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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Mycopathologia ; 186(5): 589-608, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653639

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections caused by fungal pathogens present a growing global health concern and are a major cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Worryingly, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown to predispose some patients to airborne fungal co-infections. These include secondary pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Aspergillosis is most commonly caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and primarily treated using the triazole drug group, however in recent years, this fungus has been rapidly gaining resistance against these antifungals. This is of serious clinical concern as multi-azole resistant forms of aspergillosis have a higher risk of mortality when compared against azole-susceptible infections. With the increasing numbers of COVID-19 and other classes of immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of fungal infections is critical to ensuring patient survival. However, time-limited diagnosis is difficult to achieve with current culture-based methods. Advances within fungal genomics have enabled molecular diagnostic methods to become a fast, reproducible, and cost-effective alternative for diagnosis of respiratory fungal pathogens and detection of antifungal resistance. Here, we describe what techniques are currently available within molecular diagnostics, how they work and when they have been used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , Aspergillus fumigatus , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 25(1): 8-17, 2022 01 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625858

ABSTRACT

Al igual que ya sucedió en 2020, 2021 ha estado dominado por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si hace un año escribíamos esta Nota Editorial con gran preocupación por la evolución de la situación de la infección originada por el SARS-CoV-2 y, a su vez, con grandes esperanzas puestas en las vacunas como estrategia preventiva, la actual viene marcada por la incertidumbre generada por la irrupción de la nueva variante de preocupación: Omicrón….


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , Bibliometrics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Bras Pneumol ; 47(6): e20210499, 2022 01 07.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623044
8.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(2): 139-143, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556199

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the pace of technological development relating to pulmonary diseases. The advent of newer technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), continues to be adapted for diagnostic purposes. AI offers comparable precision to trained physicians under certain circumstances, as well as the unique ability to process the information characteristic of Big Data. With respect to individual susceptibilities/pre-existing diseases, AI seems poised to integrate such individualized information and contribute to a greater implementation of precision medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: AI can match trained clinicians in specific applications, but AI has limitations that require clearly defined questions and a high quality of data. Data collected for this purpose is predicted to increase both in quality and volume, as technology concerned with personal health (FitBit, Apple Watch) proliferates. However, the role of AI with respect to physicians in a clinical setting is still being debated. AI generally aims to increase objectivity through its correlational methodology. SUMMARY: AI continues to be a proliferative field of study. It has defined strengths and weaknesses which, if accounted for, has the potential to increase healthcare access as well as the quality of care delivered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 355-362, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513256

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in pediatrics worldwide. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the prevalence of RSV is 23.5% in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses critical public health and socioeconomic challenges in KSA. The Saudi Pediatric Pulmonology Association (SPPA), a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society (STS), developed a task force to determine the potential challenges and barriers to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program during the era of COVID-19 and to compose a practical, nationwide, and multidisciplinary approach to address these challenges. Some of the recommendations to manage these challenges include increasing the number of RSV immunoprophylaxis clinics, drive-thru visits, home-care services, and swift referrals to the RSV immunoprophylaxis program specialists. Additional training is required for healthcare personnel to add RSV immunoprophylaxis to the regular immunization schedule.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchiolitis, Viral/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Immunization Programs/methods , Palivizumab/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Home Care Services , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections , Pulmonary Medicine , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Societies, Medical
10.
Respir Med ; 190: 106674, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487957

ABSTRACT

Influenza and pneumococcal disease represent a well-known burden on healthcare systems worldwide, as well as they still have an attributed morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly individuals and vulnerable populations. In the context of the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, a series of considerations in favor of extensive influenza and pneumococcal vaccination campaign are emerging, including a possible reduction of hospital extra burden and saving of sanitary resources. In addition, recent studies have suggested that prior vaccinations towards non SARS-CoV-2 pathogens might confer some protection against COVID-19. In this paper the authors consider all factors in support of these hypotheses and provide a consensus statement to encourage influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations in targeted populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Promotion , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Young Adult
12.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(6): 523-528, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly demonstrated that the technological progress in digitization is also essential for the medical sector. In the field of sleep-disordered breathing, the novel eHealth methods already do offer smart solutions for currently insufficiently addressed problems. RECENT FINDINGS: In general, the potential of telemedicine tools can be focused on three basic aspects: interaction between clinicians, interaction between clinician and patient, and interaction between patient and the mobile health technology. The pandemic situation resulted in a rapid development of reimbursement for telehealth services. In recent years, evidence on the positive benefits of using telemedicine-based support as part of respiratory therapy follow-up is increasing. It is important to consider patient groups, telemedicine methodology, type of intervention, and targeting criteria in all studies conducted. SUMMARY: Given the scarcity of resources for leading common diseases, we must keep an eye on the new digitization concepts in respiratory medicine care. It must be implemented precisely, cost-effectively, and also more connecting between sectors and disciplines and at eye level with our patients. By means of patient engagement systems, an important part of modern precision medicine can be established. Digital support systems are valuable for supporting medical staff. They are not meant to replace medical staff but to facilitate their work and improve its quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
13.
Mycopathologia ; 186(5): 589-608, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397031

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections caused by fungal pathogens present a growing global health concern and are a major cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Worryingly, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome has been shown to predispose some patients to airborne fungal co-infections. These include secondary pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Aspergillosis is most commonly caused by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus and primarily treated using the triazole drug group, however in recent years, this fungus has been rapidly gaining resistance against these antifungals. This is of serious clinical concern as multi-azole resistant forms of aspergillosis have a higher risk of mortality when compared against azole-susceptible infections. With the increasing numbers of COVID-19 and other classes of immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of fungal infections is critical to ensuring patient survival. However, time-limited diagnosis is difficult to achieve with current culture-based methods. Advances within fungal genomics have enabled molecular diagnostic methods to become a fast, reproducible, and cost-effective alternative for diagnosis of respiratory fungal pathogens and detection of antifungal resistance. Here, we describe what techniques are currently available within molecular diagnostics, how they work and when they have been used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , Aspergillus fumigatus , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Pneumologie ; 75(11): 869-900, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392935

ABSTRACT

The German Society of Pneumology initiated the AWMFS1 guideline Post-COVID/Long-COVID. In a broad interdisciplinary approach, this S1 guideline was designed based on the current state of knowledge.The clinical recommendation describes current post-COVID/long-COVID symptoms, diagnostic approaches, and therapies.In addition to the general and consensus introduction, a subject-specific approach was taken to summarize the current state of knowledge.The guideline has an expilcit practical claim and will be continuously developed and adapted by the author team based on the current increase in knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Medicine , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 50, 2021 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388766

ABSTRACT

The importance of vaccinations for COPD patients has been previously described. However, there is still a gap between guideline recommendations and the implementation of preventive care delivery for these patients. Specially, the rise of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made the significance of vaccination adherence more critical to address. Our study showed that referral to pulmonary clinic is associated with increased odds of receiving influenza (OR = 1.97, [95% CI 1.07, 3.65]) and pneumococcal vaccinations (PCV13 OR = 3.55, [1.47, 8.54]; PPSV23 OR = 4.92, [1.51, 16.02]). These data suggest that partnerships between primary care physicians and pulmonologists can potentially improve the vaccination rates for patients with COPD.


Subject(s)
Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Medicine , Referral and Consultation , Vaccination , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376964

ABSTRACT

In the field of respiratory clinical practice, the importance of measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations cannot be overemphasized. Within the body, assessment of the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) has been the gold standard for many decades. Non-invasive assessments are usually predicated on the measurement of CO2 concentrations in the air, usually using an infrared analyzer, and these data are clearly important regarding climate changes as well as regulations of air quality in buildings to ascertain adequate ventilation. Measurements of CO2 production with oxygen consumption yield important indices such as the respiratory quotient and estimates of energy expenditure, which may be used for further investigation in the various fields of metabolism, obesity, sleep disorders, and lifestyle-related issues. Measures of PaCO2 are nowadays performed using the Severinghaus electrode in arterial blood or in arterialized capillary blood, while the same electrode system has been modified to enable relatively accurate non-invasive monitoring of the transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 (PtcCO2). PtcCO2 monitoring during sleep can be helpful for evaluating sleep apnea syndrome, particularly in children. End-tidal PCO2 is inferior to PtcCO2 as far as accuracy, but it provides breath-by-breath estimates of respiratory gas exchange, while PtcCO2 reflects temporal trends in alveolar ventilation. The frequency of monitoring end-tidal PCO2 has markedly increased in light of its multiple applications (e.g., verify endotracheal intubation, anesthesia or mechanical ventilation, exercise testing, respiratory patterning during sleep, etc.).


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous , Pulmonary Medicine , Carbon Dioxide , Child , Humans , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial
18.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e116, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357652

Subject(s)
Pulmonary Medicine , Humans
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(12): 3577-3579, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350843

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Pulmonology publishes original research, reviews, and case reports related to a wide range of children's respiratory disorders. This review summarizes the past year's publications in the topic area of neonatal pulmonology, in the context of selected literature from other journals relevant to the discipline.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Medicine , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn
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