millions of people worldwide resulting in a substantial number of hospitalizations. Venous thromboembolism including pulmonary embolism is a known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia although its incidence in such patients is unclear. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we looked at the incidence of pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients and its associations with various risk factors including demographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and coagulation profiles. We analyzed data from 193 patients of mixed ethnicity with a mean age of 51, mostly South Asians (62%) and Arabs (29%). Diabetes and hypertension were the most prevalent comorbidities accounting for 46% (N = 88) and 36% (N = 71) respectively. Critical COVID-19 illness was diagnosed in 67% of patients. The frequency of COVID-19 related pulmonary embolism was 21.8% (N = 42). We found no association of pulmonary embolism with demographic, comorbid or inflammatory variables. Only a raised D-Dimer was found to be associated with pulmonary embolism. Having a pulmonary embolism had no impact on the length of stay, critical illness, or mortality. Receiving steroids or being on standard thromboprophylaxis or weight/D-Dimer adjusted thromboprophylaxis also had no impact on the frequency of pulmonary embolism. Nine incidents of major bleeding were recorded independent of therapeutic anticoagulation. Patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 pneumonia had a relatively high incidence of pulmonary embolism. D-dimer was the only associated laboratory parameter associated with pulmonary embolism. However, further research is needed to evaluate its predictive and prognostic utility, particularly in an older population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Biomarkers , Risk Factors
11.
Shock ; 59(4): 599-602, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265980

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Introduction : COVID-19-induced coagulopathy (CIC) can increase the risk of thromboembolism without underlying clotting disorders, even when compared with other respiratory viruses. Trauma has a known association with hypercoagulability. Trauma patients with concurrent COVID-19 infection potentially have an even greater risk of thrombotic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates in trauma patients with COVID-19. Methods : This study reviewed all adult patients (≥18 years of age) admitted to the Trauma Service from April through November 2020 for a minimum of 48 hours. Patients were grouped based off COVID-19 status and compared for inpatient VTE chemoprophylaxis regimen, thrombotic complications defined as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accident, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Results : A total of 2,907 patients were reviewed and grouped into COVID-19-positive (n = 110) and COVID-19-negative (n = 2,797) groups. There was no difference in terms of receiving deep vein thrombosis chemoprophylaxis or type, but a longer time to initiation in the positive group ( P = 0.0012). VTE occurred in 5 (4.55%) positive and 60 (2.15%) negative patients without a significant difference between the groups, as well as no difference in type of VTE observed. Mortality was higher ( P = 0.009) in the positive group (10.91%). Positive patients had longer median ICU LOS ( P = 0.0012) and total LOS ( P < 0.001). Conclusion : There were no increased rates of VTE complications between COVID-19-positive and -negative trauma patients, despite a longer time to initiation of chemoprophylaxis in the COVID-19-positive group. COVID-19-positive patients had increased ICU LOS, total LOS, and mortality, which are likely due to multifactorial causes but primarily related to their underlying COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(4): 1777-1783, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of millions of people globally. AIMS: This study aims to identify the pathological findings at autopsy of asymptomatic COVID-19 death, to compare the incidence of acute bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism (ABPTE) in asymptomatic COVID-19 deaths versus non-COVID-19 deaths and to explore the possible pathogenesis of thrombosis in COVID-19. We also consider the place of COVID-19 in the death certification of 4 cases who died from ABPTE. METHODS: This study primarily reviewed post-mortem reports of 6 asymptomatic COVID-19 deaths. Post-mortem reports for the years 2019 and 2020 were also reviewed to establish the incidence of ABPTE. Each post-mortem report was reviewed for gross examination, histology and toxicology findings. A literature review on COVID-19 autopsy findings, COVID-19 pathogenesis, thrombosis in COVID-19 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was also conducted using PubMed. RESULTS: Of the 6 asymptomatic COVID-19 deaths, 4 died as a result of ABPTE, 1 died of ischaemic and hypertensive cardiac disease caused by coronary artery disease and ventricular hypertrophy and the remaining case died of heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy caused by subendocardial fibrosis. There were 2 cases of bilateral pulmonary thromboembolism (BPTE) in 2019 out of 140 post-mortems. Excluding the 4 cases of ABPTE described already, there was 1 case of ABPTE in 2020 out of 156 post-mortems. A literature review on the pathogenesis of thrombosis in COVID-19 highlighted the significant role that the endothelium plays. CONCLUSIONS: Massive pulmonary thromboembolism may be a significant cause of death in asymptomatic COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Vnitr Lek ; 69(1): 8-13, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262927

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism in classical meaning is a complication of deep vein thrombosis (usually in the leg veins), developing after a part of the thrombus dislodged and got wedged in pulmonary arteries. However, in half of the patients with pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis is not found. One potential explanation is a different, less common location of the thrombus or previous complete embolization of the whole thrombotic mass. Another possibility is pulmonary artery thrombosis in situ, which is a specific clinical entity associated with some typical risk factors. It develops in the place of vascular injury, as a consequence of hypoxia, inflammatory changes, endothelial dysfunction and injury. Pulmonary artery thrombosis in situ can be a complication after lung resection, radiation therapy, chest trauma, in the patients with Behçet´s disease, sickle cell anemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis or covid pneumonia. Pulmonary artery thrombosis in situ may differ from classical pulmonary embolism in prognosis as well as in therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Artery
14.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 54(3): 235-238, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227188

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 morbidity and mortality are not equivalent to other etiologies of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as fulminant activation of coagulation can occur, thereby resulting in widespread microvascular thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. A 53-year-old female presented to an emergency center on two occasions with progressive gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and admitted to a satellite intensive care unit with hypoxemic respiratory failure. She was intubated and mechanically ventilated, but her ARDS progressed over the next 48 hours. The patient was emergently cannulated for veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) and transferred to our hospital. She was in profound shock requiring multiple vasopressors for hemodynamic support with worsening clinical status on arrival. On bedside echocardiography, she was found to have a massive pulmonary embolism with clot-in-transit visualized in the right atrium and right ventricular outflow tract. After a multidisciplinary discussion, systemic thrombolytic therapy was administered. The patient's hemodynamics improved and vasopressors were discontinued. This case illustrates the utility of bedside echocardiography in shock determination, the need for continued vigilance in the systematic evaluation of unstable patients in the intensive care unit, and the use of systemic thrombolytics during V-V ECMO in a novel disease process with evolving understanding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pulmonary Embolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Thrombosis , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e066218, 2023 01 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Thrombosis is a common complication of the novel COVID-19. Pre-COVID-19 studies reported racial differences in the risk of developing thrombosis. This study aimed to describe the geographical variations in the reported incidences and outcomes of thromboembolic events and thromboprophylaxis in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. The final search for randomised clinical trials was carried out in January 2022. Screening eligible articles and data extraction were independently performed in duplicate by multiple reviewers. DESIGN: Scoping review. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Libraries were searched using terms related to COVID-19 and thromboembolism. SETTING: Hospitals all over the world. PARTICIPANTS: In-hospital patients with COVID-19. OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and the prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. RESULTS: In total, 283 studies were eligible, representing (239 observational studies, 39 case series and 7 interventional studies). The incidence of DVT was the highest in Asia (40.8%) and hospital mortality was high (22.7%). However, the incidence of PE was not very high in Asia (3.2%). On the contrary, the incidence of PE was the highest in the Middle East (16.2%) and Europe (14. 6%). Prophylactic anticoagulation therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin was the main treatment provided in all areas. Four of the seven randomised clinical trials were conducted internationally. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of DVT was the highest in Asia. The incidence of PE was higher in the Middle East and Europe; however, detection bias during the pandemic cannot be ruled out. There were no major differences in the type or dose of prophylactic anticoagulants used for thromboprophylaxis among the regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/drug therapy
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 941: 175501, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178322

ABSTRACT

The risk of thromboembolism in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients remains uncertain and was assessed in this review to better weigh benefits vs. risks of prophylactic anticoagulation in this population. A search was performed through three databases: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library until 2022. Self-controlled case series, case-control and cohort studies were included, and findings summarized narratively. Meta-analyses for risk of thromboembolism including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and myocardial infarction (MI) between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 non-hospitalized patients were conducted. Frequency, incidence rate ratio (IRR), and risk ratio (RR) of stroke were used to assess risk in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients considering the lack of studies to conduct a meta-analysis. Ten studies met inclusion criteria characterized by adult non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Risk of bias was relatively low. Risk of DVT (RR: 1.98 with 95% CI: 1.03-3.83) and PE (OR: 6.72 with 95% CI: 4.81-9.39 and RR: 4.44 with 95% CI: 1.98-9.99) increased in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Risk of MI (OR: 1.91 with 95% CI: 0.89-4.09) is possibly increased in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients with moderate certainty when compared to controls. A trend in favor of stroke was documented in the first week following infection. Our meta-analyses support the increase in risk of DVT and PE, and likely increase of MI, in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The risk of stroke appears significant in the first week following infection but drops to insignificance two weeks later. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based recommendations for prophylactic anticoagulation therapy in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Adult , Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 55(3): 490-498, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174793

ABSTRACT

Data regarding the occurrence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE), including acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in recovered COVID-19 patients are scant. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk of acute PE and DVT in COVID-19 recovered subject. Following the PRIMSA guidelines, we searched Medline and Scopus to locate all articles published up to September 1st, 2022, reporting the risk of acute PE and/or DVT in patients recovered from COVID-19 infection compared to non-infected patients who developed VTE over the same follow-up period. PE and DVT risk were evaluated using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects models with Hazard ratio (HR) as the effect measure with 95% confidence interval (CI) while heterogeneity was assessed using Higgins I2 statistic. Overall, 29.078.950 patients (mean age 50.2 years, 63.9% males), of which 2.060.496 had COVID-19 infection, were included. Over a mean follow-up of 8.5 months, the cumulative incidence of PE and DVT in COVID-19 recovered patients were 1.2% (95% CI:0.9-1.4, I2: 99.8%) and 2.3% (95% CI:1.7-3.0, I2: 99.7%), respectively. Recovered COVID-19 patients presented a higher risk of incident PE (HR: 3.16, 95% CI: 2.63-3.79, I2 = 90.1%) and DVT (HR: 2.55, 95% CI: 2.09-3.11, I2: 92.6%) compared to non-infected patients from the general population over the same follow-up period. Meta-regression showed a higher risk of PE and DVT with age and with female gender, and lower risk with longer follow-up. Recovered COVID-19 patients have a higher risk of VTE events, which increase with aging and among females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1395: 99-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 induces robust systemic inflammation. One of the main complications is the increased coagulation due to endotheliitis. There is an increased incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients. However, clinical characteristics for a strict analysis are yet to be determined. AIM: We evaluated oxygenation and characteristics in patients with COVID-19 PE (CPE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated 215 COVID-19 patients from 1 January to 30 April 2021. We found 18 patients affected by PE (CPE, 50.0% males, aged 67.00 ± 10.86 years). As controls, we used data from patients affected by PE evaluated in our ward between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2019 (64 patients, 53.1% males, aged 70.88 ± 16.44 years). All patients underwent a complete physical examination, pulmonary computerised tomography, laboratory tests, D-dimers and blood gas analysis at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: There were no differences in laboratory tests nor in D-dimers between the two groups. In the CPE group we found a significantly increased pO2 (92.83 ± 42.52 vs. 76.11 ± 32.58 mmHg; p < 0.05), difference of oxygen between alveoli and arteries (A-aDO2; 169.3 ± 171.9 vs. 52.97 ± 39.65 mmHg; p < 0.05), and oxygen saturation % (97.06 ± 2.59 vs. 93.77 ± 5.53%; p < 0.05) compared to controls. No difference was found in pCO2 and the ratio between pO2 and percentage of inspired oxygen (P/F). Finally, a significantly decreased urate (3.67 ± 1.49 vs. 5.60 ± 2.10; p < 0.05) was found in CPE compared to controls. In CPE, platelets count presents an inverse correlation to P/F (r = -0.389, p = 0.02) but a direct correlation to A-aDO2 (r = 0.699, p = 0.001). No similar findings were present in controls. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 PE appears to have a different clinical setting. Reduced oxygenation described in PE may not to be considered as a sign of disease. The increased A-aDO2 may indicate that COVID-19 PE involved smaller vessels compared to classical PE. A possible diffuse capillary thrombosis could explain these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Oxygen
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 29: 10760296221148477, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195100

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the respiratory system of patients and is characterized by pneumonia with hypoxemia. Hospitalized patients and particularly those admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) may encounter a cascade of coagulopathies, which may lead to macrovessel thrombotic events such as pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), or arterial thromboembolism (ATE). These events can result in serious life-threatening diseases including cerebrovascular stroke and myocardial infarction. Despite all available information about the incidence, prevention, and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among hospitalized patients, few data are available on the incidence of both symptomatic and subclinical VTE after discharge. Therefore, there is no precise suggestion or guideline for prophylaxis against VTE in post-discharge period, and some controversies exist over the current guidelines. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize available literature upon incidence, prevention, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches for VTE in COVID-19 patients. Also, the pathogenic mechanisms of VTE in infected individuals with COVID-19 were discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Patient Discharge , Aftercare , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Incidence , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
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