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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243838

ABSTRACT

Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLD) or Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are a heterogeneous group of lung conditions with common characteristics that can progress to fibrosis. Within this group of pneumonias, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is considered the most common. This disease has no known cause, is devastating and has no cure. Chronic lesion of alveolar type II (ATII) cells represents a key mechanism for the development of IPF. ATII cells are specialized in the biosynthesis and secretion of pulmonary surfactant (PS), a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension and minimizes breathing effort. Some differences in PS composition have been reported between patients with idiopathic pulmonary disease and healthy individuals, especially regarding some specific proteins in the PS; however, few reports have been conducted on the lipid components. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which phospholipids (PLs) could be involved in the development of the fibroproliferative response.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Phospholipids , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology
2.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282632, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251344

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the disease triggered by the African Swine Fever virus are currently two of the main problems regarding public and animal health, respectively. Although vaccination seems to be the ideal tool for controlling these diseases, it has several limitations. Therefore, early detection of the pathogen is critical in order to apply preventive and control measures. Real-time PCR is the main technique used for the detection of both viruses, which requires previous processing of the infectious material. If the potentially infected sample is inactivated at the time of sampling, the diagnosis will be accelerated, impacting positively on the diagnosis and control of the disease. Here, we evaluated the inactivation and preservation properties of a new surfactant liquid for non-invasive and environmental sampling of both viruses. Our results demonstrated that the surfactant liquid effectively inactivates SARS-CoV-2 and African Swine Fever virus in only five minutes, and allows for the preservation of the genetic material for long periods even at high temperatures such as 37°C. Hence, this methodology is a safe and useful tool for recovering SARS-CoV-2 and African Swine Fever virus RNA/DNA from different surfaces and skins, which has significant applied relevance in the surveillance of both diseases.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Animals , Swine , Humans , African Swine Fever/diagnosis , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surface-Active Agents , COVID-19 Testing
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1129296, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260999

ABSTRACT

The long quest for efficient drug administration has been looking for a universal carrier that can precisely transport traditional drugs, new genomic and proteic therapeutic agents. Today, researchers have found conditions to overcome the two main drug delivery dilemmas. On the one side, the versatility of the vehicle to efficiently load, protect and transport the drug and then release it at the target place. On the other hand, the questions related to the degree of PEGylation which are needed to avoid nanoparticle (NP) aggregation and opsonization while preventing cellular uptake. The development of different kinds of lipidic drug delivery vehicles and particles has resulted in the development of ionizable lipid nanoparticles (iLNPs), which can overcome most of the typical drug delivery problems. Proof of their success is the late approval and massive administration as the prophylactic vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. These ILNPs are built by electrostatic aggregation of surfactants, the therapeutic agent, and lipids that self-segregate from an aqueous solution, forming nanoparticles stabilized with lipid polymers, such as PEG. These vehicles overcome previous limitations such as low loading and high toxicity, likely thanks to low charge at the working pH and reduced size, and their entry into the cells via endocytosis rather than membrane perforation or fusion, always associated with higher toxicity. We herein revise their primary features, synthetic methods to prepare and characterize them, pharmacokinetic (administration, distribution, metabolization and excretion) aspects, and biodistribution and fate. Owing to their advantages, iLNPs are potential drug delivery systems to improve the management of various diseases and widely available for clinical use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , RNA , Tissue Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lipids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Lipoproteins
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(3): e13119, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266543

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need for vaccines that can induce effective systemic, respiratory mucosal, and cellular immunity to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We reported previously that a synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10 derived from human pulmonary surfactant works as an efficient antigen delivery vehicle to antigen presenting cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and promotes induction of influenza virus antigen-specific serum IgG, mucosal IgA, and cellular immunity. Methods: The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a new administration route of trans-airway (TA) vaccine comprising recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein 1 (S1) combined with SF-10 (S1-SF-10 vaccine) on systemic, local, and cellular immunity in mice, compared with intramuscular injection (IM) of S1 with a potent adjuvant AddaS03™ (S1-AddaS03™ vaccine). Results: S1-SF-10-TA vaccine induced S1-specific IgG and IgA in serum and lung mucosae. These IgG and IgA induced by S1-SF-10-TA showed significant protective immunity in a receptor binding inhibition test of S1 and angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, which were more potent and faster achievement than S1-AddaS03™-IM. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay showed high numbers of S1-specific IgA and IgG secreting cells (ASCs) and S1-responsive IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17A cytokine secreting cells (CSCs) in the spleen and lungs. S1-AddaS03™-IM induced IgG ASCs and IL-4 CSCs in spleen higher than S1-SF-10-TA, but the numbers of ASCs and CSCs in lungs were low and hardly detected. Conclusions: Based on the need for effective systemic, respiratory, and cellular immunity, the S1-SF-10-TA vaccine seems promising mucosal vaccine against respiratory infection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-4/pharmacology , Pandemics , Immunity, Mucosal , Antibodies, Viral , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G
5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166753

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir (FAV) has become a promising antiviral agent for the treatment of COVID-19. Herein, a green, fast, high-sample-throughput, non-instrumental, and affordable analytical method is proposed based on surfactant-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SA-DLLME) combined with thin-layer chromatography-digital image colourimetry (TLC-DIC) for determining favipiravir in biological and pharmaceutical samples. Triton X-100 and dichloromethane (DCM) were used as the disperser and extraction solvents, respectively. The extract obtained after DLLME procedure was spotted on a TLC plate and allowed to develop with a mobile phase of chloroform:methanol (8:2, v/v). The developed plate was photographed using a smartphone under UV irradiation at 254 nm. The quantification of FAV was performed by analysing the digital images' spots with open-source ImageJ software. Multivariate optimisation using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) was performed for the screening and optimisation of significant factors. Under the optimised conditions, the method was found to be linear, ranging from 5 to 100 µg/spot, with a correlation coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.991 to 0.994. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were in the ranges of 1.2-1.5 µg/spot and 3.96-4.29 µg/spot, respectively. The developed approach was successfully applied for the determination of FAV in biological (i.e., human urine and plasma) and pharmaceutical samples. The results obtained using the proposed methodology were compared to those obtained using HPLC-UV analysis and found to be in close agreement with one another. Additionally, the green character of the developed method with previously reported protocols was evaluated using the ComplexGAPI, AGREE, and Eco-Scale greenness assessment tools. The proposed method is green in nature and does not require any sophisticated high-end analytical instruments, and it can therefore be routinely applied for the analysis of FAV in various resource-limited laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liquid Phase Microextraction , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Surface-Active Agents , Colorimetry , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Liquid Phase Microextraction/methods , Smartphone , Pandemics , Solvents , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Lipoproteins , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Limit of Detection
6.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(3): 526-590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141212

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex lipoprotein mixture secreted into the alveolar lumen by type 2 pneumocytes, which is composed by tens of different lipids (approximately 90% of its entire mass) and surfactant proteins (approximately 10% of the mass). It is crucially involved in maintaining lung homeostasis by reducing the values of alveolar liquid surface tension close to zero at end-expiration, thereby avoiding the alveolar collapse, and assembling a chemical and physical barrier against inhaled pathogens. A deficient amount of surfactant or its functional inactivation is directly linked to a wide range of lung pathologies, including the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. This paper reviews the main biophysical concepts of surfactant activity and its inactivation mechanisms, and describes the past, present and future roles of surfactant replacement therapy, focusing on the exogenous surfactant preparations marketed worldwide and new formulations under development. The closing section describes the pulmonary surfactant in the context of drug delivery. Thanks to its peculiar composition, biocompatibility, and alveolar spreading capability, the surfactant may work not only as a shuttle to the branched anatomy of the lung for other drugs but also as a modulator for their release, leading to innovative therapeutic avenues for the treatment of several respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Surfactants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
7.
Biomed J ; 45(4): 615-628, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060465

ABSTRACT

The lives of thousands premature babies have been saved along the last thirty years thanks to the establishment and consolidation of pulmonary surfactant replacement therapies (SRT). It took some time to close the gap between the identification of the biophysical and molecular causes of the high mortality associated with respiratory distress syndrome in very premature babies and the development of a proper therapy. Closing the gap required the elucidation of some key questions defining the structure-function relationships in surfactant as well as the particular role of the different molecular components assembled into the surfactant system. On the other hand, the application of SRT as part of treatments targeting other devastating respiratory pathologies, in babies and adults, is depending on further extensive research still required before enough amounts of good humanized clinical surfactants will be available. This review summarizes our current concepts on the compositional and structural determinants defining pulmonary surfactant activity, the principles behind the development of efficient natural animal-derived or recombinant or synthetic therapeutic surfactants, as well as a the most promising lines of research that are already opening new perspectives in the application of tailored surfactant therapies to treat important yet unresolved respiratory pathologies.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Surfactants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemistry , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use
8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(35): 8359-8364, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016523

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant has been attempted as a supportive therapy to treat COVID-19. Although it is mechanistically accepted that the fusion peptide in the S2 subunit of the S protein plays a predominant role in mediating viral fusion with the host cell membrane, it is still unknown how the S2 subunit interacts with the natural surfactant film. Using combined bio-physicochemical assays and atomic force microscopy imaging, it was found that the S2 subunit inhibited the biophysical properties of the surfactant and induced microdomain fusion in the surfactant monolayer. The surfactant inhibition has been attributed to membrane fluidization caused by insertion of the S2 subunit mediated by its fusion peptide. These findings may provide novel insight into the understanding of bio-physicochemical mechanisms responsible for surfactant interactions with SARS-CoV-2 and may have translational implications in the further development of surfactant replacement therapy for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents
9.
J Vis Exp ; (182)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911780

ABSTRACT

In the lung, the alveolar epithelium is a physical barrier from environmental stimuli and plays an essential role in homeostasis and disease. Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AT2s) are the facultative progenitors of the distal lung epithelium. Dysfunction and injury of AT2s can result from and contribute to various lung diseases. Improved understanding of AT2 biology is, thus, critical for understanding lung biology and disease; however, primary human AT2s are generally difficult to isolate and limited in supply. To overcome these limitations, human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (iAT2s) can be generated through a directed differentiation protocol that recapitulates in vivo lung development. iAT2s grow in feeder-free conditions, share a transcriptomic program with human adult primary AT2s, and execute key functions of AT2s such as production, packaging, and secretion of surfactant. This protocol details the methods for maintaining self-renewing iAT2s through serial passaging in three-dimensional (3D) culture or adapting iAT2s to air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. A single-cell suspension of iAT2s is generated before plating in 3D solubilized basement membrane matrix (hereafter referred to as "matrix"), where they self-assemble into monolayered epithelial spheres. iAT2s in 3D culture can be serially dissociated into single-cell suspensions to be passaged or plated in 2D ALI culture. In ALI culture, iAT2s form a polarized monolayer with the apical surface exposed to air, making this platform readily amenable to environmental exposures. Hence, this protocol generates an inexhaustible supply of iAT2s, producing upwards of 1 x 1030 cells per input cell over 15 passages while maintaining the AT2 program indicated by SFTPCtdTomato expression. The resulting cells represent a reproducible and relevant platform that can be applied to study genetic mutations, model environmental exposures, or screen drugs.


Subject(s)
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pulmonary Surfactants , Adult , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Cell Differentiation , Epithelium , Humans
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4040, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908245

ABSTRACT

To provide novel data on surfactant levels in adult COVID-19 patients, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid less than 72 h after intubation and used Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to measure levels of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). A total of eleven COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS (CARDS) and 15 healthy controls were included. CARDS patients had lower DPPC levels than healthy controls. Moreover, a principal component analysis was able to separate patient groups into distinguishable subgroups. Our findings indicate markedly impaired pulmonary surfactant levels in COVID-19 patients, justifying further studies and clinical trials of exogenous surfactant.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Surfactants/analysis , 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/analysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Principal Component Analysis , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spectrophotometry, Infrared/methods
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855354

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant constitutes an important barrier that pathogens must cross to gain access to the rest of the organism via the respiratory surface. The presence of pulmonary surfactant prevents the dissemination of pathogens, modulates immune responses, and optimizes lung biophysical activity. Thus, the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of respiratory diseases provides an effective strategy. Currently, several clinical trials are investigating the use of surfactant preparations to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some factors have been considered in the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment COVID-19, such as mechanical ventilation strategy, timing of treatment, dose delivered, method of delivery, and preparation utilized. This review supplements this list with two additional factors: accurate measurement of surfactants in patients and proper selection of pulmonary surfactant components. This review provides a reference for ongoing exogenous surfactant trials involving patients with COVID-19 and provides insight for the development of surfactant preparations for the treatment of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pulmonary Surfactants , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1867(6): 159139, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719329

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins, consisting of 90% phospholipid, and 10% protein by weight, found predominantly in pulmonary alveoli of vertebrate lungs. Two minor components of pulmonary surfactant phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), are present within the alveoli at very high concentrations, and exert anti-inflammatory effects by regulating multiple Toll like receptors (TLR2/1, TLR4, and TLR2/6) by antagonizing cognate ligand-dependent activation. POPG also attenuates LPS-induced lung injury in vivo. In addition, these lipids bind directly to RSV and influenza A viruses (IAVs) and block interaction between host cells and virions, and thereby prevent viral replication in vitro. POPG and PI also inhibit RSV and IAV infection in vivo, in mice and ferrets. The lipids markedly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These findings suggest that both POPG and PI have strong potential to be applied as both prophylaxis and post-infection treatments for problematic respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pulmonary Surfactants , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ferrets/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Mice , Phospholipids/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 2
13.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580995

ABSTRACT

The lamellar body (LB) of the alveolar type II (ATII) cell is a lysosome-related organelle (LRO) that contains surfactant, a complex mix of mainly lipids and specific surfactant proteins. The major function of surfactant in the lung is the reduction of surface tension and stabilization of alveoli during respiration. Its lack or deficiency may cause various forms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Surfactant is also part of the innate immune system in the lung, defending the organism against air-borne pathogens. The limiting (organelle) membrane that encloses the LB contains various transporters that are in part responsible for translocating lipids and other organic material into the LB. On the other hand, this membrane contains ion transporters and channels that maintain a specific internal ion composition including the acidic pH of about 5. Furthermore, P2X4 receptors, ligand gated ion channels of the danger signal ATP, are expressed in the limiting LB membrane. They play a role in boosting surfactant secretion and fluid clearance. In this review, we discuss the functions of these transporting pathways of the LB, including possible roles in disease and as therapeutic targets, including viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Lamellar Bodies/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Organelles/metabolism , Organelles/virology , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(22): 2559-2573, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541262

ABSTRACT

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key participant in, and a clinical target for, the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therapeutic inhibition of GM-CSF signalling using monoclonal antibodies to the α-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor (GMCSFRα) has shown clear benefit in patients with RA, giant cell arteritis (GCAs) and some efficacy in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare lung disease characterised by alveolar macrophage (AM) dysfunction and the accumulation of surfactant lipids. We assessed how the anti-GMCSFRα approach might impact surfactant turnover in the airway. Female C57BL/6J mice received a mouse-GMCSFRα blocking antibody (CAM-3003) twice per week for up to 24 weeks. A parallel, comparator cohort of the mouse PAP model, GM-CSF receptor ß subunit (GMCSFRß) knock-out (KO), was maintained up to 16 weeks. We assessed lung tissue histopathology alongside lung phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism using stable isotope lipidomics. GMCSFRß KO mice reproduced the histopathological and biochemical features of PAP, accumulating surfactant PC in both broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lavaged lung tissue. The incorporation pattern of methyl-D9-choline showed impaired catabolism and not enhanced synthesis. In contrast, chronic supra-pharmacological CAM-3003 exposure (100 mg/kg) over 24 weeks did not elicit a histopathological PAP phenotype despite some changes in lung PC catabolism. Lack of significant impairment of AM catabolic function supports clinical observations that therapeutic antibodies to this pathway have not been associated with PAP in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/immunology , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Autoantibodies/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/immunology , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/chemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phenotype , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surface-Active Agents
16.
J Control Release ; 342: 170-188, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521253

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has wielded an enormous pressure on global health care systems, economics and politics. Ongoing vaccination campaigns effectively attenuate viral spreading, leading to a reduction of infected individuals, hospitalizations and mortality. Nevertheless, the development of safe and effective vaccines as well as their global deployment is time-consuming and challenging. In addition, such preventive measures have no effect on already infected individuals and can show reduced efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants that escape vaccine-induced host immune responses. Therefore, it is crucial to continue the development of specific COVID-19 targeting therapeutics, including small molecular drugs, antibodies and nucleic acids. However, despite clear advantages of local drug delivery to the lung, inhalation therapy of such antivirals remains difficult. This review aims to highlight the potential of pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of COVID-19. Since SARS-CoV-2 infection can progress to COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS), which is associated with PS deficiency and inflammation, replacement therapy with exogenous surfactant can be considered to counter lung dysfunction. In addition, due to its surface-active properties and membrane-interacting potential, PS can be repurposed to enhance drug spreading along the respiratory epithelium and to promote intracellular drug delivery. By merging these beneficial features, PS can be regarded as a versatile biomaterial to combat respiratory infections, in particular COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 730022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468343

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex and highly surface-active material. It covers the alveolar epithelium and consists of 90% lipids and 10% proteins. Pulmonary surfactant lipids together with pulmonary surfactant proteins facilitate breathing by reducing surface tension of the air-water interface within the lungs, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and the mechanical work required to breathe. Moreover, pulmonary surfactant lipids, such as phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol, and pulmonary surfactant proteins, such as surfactant protein A and D, participate in the pulmonary host defense and modify immune responses. Emerging data have shown that pulmonary surfactant lipids modulate the inflammatory response and antiviral effects in some respiratory viral infections, and pulmonary surfactant lipids have shown promise for therapeutic applications in some respiratory viral infections. Here, we briefly review the composition, antiviral properties, and potential therapeutic applications of pulmonary surfactant lipids in respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lipids/therapeutic use , Lung/drug effects , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lipids/adverse effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pulmonary Surfactants/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408530

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to SARS-CoV-2 infection has some unusual characteristics that differentiate it from the pathophysiology described in the more 'typical' ARDS. Among multiple hypotheses, a close similarity has been suggested between COVID-19 ARDS and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). With this opinion paper, we investigated the pathophysiological similarities between infant respiratory diseases (RDS and direct neonatal ARDS (NARDS)) and COVID-19 in adults. We also analysed, for the first time, similarities in the response to exogenous surfactant administration in terms of improved static compliance in RDS and direct NARDS, and adult COVID-19 ARDS. In conclusion, we believe that if the pathological processes are similar both from the pathophysiological point of view and from the response in respiratory mechanics to a recruitment treatment such as surfactant, perhaps the latter could be considered a plausible option and lead to recruitment in clinical trials currently ongoing on patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 109976, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386300

ABSTRACT

Several attempts to control the dreadfulness of SARS-CoV-2 are still underway. Based on the literature evidences we have speculated a prospective contemporary remedy, which was categorized into Specificity, Remedy, and a Conveyor. In which, pros and cons were discussed and inferred the possible alternatives. (a) Specificity: Implicit to express the ACE2 receptors in conveyor cells to deceive SARS-CoV-2 frompreponetargets. (b) Remedy: As depletion of pulmonary surfactants causes strong acute respiratory distress syndrome, we propose an entity of a cost-effective artificialsurfactantsystem as a remedy to pulmonary complications. (c) Conveyor: We propose red blood cells (RBCs) as a conveyor with embedded artificial surfactant and protruding ACE2 receptors for the target-specific delivery. Overall we postulate focused insights by employing a combinational contemporary strategy to steer towards a prospective direction on combating SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Erythrocytes , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Receptors, Virus/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Costs , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Pulmonary Alveoli/drug effects , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Pulmonary Surfactants/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Surfactants/chemical synthesis , Pulmonary Surfactants/economics , Receptors, Virus/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
20.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108426, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385285
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