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2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16025, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345583

ABSTRACT

To determine, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, the associations of pulmonary embolism (PE) with mortality and risk factors for PE as well as the therapeutic benefit of anticoagulant prophylaxis. Embase, PubMed, Cochrane controlled trials register, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to October 10, 2020. We included all published trials on PE in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with eligibility of the trials assessed following the PRISMA guidelines. Sixteen clinical trials with 5826 patients were eligible. There were significant associations of PE with the male gender [odd ratio (OR) = 1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.97], mechanical ventilation (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 2.57-5.36), intensive care unit admission (OR = 2.99, 95% CI 2.11-4.23), circulating D-dimer [mean difference (MD) = 5.04 µg/mL, 95% CI 3.67-6.42) and CRP (MD = 1.97 mg/dL, 95% CI 0.58- 3.35) concentrations without significant correlation between PE and mortality (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 0.82-2.08) as well as other parameters or comorbidities. After omitting one trial with strict patient selection criteria for anticoagulant prophylaxis, significant prophylactic benefit was noted (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.1-0.91). Our findings identified the risk factors associated with PE in COVID-19 patients and supported the therapeutic benefit of anticoagulant prophylaxis against PE in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors
4.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1123): 20210264, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Early in the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a high frequency of pulmonary embolism was identified. This audit aims to assess the frequency and severity of pulmonary embolism in 2020 compared to 2019. METHODS: In this retrospective audit, we compared computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) frequency and pulmonary embolism severity in April and May 2020, compared to 2019. Pulmonary embolism severity was assessed with the Modified Miller score and the presence of right heart strain was assessed. Demographic information and 30-day mortality was identified from electronic health records. RESULTS: In April 2020, there was a 17% reduction in the number of CTPA performed and an increase in the proportion identifying pulmonary embolism (26%, n = 68/265 vs 15%, n = 47/320, p < 0.001), compared to April 2019. Patients with pulmonary embolism in 2020 had more comorbidities (p = 0.026), but similar age and sex compared to 2019. There was no difference in pulmonary embolism severity in 2020 compared to 2019, but there was an increased frequency of right heart strain in May 2020 (29 vs 12%, p = 0.029). Amongst 18 patients with COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism, there was a larger proportion of males and an increased 30 day mortality (28% vs 6%, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a reduction in the number of CTPA scans performed and an increase in the frequency of CTPA scans positive for pulmonary embolism. Patients with both COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism had an increased risk of 30-day mortality compared to those without COVID-19. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of CTPA performed decreased and the proportion of positive CTPA increased. Patients with both pulmonary embolism and COVID-19 had worse outcomes compared to those with pulmonary embolism alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 139: 106883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253732

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has deeply challenged the world population, but also our medical knowledge. Special attention has been paid early to an activation of coagulation, then to an elevated rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. These data suggested that anticoagulant drugs should be evaluated in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The publication of unexpected high rates of VTE in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, despite receiving thromboprophylaxis, open the way to dedicated trials, evaluating modified regimens of thromboprophylaxis. Moreover, the further improvement in our comprehension of the disease, particularly the pulmonary endothelial dysfunction increased the hope that anticoagulant drugs may also protect patients from pulmonary thrombosis. In this comprehensive review, we cover the different situations where thromboprophylaxis standard may be modified (medically-ill inpatients, ICU inpatients, outpatients), and describe some of the current randomized controls trials evaluating new regimens of thromboprophylaxis in patients with COVID-19, including the preliminary available results. We also discuss the potential of anticoagulant drugs to target the thromboinflammation described in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 47(4): 362-371, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of COVID-19, so that the importance of adequate in-hospital thromboprophylaxis in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is well established. However, the incidence of VTE after discharge and whether postdischarge thromboprophylaxis is beneficial and safe are unclear. In this prospective observational single-center study, we report the incidence of VTE 6 weeks after hospitalization and the use of postdischarge thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were invited to a multidisciplinary follow-up clinic 6 weeks after discharge. D-dimer and C-reactive protein were measured, and all patients were screened for deep vein thrombosis with venous duplex-ultrasound. Additionally, selected high-risk patients received computed tomography pulmonary angiogram or ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan to screen for incidental pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: Of 485 consecutive patients hospitalized from March through June 2020, 146 patients were analyzed, of which 39% had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 28% of patients, but was used more frequently after ICU stay (61%) and in patients with higher maximal D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels during hospitalization. Six weeks after discharge, elevated D-dimer values were present in 32% of ward and 42% of ICU patients. Only one asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis (0.7%) and one symptomatic pulmonary embolism (0.7%) were diagnosed with systematic screening. No bleedings were reported. CONCLUSION: In patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19, systematic screening for VTE 6 weeks after discharge revealed a low incidence of VTE. A strategy of selectively providing postdischarge thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients seems safe and potentially effective.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211008988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169937

ABSTRACT

Coagulation abnormalities have been reported in COVID-19 patients, which may lead to an increased risk of Pulmonary Embolism (PE). We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients diagnosed with PE during their hospital stay. We analyzed patients with PE and COVID-19 in a tertiary center in Mexico City from April to October of 2020. A total of 26 (100%) patients were diagnosed with Pulmonary Embolism and COVID-19. We observed that 14 (54%) patients were receiving either prophylactic or full anticoagulation therapy, before PE diagnosis. We found a significant difference in mortality between the group with less than 7 days (83%) and the group with more than 7 days (15%) in Intensive Care Unit (P = .004); as well as a mean of 8 days for the mortality group compared with 20 days of hospitalization in the survivor group (P = .003). In conclusion, there is an urgent need to review antithrombotic therapy in these patients in order to improve clinical outcomes and decrease hospital overload.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
9.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 426-433, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166685

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may predispose patients to venous thromboembolism (VTE). Limited data are available on the utilization of the Pulmonary Embolism Response Team (PERT) in the setting of the COVID-19 global pandemic. We performed a single-center study to evaluate treatment, mortality, and bleeding outcomes in patients who received PERT consultations in March and April 2020, compared to historical controls from the same period in 2019. Clinical data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The primary study endpoints were inpatient mortality and GUSTO moderate-to-severe bleeding. The frequency of PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during March and April 2020 (n = 74) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 26). During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was significantly less PERT-guided invasive treatment (5.5% vs 23.1%, p = 0.02) with a numerical but not statistically significant trend toward an increase in the use of systemic fibrinolytic therapy (13.5% vs 3.9%, p = 0.3). There were nonsignificant trends toward higher in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding in patients receiving PERT consultations during the COVID-19 period compared to historical controls (mortality 14.9% vs 3.9%, p = 0.18 and moderate-to-severe bleeding 35.1% vs 19.2%, p = 0.13). In conclusion, PERT utilization was nearly threefold higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than during the historical control period. Among patients evaluated by PERT, in-hospital mortality or moderate-to-severe bleeding were not significantly different, despite being numerically higher, while invasive therapy was utilized less frequently during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Patient Care Team/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality
10.
Vasc Med ; 26(4): 415-425, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166684

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism events (VTE). This study performed a systematic review in PubMed/EMBASE of studies reporting the prevalence of VTE in patients with COVID-19 who were totally screened/assessed for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or for pulmonary embolism (PE). Among 47 candidate studies (n = 6459; 33 in Europe), 17 studies (n = 3973; weighted age 63.0 years, males 60%, intensive care unit (ICU) 16%) reported the prevalence of PE with a pooled estimate of 32% (95% CI: 25, 40%), and 32 studies (n = 2552; weighted age 62.6 years, males 57%, ICU 49%) reported the prevalence of DVT with a pooled estimate of 27% (95% CI: 21, 34%). A total of 36 studies reported the use of at least prophylactic antithrombotic treatment in the majority of their patients. Meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of VTE was higher across studies with a higher percentage of ICU patients and higher study population mean D-dimer values, and lower in studies with mixed dosing of anticoagulation in ⩾ 50% of the population compared to studies with standard prophylactic dosing of anticoagulation in < 50% of the population. The pooled odds ratio for death in patients with COVID-19 and VTE versus those without VTE (17 studies, n = 2882) was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.6). Hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 are at high VTE risk despite prophylactic anticoagulation. Further research should investigate the individualized VTE risk of patients with COVID-19 and the optimal preventive antithrombotic therapy. PROSPERO Registration No.: CRD42020185543.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Young Adult
11.
Thromb Res ; 198: 34-39, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125220

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The incidence, characteristics, and prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been poorly investigated. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and the correlates with the occurrence of PE as well as the association between PE and the risk of mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study on consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized at 7 Italian Hospitals. At admission, all patients underwent medical history, laboratory and echocardiographic evaluation. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 224 patients (mean age 69 ± 14, male sex 62%); PE was diagnosed in 32 cases (14%). Patients with PE were hospitalized after a longer time since symptoms onset (7 IQR 3-11 days, 3 IQR 1-6 days; p = 0.001) and showed higher D-dimers level (1819 IQR 568-5017 ng/ml vs 555 IQR 13-1530 ng/ml; p < 0.001) and higher prevalence of myocardial injury (47% vs 28%, p = 0.033). At multivariable analysis, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE; HR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; p = 0.046) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP; HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.23; p = 0.008) resulted the only parameters independently associated with PE occurrence. Mortality rates (50% vs 27%; p = 0.010) and cardiogenic shock (37% vs 14%; p = 0.001) were significantly higher in PE as compared with non-PE patients. At multivariate analysis PE was significant associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: PE is relatively common complication in COVID-19 and is associated with increased mortality risk. TAPSE and sPAP resulted the only parameters independently associated with PE occurrence in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/epidemiology
12.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 897-901, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118256

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to identify the incidence of VTE and mortality in COVID-19 patients initially presenting to a large health system. Our retrospective study included adult patients (excluding patients presenting with obstetric/gynecologic conditions) across a multihospital health system in the New York Metropolitan Region from March 1-April 27, 2020. VTE and mortality rates within 8 h of assessment were described. In 10,871 adults with COVID-19, 118 patients (1.09%) were diagnosed with symptomatic VTE (101 pulmonary embolism, 17 deep vein thrombosis events) and 28 patients (0.26%) died during initial assessment. Among these 146 patients, 64.4% were males, 56.8% were 60 years or older, 15.1% had a BMI > 35, and 11.6% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Comorbidities included hypertension (46.6%), diabetes (24.7%), hyperlipidemia (14.4%), chronic lung disease (12.3%), coronary artery disease (11.0%), and prior VTE (7.5%). Key medications included corticosteroids (22.6%), statins (21.2%), antiplatelets (20.6%), and anticoagulants (20.6%). Highest D-Dimer was greater than six times the upper limit of normal in 51.4%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality (each p < 0.01). In COVID-19 patients who initially presented to a large multihospital health system, the overall symptomatic VTE and mortality rate was over 1.0%. Statin and antiplatelet use were associated with decreased VTE or mortality. The potential benefits of antithrombotics in high risk COVID-19 patients during the pre-hospitalization period deserves study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protective Factors , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
13.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(5): 1099-1111.e6, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We have summarized the incidence, anticoagulation panels, laboratory characteristics, and mortality of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: After systematically searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 retrospective, 6 prospective observational, and 2 cross-sectional studies was performed according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement. RESULTS: Overall, 4382 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Men accounted for significantly more patients than did women (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.02; P < .001). The total incidence of VTE among the patients with COVID-19 was 28.3% (95% CI, 21.6%-35.4%), with an incidence of 38.0% (95% CI, 29.1%-47.4%) and 17.2% (95% CI, 11.4%-23.8%) among those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities was 18.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-27.2%). The incidence of DVT was 22.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-35.5%) and 12.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-23.3%) in those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of pulmonary embolism was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.3%-23.5%), with a rate of 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-29.3%) in severe cases and 12.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-23.5%) in general cases. When COVID-19 severity was unclassified, the mortality for the patients with VTE was not significantly greater (25.2%; 95% CI, 12.2%-40.5%) than that for those without VTE (10.2%; 95% CI, 3.4%-19.5%; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.46-7.64; P = .377). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, those who had developed VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with those without VTE (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15-3.53; P = .014). The patients with COVID-19 and VTE had significantly higher D-dimer levels than did similar patients without VTE in multiple studies. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism has been substantial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially among those with severe COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 and VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with similar patients without VTE. An increased D-dimer level might be an indicator of the occurrence of VTE in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/therapy , Young Adult
15.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(2): 471-475, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is higher than most other hospitalized patients. Nonadministration of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis is common and is associated with VTE events. Our objective was to determine whether nonadministration of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis is more common in patients with COVID-19 versus other hospitalized patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort analysis of all adult patients discharged from the Johns hopkins hospital between Mar 1 and May 12, 2020, we compared demographic, clinical characteristics, VTE outcomes, prescription and administration of VTE prophylaxis between COVID-19 positive, negative, and not tested groups. RESULTS: Patients tested positive for COVID-19 were significantly older, and more likely to be Hispanic, have a higher median body mass index, have longer hospital length of stay, require mechanical ventilation, develop pulmonary embolism and die (all p < 0.001). COVID-19 patients were more likely to be prescribed (aOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.38-1.66) and receive all doses of prescribed pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.36-1.62). The number of patients who missed at least one dose of VTE prophylaxis and developed VTE was similar between the three groups (p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that high rates of VTE in COVID-19 are due to nonadministration of doses of pharmacologic prophylaxis. Hence, we should prioritize research into alternative approaches to optimizing VTE prevention in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemoprevention , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Age Factors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Chemoprevention/methods , Chemoprevention/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(3): 112-117, 2021 02 12.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival of patients hospitalized with covid-19 and who presented some vascular thrombotic complication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with covid-19 who were treated during the months of March and April 2020 at our institution were included. All patients were symptomatic and the thrombotic event objectively confirmed. Patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial thrombosis (PAT) were included. Survival curves for all groups were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier with log rank test, and Cox regression. RESULTS: During the pandemic period from March-1 to April-30, 2943 patients were treated with confirmed covid-19 in our center. Of them, 106 patients showed some symptomatic vascular thrombosis: 13 patients had PAT, 15 ischemic stroke, 20 DVT and 58 PE. Another 11 patients presented multiple vascular thrombosis. Although the mean age was 65 years, there were differences between groups being older those patients with arterial thrombosis. A 67.92% were men. In total, 25 patients died during their hospital admission (23.58%), with differences between groups, being more common in patients with PAT (9 patients out of 13) and ischemic stroke (8 patients out of 15), than in those with DVT (1 patient out of 20) or PE (7 patients out of 58). CONCLUSIONS: The venous thromboembolic risk in these patients is greater than the arterial, but arterial thrombosis when it occurs was associated with high mortality rates. Survival was better in patients with DVT and PE than in patients with ischemic stroke or PAT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/mortality , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
19.
Thromb Res ; 198: 135-138, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism appear to be major causes of mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, few studies have focused on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: In this multi-center study, we followed 1529 COVID-19 patients for at least 45 days after hospital discharge, who underwent routine telephone follow-up. In case of signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), they were invited for an in-hospital visit with a pulmonologist. The primary outcome was symptomatic VTE within 45 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Of 1529 COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital, a total of 228 (14.9%) reported potential signs or symptoms of PE or DVT and were seen for an in-hospital visit. Of these, 13 and 12 received Doppler ultrasounds or pulmonary CT angiography, respectively, of whom only one patient was diagnosed with symptomatic PE. Of 51 (3.3%) patients who died after discharge, two deaths were attributed to VTE corresponding to a 45-day cumulative rate of symptomatic VTE of 0.2% (95%CI 0.1%-0.6%; n = 3). There was no evidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in these patients. Other deaths after hospital discharge included myocardial infarction (n = 13), heart failure (n = 9), and stroke (n = 9). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe a high rate of symptomatic VTE in COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. Routine extended thromboprophylaxis after hospitalization for COVID-19 may not have a net clinical benefit. Randomized trials may be warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/mortality
20.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 597-604, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused devastating morbidity and mortality worldwide. In particular, thromboembolic complications have emerged as a key threat for patients with COVID-19. We assessed our experience with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients with COVID-19 who had undergone upper or lower extremity venous duplex ultrasonography at an academic health system in New York City from March 3, 2020 to April 12, 2020 with follow-up through May 12, 2020. A cohort of hospitalized patients without COVID-19 (non-COVID-19) who had undergone venous duplex ultrasonography from December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 was used for comparison. The primary outcome was DVT. The secondary outcomes included pulmonary embolism, in-hospital mortality, admission to the intensive care unit, and antithrombotic therapy. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for DVT and mortality. RESULTS: Of 443 patients (COVID-19, n = 188; and non-COVID-19, n = 255) who had undergone venous duplex ultrasonography, the COVID-19 cohort had had a greater incidence of DVT (31% vs 19%; P = .005) than had the non-COVID-19 cohort. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was not significantly different statistically between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts (8% vs 4%; P = .105). The DVT location in the COVID-19 group was more often distal (63% vs 29%; P < .001) and bilateral (15% vs 4%; P < .001). The duplex ultrasound findings had a significant impact on the antithrombotic plan; 42 patients (72%) with COVID-19 in the DVT group had their therapy escalated and 49 (38%) and 3 (2%) had their therapy escalated and deescalated in the non-DVT group, respectively (P < .001). Within the COVID-19 cohort, the D-dimer level was significantly greater in the DVT group at admission (2746 ng/mL vs 1481 ng/mL; P = .004) and at the duplex examination (6068 ng/mL vs 3049 ng/mL; P < .01). On multivariable analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-4.87; P = .035), intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.02-11.44; P = .046), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.01-30.13; P = .049) were independently associated with DVT. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high incidence of venous thromboembolic events in this population, we support the decision to empirically initiate therapeutic anticoagulation for patients with a low bleeding risk and severe COVID-19 infection. Duplex ultrasonography should be reserved for patients with a high clinical suspicion of venous thromboembolism for whom anticoagulation therapy could result in life-threatening consequences. Further study of patients with COVID-19 is warranted to elucidate the etiology of vascular thromboembolic events and guide the prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for these patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Risk Adjustment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemoprevention/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
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