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3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(8): 903-906, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346177

ABSTRACT

Venous thromboembolism from a "thrombotic storm"-like syndrome is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with active or "recovered" COVID-19. Patients should be risk-stratified, optimally by a pulmonary embolism (PE) response team (PERT), and considered for escalation of care if found with intermediate or high-risk PE. We present a series of patients with COVID-19-associated PE and thrombotic storm with D-dimer >10 000 ng/mL who underwent successful mechanical thrombectomy for intermediate to high-risk PE. All patients had immediate improvement in hemodynamics and large amounts of thrombi were retrieved.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombectomy , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) may have a high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, including death from cardiovascular causes. The long-term cardiovascular outcomes of these patients are entirely unknown. We aim to perform a registry of patients who have undergone a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and to determine their long-term cardiovascular outcomes. STUDY AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry to be conducted at 17 centers in Spain and Italy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04359927). Consecutive patients older than 18 years, who underwent a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV2 in the participating institutions, will be included since March 2020, to August 2020. Patients will be classified into two groups, according to the results of the RT-PCR: COVID-19 positive or negative. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The secondary outcomes will be acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, pulmonary embolism, and serious cardiac arrhythmias, at 1 year. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee. CONCLUSION: The results of this registry will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term cardiovascular implications of the COVID19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1743-1746, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy is a common abnormality in patients with COVID-19. However, the exact incidence of venous thromboembolic event is unknown in anticoagulated, severe COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Systematic assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) using complete duplex ultrasound (CDU) in anticoagulated COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 2 French intensive care units (ICU) where CDU is performed as a standard of care. A CDU from thigh to ankle at selected sites with Doppler waveforms and images was performed early during ICU stay in patients admitted with COVID-19. Anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis. Patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism was systematically searched in patients with persistent hypoxemia or secondary deterioration. RESULTS: From March 19 to April 11, 2020, 26 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were screened for VTE. Eight patients (31%) were treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas 18 patients (69%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. The overall rate of VTE in patients was 69%. The proportion of VTE was significantly higher in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation when compared with the other group (100% vs 56%, respectively, P = .03). Surprisingly, we found a high rate of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation, with 56% of VTE and 6 pulmonary embolisms. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest considering both systematic screening of VTE and early therapeutic anticoagulation in severe ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(2): 277-286, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310348

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidences prove that the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strictly linked to coagulopathy even if pneumonia appears as the major clinical manifestation. The exact incidence of thromboembolic events is largely unknown, so that a relative significant number of studies have been performed in order to explore thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. Cytokine storm, mediated by pro-inflammatory interleukins, tumor necrosis factor α and elevated acute phase reactants, is primarily responsible for COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy. Also comorbidities, promoting endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a higher thromboembolic risk. In this review we aim to investigate epidemiology and clarify the pathophysiological pathways underlying hypercoagulability in COVID-19 patients, providing indications on the prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Furthermore we aim to reassume the pathophysiological paths involved in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/virology
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 26, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302780

ABSTRACT

The presenting symptoms and features of COVID-19 are non-specific and may be extrapulmonary complications such as thrombotic disorders but also pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema; which are well-known complications of mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum, could complicate the course of a COVID-19 disease even in the absence of barotrauma involved. Herein, we report the case of a 55-year-old man with a previous history of erythroblastopenia due to thymoma admitted for COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who simultaneously developed spontaneous tension pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and acute bilateral pulmonary embolism as presenting features of COVID-19 while on high-flow nasal cannula. This rare case highlights the importance of screening for other coexisting alternative diagnoses at the initial presentation of a patient suspected of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/virology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/virology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11636, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253991

ABSTRACT

The elevated level of D-dimer and its relationship with poor outcomes in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients have been demonstrated. In addition to a hypercoagulable state, D-dimer is also a biomarker of inflammation. We investigated the relationship between D-dimer level and chest computed tomography (CT) severity score, which could reflect the severity of inflammation in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients. We retrospectively enrolled 86 consecutive SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients. CT severity scores were computed to quantify the overall lung involvement. The D-dimer level among CT score tertiles and the association of the D-dimer level with CT score were analyzed. Our results showed that the median D-dimer level was 0.70 mg/L (IQR 0.35-1.76). 42 patients (48.8%) had D-dimer levels above the median level. The D-dimer levels were significantly different across CT score tertiles (0.37 mg/l [IQR 0.31-0.87], 0.66 mg/l [IQR 0.39-1.43], 1.83 mg/l [IQR 0.85-4.41], P < 0.001). The natural logarithm of the D-dimer level was significantly associated with the CT score (rs = 0.586, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the D-dimer level may be associated with the severity of inflammation of SARS-COV-2 pneumonia prior to coagulopathy/thrombosis. This could be an additional explanation for the mechanism of the relationship between elevated D-dimer level and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 665-672, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230831

ABSTRACT

The emergent 21st century betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, lead to clinicopathological manifestations with unusual features, such as early-onset chest pain, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism that is pathologically linked to extensive capillary, arteriolar, and venular thrombosis. Early ground glass opacities detected by CT, which are reminiscent of lung infarcts associated with pulmonary embolism, point to a novel vascular pathology in COVID-19. Under physiological conditions, normal parenchymal oxygenation is maintained by three sources: the alveolus itself and dual oxygen supply from the pulmonary and bronchial artery circulations. We propose a model in which these three components are disrupted in COVID-19 pneumonia, with severe viral alveolitis and concomitant immunothrombotic obstruction of the pulmonary and bronchiolar circulation. Tricompartmental disruption might have two main consequences: systemic clot embolisation from pulmonary vein territory immunothrombosis, and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption with systemic access of thrombogenic viral material. Our model encompasses the known pathological and clinical features of severe COVID-19, and has implications for understanding patient responses to immunomodulatory therapies, which might exert an anti-inflammatory effect within the vascular compartments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Carbohydr Res ; 505: 108326, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213065

ABSTRACT

The viral infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 has increased the mortality rate and engaged several adverse effects on the affected individuals. Currently available antiviral drugs have found to be unsuccessful in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The demand for efficient antiviral drugs has created a huge burden on physicians and health workers. Plasma therapy seems to be less accomplishable due to insufficient donors to donate plasma and low recovery rate from viral infection. Repurposing of antivirals has been evolved as a suitable strategy in the current treatment and preventive measures. The concept of drug repurposing represents new experimental approaches for effective therapeutic benefits. Besides, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits several complications such as lung damage, blood clot formation, respiratory illness and organ failures in most of the patients. Based on the accumulation of data, sulfated marine polysaccharides have exerted successful inhibition of virus entry, attachment and replication with known or unknown possible mechanisms against deadly animal and human viruses so far. Since the virus entry into the host cells is the key process, the prevention of such entry mechanism makes any antiviral strategy effective. Enveloped viruses are more sensitive to polyanions than non-enveloped viruses. Besides, the viral infection caused by RNA virus types embarks severe oxidative stress in the human body that leads to malfunction of tissues and organs. In this context, polysaccharides play a very significant role in providing shielding effect against the virus due to their polyanionic rich features and a molecular weight that hinders their reactive surface glycoproteins. Significantly the functional groups especially sulfate, sulfate pattern and addition, uronic acids, monosaccharides, glycosidic linkage and high molecular weight have greater influence in the antiviral activity. Moreover, they are very good antioxidants that can reduce the free radical generation and provokes intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, polysaccharides enable a host-virus immune response, activate phagocytosis and stimulate interferon systems. Therefore, polysaccharides can be used as candidate drugs, adjuvants in vaccines or combination with other antivirals, antioxidants and immune-activating nutritional supplements and antiviral materials in healthcare products to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfuric Acid Esters/chemistry , Virus Attachment/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207919

ABSTRACT

In children, coronavirus disease 2019 infection is rarely symptomatic. Severe forms with respiratory distress are rare, thromboembolic complications are exceptional. We report a rare case of a 14 years old girl with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who was admitted to the hospital for bilateral pulmonary embolism with intracardiac thrombus. The girl progressed well on anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Female , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201364

ABSTRACT

The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) is high during severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to identify predictive and prognostic factors of PE in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In the retrospective multicenter observational CLOTVID cohort, we enrolled patients with confirmed RT-PCR COVID-19 who were hospitalized in a medicine ward and also underwent a CT pulmonary angiography for a PE suspicion. Baseline data, laboratory biomarkers, treatments, and outcomes were collected. Predictive and prognostics factors of PE were identified by using logistic multivariate and by Cox regression models, respectively. A total of 174 patients were enrolled, among whom 86 (median [IQR] age of 66 years [55-77]) had post-admission PE suspicion, with 30/86 (34.9%) PE being confirmed. PE occurrence was independently associated with the lack of long-term anticoagulation or thromboprophylaxis (OR [95%CI], 72.3 [3.6-4384.8]) D-dimers ≥ 2000 ng/mL (26.3 [4.1-537.8]) and neutrophils ≥ 7.0 G/L (5.8 [1.4-29.5]). The presence of these two biomarkers was associated with a higher risk of PE (p = 0.0002) and death or ICU transfer (HR [95%CI], 12.9 [2.5-67.8], p < 0.01). In hospitalized non-ICU severe COVID-19 patients with clinical PE suspicion, the lack of anticoagulation, D-dimers ≥ 2000 ng/mL, neutrophils ≥ 7.0 G/L, and these two biomarkers combined might be useful predictive markers of PE and prognosis, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/pathology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
16.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(6): 1361-1370.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with that in a matched cohort with similar cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of DVT and PE on the hospital course. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from COVID-19 patients who had been hospitalized from March 11, 2020 to September 4, 2020. The patients were randomly matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, hospital of admission, smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease with a cohort of patients without COVID-19. The primary end point was the incidence of DVT/PE and the odds of developing DVT/PE using a conditional logistic regression model. The secondary end point was the hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE, including mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU stay, and length of hospitalization (LOH). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with mortality, ICU admission, discharge disposition, ICU duration, and LOH. RESULTS: A total of 13,310 patients had tested positive for COVID-19, 915 of whom (6.9%) had been hospitalized across our multisite health care system. The mean age of the hospitalized patients was 60.8 ± 17.0 years, and 396 (43.3%) were women. Of the 915 patients, 82 (9.0%) had had a diagnosis of DVT/PE confirmed by ultrasound examination of the extremities and/or computed tomography angiography of the chest. The odds of presenting with DVT/PE in the setting of COVID-19 infection was greater than that without COVID-19 infection (0.6% [5 of 915] vs 9.0% [82 of 915]; odds ratio [OR], 18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.0-51.2; P < .001). The vascular risk factors were not different between the COVID-19 patients with and without DVT/PE. Mortality (P = .02), the need for ICU stay (P < .001), duration of ICU stay (P < .001), and LOH (P < .001) were greater in the DVT/PE cohort than in the cohort without DVT/PE. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the hemoglobin (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; P = .04) and D-dimer (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.33-1.56; P = .03) levels were associated with higher mortality. Higher activated partial thromboplastin times (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12; P = .03) and higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = .05) were associated with a greater risk of ICU admission. IL-6 (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02; P = .05) was associated with a greater risk of rehabilitation placement after discharge. On multivariable gamma regression analysis, hemoglobin (coefficient, -3.0; 95% CI, 0.03-0.08; P = .005) was associated with a prolonged ICU stay, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (coefficient, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.003-0.006; P = .05), international normalized ratio (coefficient, -3.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.19; P = .002) and IL-6 (coefficient, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.0011-0.0027; P = .02) were associated with a prolonged LOH. CONCLUSIONS: A significantly greater incidence of DVT/PE occurred in hospitalized COVID-19-positive patients compared with a non-COVID-19 cohort matched for cardiovascular risk factors. Patients affected by DVT/PE were more likely to experience greater mortality, to require ICU admission, and experience prolonged ICU stays and LOH compared with COVID-19-positive patients without DVT/PE. Advancements in DVT/PE prevention are needed for patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Venous Thrombosis/virology
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 185, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190640

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, several small cohorts have reported the recurrent occurrence of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE), particulary pulmonary embolism, in serious patients hospitalized in intensive care units. We report the case of a patient who presented a minor COVID-19 infection treated on an outpatient basis with good clinical resolution. She developed a pulmonary embolism three weeks after the onset of symptoms. When she was admitted to the emergency room, the two real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) performed were negative, moreover the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) serological test was positive and the chest scanner without and with injection of contrast product showed specific images of COVID-19 with intermediate pulmonary embolism according to the classification of the European society of cardiology (ESC). This observation is interesting since there are not many studies which address the question of the occurrence of late pulmonary embolism in patients with non-severe COVID-19 and raises the discussion on the criteria for the initiation of thromboembolic prophylaxis treatment at the first diagnosis of the disease and duration of that treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Adult , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(5): e200-e202, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180654

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has been particularly challenging for the clinician because of the unclear nature of the underlying disease mechanisms. One of the hallmarks of the disease involves an increased risk of thrombosis and hypercoagulable state. Here, we describe 2 cases of patients admitted with submassive pulmonary embolism in the setting of positive tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175757

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized COVID-19-patients, especially those who required intensive care, despite thromboprophylaxis. This has resulted in the use of higher doses of thromboprophylaxis or therapeutic anticoagulation therapy even in the absence of thrombotic events. However, after their hospital discharge, authors and current guidelines are not unanimous about extended anticoagulant therapy in patients with COVID-19. Here, we report two pulmonary embolism cases following hospitalization for COVID-19, despite intermediate doses of thromboprophylaxis. These rare cases suggest that there may be a residual thrombotic risk following hospitalization for COVID-19 and highlight questions about extended prophylactic-anticoagulation therapy after hospital discharge of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Aged , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
20.
Mod Pathol ; 34(8): 1456-1467, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164812

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated clinical syndrome COVID-19 are causing overwhelming morbidity and mortality around the globe and disproportionately affected New York City between March and May 2020. Here, we report on the first 100 COVID-19-positive autopsies performed at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. Autopsies revealed large pulmonary emboli in six cases. Diffuse alveolar damage was present in over 90% of cases. We also report microthrombi in multiple organ systems including the brain, as well as hemophagocytosis. We additionally provide electron microscopic evidence of the presence of the virus in our samples. Laboratory results of our COVID-19 cohort disclose elevated inflammatory markers, abnormal coagulation values, and elevated cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα. Our autopsy series of COVID-19-positive patients reveals that this disease, often conceptualized as a primarily respiratory viral illness, has widespread effects in the body including hypercoagulability, a hyperinflammatory state, and endothelial dysfunction. Targeting of these multisystemic pathways could lead to new treatment avenues as well as combination therapies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cause of Death , Cytokines/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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