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1.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(5): 646-649, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129825

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, or COVID-19, is responsible for the current global pandemic and has resulted in the death of over 400,000 in the United States. Rates of venous thromboembolism have been noted to be much higher in those infected with COVID-19. Here we report a case-series of COVID-19 patients with diverse presentations of pulmonary embolism (PE). We also briefly describe the pathophysiology and mechanisms for pulmonary embolism in COVID-19. These cases indicate a need to maintain a high index of suspicion for PE in patients with COVID-19, as well as the need to consider occult COVID-19 infection in patients with PE in the right clinical circumstance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e29895, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, many studies have described acute pulmonary embolism (PE) as a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Thus we performed the present analysis of 50 studies to evaluate the risk factors and mortality of PE in COVID-19 patients. METHOD: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to October, 2021. Odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD) or standard MD was used to evaluate the outcomes. The primary outcomes were the difference of mortality between PE and non-PE COVID-19 patients as well as relevant risk factors of PE in COVID-19 patients. All statistical analyses were performed using the standard statistical procedures provided in Review Manager 5.2. RESULT: A total of 50 studies including 10053 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that COVID-19 patients with PE experienced significantly higher mortality than non-PE patients (21.9% vs. 10.7%), with a pooled OR of 2.21 (95% CI 1.30 - 3.76; P = .003). In addition, COVID-19 patients with PE also experienced more mechanical ventilation (MV) (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.30 - 3.75; P = .003) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (OR 3.58; 95% CI 2.47 - 5.20; P < .0001) respectively. Univariate analysis (UVA) results indicated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, time to deep venous thrombosis (DVT), nonintensive care unit (non-ICU) patients and no anticoagulation as risk factors of PE for COVID-19 patients. In addition, multivariate analysis also found that SOFA score, D-dimer, BMI > 30 kg/m2 and history of PE were risk factors of PE for COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The present analysis indicated that PE increased the mortality of COVID-19 patients. Mechanical ventilation, especially invasive mechanical ventilation, is correlated with an increased incidence of PE in patients with COVID-19. The incidence of PE for COVID-19 patients may be multifactorial and further researches focused on risk factors were needed in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Observational Studies as Topic
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 154-163, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To detect the risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Studies were searched for in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Two authors independently screened articles and extracted data. The data were pooled by meta-analysis and three subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 2210 articles identified, 27 studies were included. Pooled analysis suggested that males (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.75, P = 0.000), obesity (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, P = 0.033), mechanical ventilation (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.90-5.86, P = 0.000), severe parenchymal abnormalities (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43-2.58, P = 0.000), ICU admission (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.48-4.03, P = 0.000), and elevated D-dimer and white blood cell values (at two time points: hospital admission or closest to computed tomography pulmonary angiography) (P = 0.000) correlated with a risk for PE occurrence in COVID-19 patients. However, age and common comorbidities had no association with PE occurrence. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography, unclear-ratio/low-ratio, and hospitalization subgroups had consistent risk factors with all studies; however, other subgroups had fewer risk factors for PE. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for PE in COVID-19 were different from the classic risk factors for PE and are likely to differ in diverse study populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Saudi Med J ; 43(9): 979-990, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize cases of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients and discuss their symptoms, diagnostic method, clinical features, and prognosis. METHODS: All major databases were searched for relevant studies published between December 1, 2019 and May 5, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 233 articles were identified, 22 describing 48 patients were included. A total of 79.1% had PE and 20.9% had DVT. Most patients were men, with a mean age of 56 years. Comorbidities were present in 70.8%, and 85.4% had at least one risk factor of VTE. 56.3% had received anticoagulation therapy. Most patients were treated in the general ward. Complications occurred in 27.1% of the patients, and recovery was achieved in 80.4%. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism must be suspected even in patients who had received prior anticoagulant regimens or in stable cases, especially in males, the elderly, and patients with comorbidities and high D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(4): 587-592, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a significant increase has been observed in patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) in our clinic. In addition to COVID-19-related PE, the increase in the number of patients with unprovoked or idiopathic PE was also noteworthy. Although it is not surprising that PE due to immobilization was observed in elderly patients and patients with comorbidities at risk for PE during the pandemic, it is important to investigate the increase in the number of unprovoked PE. Thus, we aimed to show that a previous COVID-19 infection may be a risk factor in these patients by examining the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-causing coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in patients diagnosed with unprovoked PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants of the study consisted of 45 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with PE in our clinic, had no risk factors for PE, were considered unprovoked (idiopathic) PE, and had no history of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were measured in the serum samples of the patients for detecting immunity as a result of encountering COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients diagnosed with PE, 24 (53.3%) patients were diagnosed with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), and 21 (46.7%) patients were diagnosed with perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (Q-SPECT/CT). Immunity acquired after encountering COVID-19 was checked with the NCP kit, which revealed positive results in 9 (20%) patients. CONCLUSION: It should be kept in mind that some of the patients diagnosed with idiopathic PE during the pandemic may have embolism due to asymptomatic COVID-19. In addition, it is now known that COVID-19 also creates a tendency toward thrombosis in asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1250-1257, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine has been shown to be safe with regard to risk for severe cardiovascular events (such as myocardial infarction [MI], pulmonary embolism [PE], and stroke) in persons aged 75 years or older. Less is known about the safety of other COVID-19 vaccines or outcomes in younger populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term risk for severe cardiovascular events (excluding myocarditis and pericarditis) after COVID-19 vaccination in France's 46.5 million adults younger than 75 years. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series method adapted to event-dependent exposure and high event-related mortality. SETTING: France, 27 December 2020 to 20 July 2021. PATIENTS: All adults younger than 75 years hospitalized for PE, acute MI, hemorrhagic stroke, or ischemic stroke (n = 73 325 total events). MEASUREMENTS: Linkage between the French National Health Data System and COVID-19 vaccine databases enabled identification of hospitalizations for cardiovascular events (MI, PE, or stroke) and receipt of a first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech, mRNA-1273 (Moderna), Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen), or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine. The relative incidence (RI) of each cardiovascular event was estimated in the 3 weeks after vaccination compared with other periods, with adjustment for temporality (7-day periods). RESULTS: No association was found between the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine and severe cardiovascular events. The first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was associated with acute MI and PE in the second week after vaccination (RI, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.51] and 1.41 [CI, 1.13 to 1.75], respectively). An association with MI in the second week after a single dose of the Janssen vaccine could not be ruled out (RI, 1.75 [CI, 1.16 to 2.62]). LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to ascertain the relative timing of injection and cardiovascular events on the day of vaccination. Outpatient deaths related to cardiovascular events were not included. CONCLUSION: In persons aged 18 to 74 years, adenoviral-based vaccines may be associated with increased incidence of MI and PE. No association between mRNA-based vaccines and the cardiovascular events studied was observed. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(33): e29933, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001498

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A high incidence of thromboembolic complications is one of the hallmarks of COVID-19. However, there may be a difference in the incidence of thromboembolic complications between Asian and Western people. In addition, few prospective studies have been conducted to determine the incidence of thromboembolic complications in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in medical wards in Japan. METHODS: A single-center retrospective and prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of thromboembolic complications in symptomatic COVID-19 patients in a medical ward in a Japanese hospital. All 1116 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were admitted to our hospital from November 1, 2020, to October 26, 2021, were included. The primary outcome was any thromboembolic complications, which included venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and other arterial embolisms. RESULTS: The median patient age was 50 (IQR, 37-61), 402 (36.0%) were women, 1005 (90.1%) were Japanese, the median body mass index was 24.1 (IQR, 21.6-27.2), and 43 (3.9%) had Padua scores of at least 4 points at admission. Regarding the severity of COVID-19, 543 (48.7%), 315 (28.2%), 204 (18.3%), and 54 (4.8%) patients had mild, moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19, respectively. Nine patients (0.8%) died, and 47 patients (4.2%) were transferred to other hospitals for intensive care. The primary outcome occurred in only 5 patients (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8) and consisted of 3 ischemic strokes, 2 limb ischemia events, and one asymptomatic pulmonary embolism. Even in the 204 patients with severe COVID-19, the prevalence of thromboembolic complications was only 2.5% (95% CI, 0.3-4.6). CONCLUSION: Thromboembolic complications of COVID-19 are rare even in severe cases in a medical ward in a Japanese hospital. Further studies are needed to identify severe COVID-19 patients with a higher risk for thromboembolic complications in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
8.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(11): 1174-1181, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for thromboembolic events (TEEs) after Ad.26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine. We sought to characterize the frequency, severity, type, and anatomic location of TEEs reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad.26.COV2.S. METHODS: Reports of TEEs after Ad.26.COV2.S were identified in VAERS, and demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history were summarized. For a subset of reports, physicians reviewed available medical records and evaluated clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, risk factors, and treatment. The crude reporting rate of TEEs was estimated based on case counts in VAERS and vaccine administration data. RESULTS: Through February 28, 2022, FDA identified 3790 reports of TEEs after Ad.26.COV2.S. Median age was 56 years, and 1938 individuals (51.1%) were female. Most reports, 2892 (76.3%), were serious, including 421 deaths. Median time to onset was 12 days post-vaccination. Obesity and ischemia were among the most commonly documented risk factors. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 150 000/µl) was documented in 63 records (11.5%) and anti-platelet 4 antibodies in 25 (4.6%). Medical review identified cases of severe clot burden (e.g., bilateral, saddle, or other massive pulmonary embolism with or without cor pulmonale; lower extremity thrombus involving the external iliac, common femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, peroneal, and gastrocnemius veins). The crude reporting rate was ~20.7 cases of TEE per 100 000 doses of Ad.26.COV2.S administered. CONCLUSIONS: Life-threatening or fatal TEEs have been reported after Ad.26.COV2.S, including bilateral massive pulmonary embolism or other severe clot burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Vaccines , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Thromboembolism/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects
9.
Eur Heart J ; 42(33): 3127-3142, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973142

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We investigated the incidence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with COVID-19 attending emergency departments (EDs), before hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with PE in 62 Spanish EDs (20% of Spanish EDs, case group) during the first COVID-19 outbreak. COVID-19 patients without PE and non-COVID-19 patients with PE were included as control groups. Adjusted comparisons for baseline characteristics, acute episode characteristics, and outcomes were made between cases and randomly selected controls (1:1 ratio). We identified 368 PE in 74 814 patients with COVID-19 attending EDs (4.92‰). The standardized incidence of PE in the COVID-19 population resulted in 310 per 100 000 person-years, significantly higher than that observed in the non-COVID-19 population [35 per 100 000 person-years; odds ratio (OR) 8.95 for PE in the COVID-19 population, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.51-9.41]. Several characteristics in COVID-19 patients were independently associated with PE, the strongest being D-dimer >1000 ng/mL, and chest pain (direct association) and chronic heart failure (inverse association). COVID-19 patients with PE differed from non-COVID-19 patients with PE in 16 characteristics, most directly related to COVID-19 infection; remarkably, D-dimer >1000 ng/mL, leg swelling/pain, and PE risk factors were significantly less present. PE in COVID-19 patients affected smaller pulmonary arteries than in non-COVID-19 patients, although right ventricular dysfunction was similar in both groups. In-hospital mortality in cases (16.0%) was similar to COVID-19 patients without PE (16.6%; OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42; and 11.4% in a subgroup of COVID-19 patients with PE ruled out by scanner, OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.97-2.27), but higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with PE (6.5%; OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.66-4.51). Adjustment for differences in baseline and acute episode characteristics and sensitivity analysis reported very similar associations. CONCLUSIONS: PE in COVID-19 patients at ED presentation is unusual (about 0.5%), but incidence is approximately ninefold higher than in the general (non-COVID-19) population. Moreover, risk factors and leg symptoms are less frequent, D-dimer increase is lower and emboli involve smaller pulmonary arteries. While PE probably does not increase the mortality of COVID-19 patients, mortality is higher in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients with PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(1): 29-32, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914001

ABSTRACT

Seated immobility thromboembolism syndrome (SIT) is the association of prolonged seated immobility with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The advent of COVID-19 resulted in implementation of lockdowns to curb its spread. This resulted in compulsory work from home and minimization of outdoor activities. Consequently, this would have likely led to increased prolonged sitting and reduced mobility. Few case reports and studies have observed an increase in VTE incidence during the lockdown period. We likewise performed a clinical audit of our weekly thrombosis clinic cases and revealed three cases of VTE associated with prolonged sitting during Singapore's COVID-19 lockdown. Notably, all had other minor VTE risk factors in addition to prolonged sitting. All cases had intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism and were given extended anticoagulation. With the pandemic still ongoing, periodic lockdown and quarantine measures may continue to be imposed. While the overall VTE risk conferred by prolonged seated immobility associated with lockdown measures is likely to be small, this risk can be easily mitigated and possibly prevented by simply staying mobile.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
11.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884272

ABSTRACT

The rate of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients has been reported to be 30% (deep vein thrombosis 20% and pulmonary embolism 18%). This has been shown to be higher in COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Prophylactic anticoagulation may be sufficient at ward level, but not in intensive care. A retrospective chart review was undertaken in a large university hospital. The review included 276 patients from COVID-19 Wave 1, COVID-19 Wave 2, influenza, and community-acquired pneumonia groups. The timeframe included patients admitted between 23 February 2014 and 12 May 2021. Clinical characteristics, outcomes, blood results, rates of venous thromboembolism, and anticoagulation status were recorded. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 Wave 1, COVID-19 Wave 2, influenza, and community-acquired pneumonia was 10.91%, 13.69%, 13.33%, and 6.81%, respectively (p = 0.481). The incidence of pulmonary embolism was 7.27%, 10.95%, 3.33%, and 5.68%, respectively (p = 0.350). The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 5.45%, 5.48%, 10.00%, and 1.14%, respectively (p = 0.117). Although most patients were prophylactically anticoagulated, venous thromboembolism still occurred. Venous thromboembolism remains an important differential to consider in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The current literature does not advise therapeutic anticoagulation for thromboprophylaxis in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
12.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 55-61, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with perioperative or previous coronavirus infection (CVI) have a greater risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multiple-center regional prospective retrospective cohort study included elective and emergency patients who underwent surgery in November 2020. The primary endpoint was VTE (PE/DVT) within 30 days after surgery. CVI was stratified as perioperative (7 days before surgery - 30 days after surgery), recent (1-6 weeks before surgery) and remote (≥7 weeks before surgery) infection. There was no information about prevention or preoperative anticoagulation at baseline data collection. RESULTS: Incidence of postoperative VTE was 1.5% (10/650) in patients without CVI, 33.3% (3/9) in patients with perioperative CVI, 18.1% (2/11) in patients with recent CVI and 8.3% (1/12) in patients with remote CVI. After adjusting the confounders, patients with perioperative and recent CVI remained at a higher risk of VTE. In general, VTEs were independently associated with 30-day mortality. In patients with CVI, mortality rate among ones without VTE was 21.7% (5/23), with VTE - 44.4% (4/9). CONCLUSION: Patients with perioperative CVI have a higher risk of postoperative VTE compared to those without CVI and patients with previous CVI and no residual symptoms. Mortality in this group is also higher than in other cohorts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3751-3759, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism as a potential complication that may occur late in the course of COVID-19 cases. The aim of our study is to evaluate the frequency of pulmonary embolism in patients with new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective observational study to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of consecutive patients presenting outpatient clinic diseases to the chest and a new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Dyspnea was evaluated according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. RESULTS: Pulmonary embolism was detected in 23.8% (25/105) of patients with new or ongoing dyspnea after a COVID-19 infection. Proportion of pulmonary embolism in patients with NYHA classes I, II, III and IV were respectively 8.7%, 20.0%, 30.0% and 35.3% (p for trend=0.02). Compared to NYHA class I and II patients with dyspnea, those in NYHA classes III and IV showed a higher rate of pulmonary embolism [31.6% vs. 14.6%, OR: 2.7 (1.0 to 7.1), p=0.04, respectively]. In Logistic Procedures, NYHA classes of dyspnea (OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2 to 16.6, p=0.03) (NYHA class III and IV vs. NYHA class I and II) determine the likelihood of pulmonary embolism after COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary embolism is common in patients with new or ongoing shortness of breath after a COVID-19 infection. Pulmonary embolism is more likely to develop in patients with higher NYHA classes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
15.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(6): 539-546, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852804

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 crisis continues around the world. Some patients developed complications after the disease, which have been reported in limited studies. The aim of this study is to comprehensively assess the post-COVID hematologic complications in patients. AREAS COVERED: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar between January 2020 and August 2021 using related keywords. Evaluation of the article was performed by two independent researchers. The extracted data included the number of patients, age, type of hematological complication, duration of follow-up, response to treatment and prognosis. EXPERT OPINION: Sixty-five articles reported post-COVID hematologic complications. The most frequent hematologic complication in COVID-19 patients is thromboembolic events, which often occur in two forms: deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In a group of patients after the diagnosis of COVID-19, a significant decrease in platelets was observed, which was attributed to the ITP induced by COVID-19. Hemolytic anemia and aplastic anemia have also been reported rarely in patients. Finally, post-COVID hematologic complications appear to go beyond thromboembolic events. Although these complications have rarely been reported, searching for methods to identify susceptible patients and prevent these complications could be the subject of future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840565

ABSTRACT

Since the start of vaccination against COVID-19 viral infection using adenovirus-based vector vaccine (eg, The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, using the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, using human adenovirus serotype 26), a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication called vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was reported. As the number of cases increases every day, with the increase in the number of vaccinated people all over the world, this complication is a concern to the medical field. We report a case on the acute management of a patient who presented to us with life-threatening bilateral pulmonary embolism as a complication of VITT after the first dose of vaccination with Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 69(8): e29721, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797777

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in children has been associated with thrombosis, though few cases of COVID-associated pulmonary embolism (PE) have been described. We performed a retrospective review of the nine cases of COVID-19-associated PE during the B.1617.2 variant surge at Texas Children's Hospital. The patient cohort largely contained unvaccinated obese adolescents. All patients were critically ill with two requiring catheter-directed thrombolysis in addition to anticoagulation. Eight of the nine patients had COVID pneumonia along with PE. This report stresses the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for PE in pediatric COVID-19 infection and vaccinating obese adolescent patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology
20.
BMJ ; 377: e069590, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding after covid-19. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. SETTING: National registries in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 057 174 people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 February 2020 and 25 May 2021 in Sweden, matched on age, sex, and county of residence to 4 076 342 control participants. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-controlled case series and conditional Poisson regression were used to determine the incidence rate ratio and risk ratio with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for a first deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or bleeding event. In the self-controlled case series, the incidence rate ratios for first time outcomes after covid-19 were determined using set time intervals and the spline model. The risk ratios for first time and all events were determined during days 1-30 after covid-19 or index date using the matched cohort study, and adjusting for potential confounders (comorbidities, cancer, surgery, long term anticoagulation treatment, previous venous thromboembolism, or previous bleeding event). RESULTS: Compared with the control period, incidence rate ratios were significantly increased 70 days after covid-19 for deep vein thrombosis, 110 days for pulmonary embolism, and 60 days for bleeding. In particular, incidence rate ratios for a first pulmonary embolism were 36.17 (95% confidence interval 31.55 to 41.47) during the first week after covid-19 and 46.40 (40.61 to 53.02) during the second week. Incidence rate ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 5.90 (5.12 to 6.80) for deep vein thrombosis, 31.59 (27.99 to 35.63) for pulmonary embolism, and 2.48 (2.30 to 2.68) for bleeding. Similarly, the risk ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 4.98 (4.96 to 5.01) for deep vein thrombosis, 33.05 (32.8 to 33.3) for pulmonary embolism, and 1.88 (1.71 to 2.07) for bleeding, after adjusting for the effect of potential confounders. The rate ratios were highest in patients with critical covid-19 and highest during the first pandemic wave in Sweden compared with the second and third waves. In the same period, the absolute risk among patients with covid-19 was 0.039% (401 events) for deep vein thrombosis, 0.17% (1761 events) for pulmonary embolism, and 0.101% (1002 events) for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that covid-19 is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding. These results could impact recommendations on diagnostic and prophylactic strategies against venous thromboembolism after covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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