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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30146, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is currently no objective computed tomography (CT)-defined grading system for coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related pulmonary fibrosis. We propose a CT-based radiological scale that adapts the histological fibrosis scale to pulmonary fibrosis CT findings, to evaluate possible predictive factors for the degree of fibrosis in these patients. METHODS: A new radiological fibrosis grading system was created based on existing histological fibrosis scales. One hundred forty-seven COVID-19 patients with any degree of fibrosis on CT were evaluated. Smoking status, the presence of hypertension, the duration of hospital stays, the presence of comorbid diseases, and the levels of prognostic and predictive factors for COVID-19 were evaluated, and how these parameters affected the fibrosis scores was examined. RESULTS: Of 147 patients, 17.7% had grade 1, 17% had grade 2, 51.7% had grade 3, and 13.6% had grade 4 fibrosis. ANOVA revealed statistically significant relationships between the fibrosis scores and lactate dehydrogenase values, lymphocyte count, C-reactive protein level, and length of hospital stay. Smoking, advanced age, hypertension, and male sex showed significantly higher scores for fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Using our CT-defined lung fibrosis grading system, we could predict the severity of fibrosis as well as the resultant lung pathology in COVID-19 patients. Thus, disease exacerbation and development of permanent severe fibrosis can be prevented using the appropriate treatment methods in high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Pulmonary Fibrosis , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fibrosis , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Male , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e934830, 2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Physicians worldwide have been reporting many cases of COVID-19-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We report the case of a 51-year-old Filipino asthmatic woman who developed post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis subsequently treated with Nintedanib. CASE REPORT The patient presented with a 4-day history of flu-like symptoms in September 2020 and was eventually diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite receiving Dexamethasone, Tocilizumab, Remdesivir, and multiple antibiotics, there was increasing oxygen requirement, necessitating ICU admission and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). An additional course of hydrocortisone was given due to asthma exacerbation, gradually liberating her from the HFNC. A chest CT scan showed extensive parenchymal changes, for which she received methylprednisolone and physical rehabilitation with persistence of respiratory symptoms. After 40 days of hospitalization, she was sent home on oxygen support and Nintedanib. The patient initially had severe dyspnea (Borg Scale 7) with 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) of 295 meters. Pulmonary function showed moderately severe restrictive lung defect at 52% predicted total lung capacity (TLC) and severely reduced DLCO (28% predicted). Chest CT scoring indicated severe lung involvement. One month after Nintedanib treatment, her Borg Scale improved to 4. Her 6MWD, TLC, and DLCO increased to 434 meters, 64% predicted, and 36% predicted, respectively. A chest CT scan showed regressing fibrosis. After 6 months of treatment, her pulmonary function normalized. DLCO remained moderately reduced (59% predicted) but her 6MWD (457 meters) and CT scan results continued to improve. CONCLUSIONS Nintedanib, along with other interventions, may have potentially improved pulmonary function and CT scan findings in a COVID-19 survivor with pulmonary fibrosis 6 months after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Female , Humans , Lung , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(47): e27980, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604285

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pulmonary fibrosis is an infamous sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia leading to long-lasting respiratory problems and activity limitations. Pulmonary rehabilitation is beneficial to improve the symptoms of lung fibrosis. We experienced a post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis patient who received a structured exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation program. PATIENT CONCERNS: This article presents a case of successful pulmonary rehabilitation of a patient with post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. The patient could not cut off the oxygen supplement even after a successful recovery from COVID-19. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pulmonary fibrosis was diagnosed by patient's complaint, clinical appearance, and computed tomography (CT) on chest. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent ten sessions of exercise-based rehabilitation program according to Consensus Document on Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Korea, 2015. OUTCOME: On the 8th day, he could cut off the oxygen supplementation and complete the one-hour exercise without oxygen. He was discharged after completing the 10-session program without any activity limitations. LESSONS: Exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation will help the post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis patients. This case suggested the importance of pulmonary rehabilitation program to the post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/rehabilitation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Thorax ; 76(12): 1242-1245, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518155

ABSTRACT

The risk factors for development of fibrotic-like radiographic abnormalities after severe COVID-19 are incompletely described and the extent to which CT findings correlate with symptoms and physical function after hospitalisation remains unclear. At 4 months after hospitalisation, fibrotic-like patterns were more common in those who underwent mechanical ventilation (72%) than in those who did not (20%). We demonstrate that severity of initial illness, duration of mechanical ventilation, lactate dehydrogenase on admission and leucocyte telomere length are independent risk factors for fibrotic-like radiographic abnormalities. These fibrotic-like changes correlate with lung function, cough and measures of frailty, but not with dyspnoea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Telomere , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea , Fibrosis , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Telomere/genetics
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(13-14): 927-932, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493274

ABSTRACT

Acute COVID-19 pneumonia may result in persistent changes with various imaging and histopathological patterns, including organizing pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with increased risk of pulmonary vascular endothelialitis and thrombosis. Herein, current findings on pulmonary consequences of COVID-19 with implications for clinical management are summarized based on a selective literature review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Acute Disease , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy
8.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(5): 477-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456468

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19-associated pulmonary sequalae have been increasingly reported after recovery from acute infection. Therefore, we aim to explore the charactersitics of persistent lung parenchymal abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted in patients with post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities from April till September 2020. Patients ≥18 years of age with COVID-19 who were diagnosed as post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormality based on respiratory symptoms and HRCT chest imaging after the recovery of acute infection. Data was recorded on a structured pro forma, and descriptive analysis was performed using Stata version 12.1. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities were identified. The mean age of patients was 59.1 (SD 12.6), and 27 (90.0%) were males. Four HRCT patterns of lung parenchymal abnormalities were seen; organizing pneumonia in 10 (33.3%), nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis in 17 (56.7%), usual interstitial pneumonitis in 12 (40.0%) and probable usual interstitial pneumonitis in 14 (46.7%). Diffuse involvement was found in 15 (50.0%) patients, while peripheral predominance in 15 (50.0%), and other significant findings were seen in 8 (26.7%) patients. All individuals were treated with corticosteroids. The case fatality rate was 16.7%. Amongst the survivors, 32.0% recovered completely, 36.0% improved, while 32.0% of the patients had static or progressive disease. CONCLUSION: This is the first study from Southeast Asia that identified post-COVID lung parenchymal abnormalities in patients who had no pre-existing lung disease highlighting the importance of timely recognition and treatment of this entity that might lead to fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314665

ABSTRACT

Lung fibrosis has specific computed tomography (CT) findings and represents a common finding in advanced COVID-19 pneumonia whose reversibility has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify the extension of collagen deposition and aeration in postmortem cryobiopsies of critically ill COVID-19 patients and to describe the correlations with qualitative and quantitative analyses of lung CT. Postmortem transbronchial cryobiopsy samples were obtained, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded and stained with Sirius red to quantify collagen deposition, defining fibrotic samples as those with collagen deposition above 10%. Lung CT images were analyzed qualitatively with a radiographic score and quantitatively with computer-based analysis at the lobe level. Thirty samples from 10 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia deceased during invasive mechanical ventilation were included in this study. The median [interquartile range] percent collagen extension was 6.8% (4.6-16.2%). In fibrotic compared to nonfibrotic samples, the qualitative score was higher (260 (250-290) vs. 190 (120-270), p = 0.036) while the gas fraction was lower (0.46 (0.32-0.47) vs. 0.59 (0.37-0.68), p = 0.047). A radiographic score above 230 had 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval, CI: 66.4% to 100%) and 66.7% specificity (95% CI: 41.0% to 92.3%) to detect fibrotic samples, while a gas fraction below 0.57 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 66.4% to 100%) and 57.1% specificity (95% CI: 26.3% to 88.0%). In COVID-19 pneumonia, qualitative and quantitative analyses of lung CT images have high sensitivity but moderate to low specificity to detect histopathological fibrosis. Pseudofibrotic CT findings do not always correspond to increased collagen deposition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Collagen/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Autopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 203, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been discharged from hospitals Persistent follow-up studies are required to evaluate the prevalence of post-COVID-19 fibrosis. METHODS: This study involves 462 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11, 2020 to April 26, 2020. A total of 457 patients underwent thin-section chest CT scans during the hospitalization or after discharge to identify the pulmonary lesion. A total of 287 patients were followed up from 90 to 150 days after the onset of the disease, and lung function tests were conducted about three months after the onset. The risk factors affecting the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis were identified through regression analysis and the prediction model of the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis was established. RESULTS: Parenchymal bands, irregular interfaces, reticulation and traction bronchiectasis were the most common CT features in all COVID-19 patients. During the 0-30, 31-60, 61-90, 91-120 and > 120 days after onset, 86.87%, 74.40%, 79.56%, 68.12% and 62.03% patients developed with pulmonary fibrosis and 4.53%, 19.61%, 18.02%, 38.30% and 48.98% patients reversed pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. It was observed that Age, BMI, Fever, and Highest PCT were predictive factors for sustaining fibrosis even after 90 days from onset. A predictive model of the persistence with pulmonary fibrosis was developed based-on the Logistic Regression method with an accuracy, PPV, NPV, Sensitivity and Specificity of the model of 76%, 71%, 79%, 67%, and 82%, respectively. More than half of the COVID-19 patients revealed abnormal conditions in lung function after 90 days from onset, and the ratio of abnormal lung function did not differ on a statistically significant level between the fibrotic and non-fibrotic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent pulmonary fibrosis was more likely to develop in patients with older age, higher BMI, severe/critical condition, fever, a longer viral clearance time, pre-existing disease and delayed hospitalization. Fibrosis developed in COVID-19 patients could be reversed in about a third of the patients after 120 days from onset. The pulmonary function of less than half of COVID-19 patients could turn to normal condition after three months from onset. An effective prediction model with an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 was established to predict the persistence of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , China , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
12.
Minerva Med ; 113(1): 135-140, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285637

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of Pycnogenol® (150 mg/day) (Horphag Research, London, UK) and Centella asiatica (Centellicum® 3×225 mg/day; Horphag Research) (PY-CE) for 8 months in subjects with sequelae of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Recently, post-COVID-19 lung disease is emerging with large numbers of patients left with chronic lung conditions. Considering the antifibrotic activity of the combination PY-CE, we also tested this supplementary management in post-COVID-19 lung patients. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) were included in the study. High Resolution CT scans at inclusion confirmed the presence of lung fibrosis: 10 patients were treated with the Pycnogenol® Centellicum® combination and 9 subjects with standard management (SM) served as controls. Oxidative stress that was very high in all subjects at inclusion, decreased significantly in the supplement group (P<0.05). The Karnofsky Performance Scale Index significantly improved in the supplement group in comparison with controls (P<0.05). The symptoms (fatigue, muscular pain, dyspnea) were significantly lower after 8 months in supplemented patients (P<0.05) as compared with controls. RESULTS: At the end of the study, the small cystic lesions (honeycombing) and traction bronchiectasis were stable or in partial regression in 4 subjects in the supplemented group (vs. none in the control group) with a significant improvement in tissue edema in the supplemented subjects. On ultrasound lung scans the white (more echogenic) fibrotic component at inclusion was 18.5±2.2% in the images in controls vs. 19.4±2.7% in the supplement group. At the end of the study, there was no improvement in controls (18.9±2.5%) vs. a significant improvement in supplemented subjects (16.2±2.1%; P<0.05). In addition, 18 subjects with post-COVID-19 lung disease were included in the study; 10 patients were treated with the Pycnogenol® Centellicum® combination and evaluated after 4 weeks; 8 patients served as controls. Preliminary results show that symptoms associated with post-COVID-19 lung disease after 4 weeks were significantly improved with the supplement combination (P<0.05). Oxidative stress and the Karnofsky Performance Scale Index were significantly improved in the supplements group as compared with controls (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: According to these observations, Pycnogenol® controls and decreases edema and Centellicum® by modulating the apposition of collagen, slows down the development of irregular cicatrization, the keloidal scarring and fibrosis. More time is needed to evaluate this effect in a larger number of post-COVID-19 patients with lung disease. This disease has affected millions of subjects worldwide, leaving severe consequences. Pycnogenol® and Centellicum® may improve the residual clinical picture in post-COVID-19 lung disease (PCL) patients and may reduce the number of subjects evolving into lung fibrosis. The evolution from edema to fibrosis seems to be slower or attenuated with this supplement combination both in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and in PCL patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology
13.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 499-513, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245757

ABSTRACT

In 2019, an unprecedented disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and spread across the globe. Although the rapid transmission of COVID-19 has resulted in thousands of deaths and severe lung damage, conclusive treatment is not available. However, three COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized, and two more will be approved soon, according to a World Health Organization report on December 12, 2020. Many COVID-19 patients show symptoms of acute lung injury that eventually leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Our aim in this article is to present the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and COVID-19, with a focus on angiotensin converting enzyme-2. We also evaluate the radiological imaging methods computed tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) for visualization of patient lung condition. Moreover, we review possible therapeutics for COVID-19 using four categories: treatments related and unrelated to lung disease and treatments that have and have not entered clinical trials. Although many treatments have started clinical trials, they have some drawbacks, such as short-term and small-group testing, that need to be addressed as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 440.e5-440.e6, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213003

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is characterized by the escape of broncho-alveolar air into presence of air in the pleural space without preceding blunt or penetrating trauma. SP requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. SP is divided into two groups as primary and secondary. Primary SP is usually seen in tall and thin patients with no clinically evident underlying lung disease (especially in tall and thin subjects), whereas secondary SP cases have an underlying lung disease, such as cystic lung disease, cavitary lung lesions, severe asthma, emphysema or pneumonia. Patients with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) may experience the SP during the diagnosis and treatment processes, and it is a significant cause of morbidity. However, late-onset SP after recovering from COVID-19 is unusual. Herein we present a case with post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis-like changes and subsequent late onset spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). We also present the patient's radiological findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(3): 360-365, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175612

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 is very contagious and nobody is known to be immune to it. The post-infected lung would leave a scar known as fibrosis, a scar tissue. A study from Wuhan, China suggested the development of fibrosis, though it was too early to label these lung changes as irreversible fibrosis in a time range of 3 weeks. The occurrence of fibrosis indicates a chronic infection which greatly contributes to the hallmark symptom of COVID-19 induced ARDS such as shortness of breath and chest pain. However, many of those studies have not yet explained the condition of the patient's lung after total recovery from the COVID-19. This report demonstrates the clinical symptoms, chest CT scan, spirometry, and blood gas analysis of patient after total recovery from the COVID-19 with appearance lung fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Spirometry , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Clin Imaging ; 77: 180-186, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157197

ABSTRACT

Fibrotic lung changes are well-known complications of SARS, MERS, and ARDS from other causes and are anticipated in recovered COVID patients. However, there is limited data so far showing a temporal relationship between lung changes on imaging in the acute phase and follow-up imaging after recovery from the infection. We present 12 patients who demonstrate the development of interstitial lung changes and pulmonary fibrosis in the same distribution and pattern as the acute phase findings, up to 6 months after the acute infection, demonstrating a direct relationship between these changes and COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1455, 2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065938

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to develop a fully-automated segmentation algorithm, robust to various density enhancing lung abnormalities, to facilitate rapid quantitative analysis of computed tomography images. A polymorphic training approach is proposed, in which both specifically labeled left and right lungs of humans with COPD, and nonspecifically labeled lungs of animals with acute lung injury, were incorporated into training a single neural network. The resulting network is intended for predicting left and right lung regions in humans with or without diffuse opacification and consolidation. Performance of the proposed lung segmentation algorithm was extensively evaluated on CT scans of subjects with COPD, confirmed COVID-19, lung cancer, and IPF, despite no labeled training data of the latter three diseases. Lobar segmentations were obtained using the left and right lung segmentation as input to the LobeNet algorithm. Regional lobar analysis was performed using hierarchical clustering to identify radiographic subtypes of COVID-19. The proposed lung segmentation algorithm was quantitatively evaluated using semi-automated and manually-corrected segmentations in 87 COVID-19 CT images, achieving an average symmetric surface distance of [Formula: see text] mm and Dice coefficient of [Formula: see text]. Hierarchical clustering identified four radiographical phenotypes of COVID-19 based on lobar fractions of consolidated and poorly aerated tissue. Lower left and lower right lobes were consistently more afflicted with poor aeration and consolidation. However, the most severe cases demonstrated involvement of all lobes. The polymorphic training approach was able to accurately segment COVID-19 cases with diffuse consolidation without requiring COVID-19 cases for training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Female , Humans , Male
19.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68(4): 450-456, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Moderate and severe COVID-19 patients typically present with pneumonia. In this study we aimed to detect the occurrence of pulmonary residuals as a late sequela of COVID-19 and to identify it's predictors among moderate and severe cases. METHODS: This observational prospective study involved 85 COVID-19 patients confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab, patients were recruited in the period of 1 st of June to 1 st of July. Demographic and clinical data were obtained for each patient. Chest imaging was performed initially and after 3 weeks to detect post COVID pulmonary residuals. RESULTS: The study population included 74 (87.1%) moderate and 11 (12.9%) severe patients. Patients with older age, male gender, high BMI and initial chest CT of consolidation/mixed consolidation and ground glass opacities (GGOs) had more frequent post COVID-19 pulmonary residuals (P 0.003, 0.026, 0.031, 0.035) respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between patients who showed complete resolution and patients who developed pulmonary residuals regarding the lymphocyte count, serum CRP and ferritin levels (P 0.0001). After logistic regression, male gender, high BMI, initial chest CT of consolidation/mixed consolidation and GGOs, lymphocytopenia, high serum CRP and ferritin levels were the predictors of pulmonary residuals. While the age wasn't statistically significant. CONCLUSION: 38.5% of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients tend to have pulmonary residuals. Independent predictors of pulmonary residuals as a sequela of COVID-19 are male gender, high BMI, initial chest CT of consolidation and mixed consolidation/GGOs, lymphocytopenia, high serum CRP and ferritin levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Addict Dis ; 39(2): 215-225, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975146

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of nationwide lockdown during the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on an average volume of alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. A survey was conducted with a random sample of 4072 people. The authors found a significant influence of the pandemic period on alcohol consumption compared to the pre-pandemic period. The vast majority of respondents reduced the frequency of consumption of all types of alcohol. However, when the population was divided into subgroups, this differentiation demonstrated that particular groups are more vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Higher frequency of alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown was most often found in the group of men, people aged 18-24 years, inhabitants of big cities, and remote workers. Besides, significant differences were observed in subpopulations concerning different types of alcohol. Results emphasized the importance of monitoring and implementation of actions aimed at reducing the potential psychosocial impact of COVID-19, including alcohol-related disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Social Isolation , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/mortality , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Fibrosis/enzymology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Sampling Studies , Survival Rate , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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