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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(11)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807764

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection causes collapse of glomerular capillaries and loss of podocytes, culminating in a severe kidney disease called COVID-19-associated nephropathy (COVAN). The underlying mechanism of COVAN is unknown. We hypothesized that cytokines induced by COVID-19 trigger expression of pathogenic APOL1 via JAK/STAT signaling, resulting in podocyte loss and COVAN phenotype. Here, based on 9 biopsy-proven COVAN cases, we demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that APOL1 protein was abundantly expressed in podocytes and glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) of COVAN kidneys but not in controls. Moreover, a majority of patients with COVAN carried 2 APOL1 risk alleles. We show that recombinant cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 acted synergistically to drive APOL1 expression through the JAK/STAT pathway in primary human podocytes, GECs, and kidney micro-organoids derived from a carrier of 2 APOL1 risk alleles, but expression was blocked by a JAK1/2 inhibitor, baricitinib. We demonstrate that cytokine-induced JAK/STAT/APOL1 signaling reduced the viability of kidney organoid podocytes but was rescued by baricitinib. Together, our results support the conclusion that COVID-19-induced cytokines are sufficient to drive COVAN-associated podocytopathy via JAK/STAT/APOL1 signaling and that JAK inhibitors could block this pathogenic process. These findings suggest JAK inhibitors may have therapeutic benefits for managing cytokine-induced, APOL1-mediated podocytopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Kidney Diseases , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/virology , Organoids/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(3): 711-726, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616202

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic has emerged as one of the significant medical-health challenges of the current century. The World Health Organization has named this new virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the first detection of SARS-CoV-2 in November 2019 in Wuhan, China, physicians, researchers, and others have made it their top priority to find drugs and cures that can effectively treat patients and reduce mortality rates. The symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) include fever, dry cough, body aches, and anosmia. Various therapeutic compounds have been investigated and applied to mitigate the symptoms in COVID-19 patients and cure the disease. Degenerative virus analyses of the infection incidence and COVID-19 have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the pulmonary alveoli's endothelial cells through Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the membrane, stimulates various signaling pathways and causes excessive secretion of cytokines. The continuous triggering of the innate and acquired immune system, as well as the overproduction of pro-inflammatory factors, cause a severe condition in the COVID-19 patients, which is called "cytokine storm". It can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critical patients. Severe and critical COVID-19 cases demand oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilator support. Various drugs, including immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents (e.g., monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and interleukin antagonists) have been utilized in clinical trials. However, the studies and clinical trials have documented diverging findings, which seem to be due to the differences in these drugs' possible mechanisms of action. These drugs' mechanism of action generally includes suppressing or modulating the immune system, preventing the development of cytokine storm via various signaling pathways, and enhancing the blood vessels' diameter in the lungs. In this review article, multiple medications from different drug families are discussed, and their possible mechanisms of action are also described.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , /pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/immunology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/etiology , Dexamethasone/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Famotidine/immunology , Famotidine/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/immunology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Infliximab/immunology , Infliximab/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Melatonin/immunology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Purines/immunology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/immunology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
3.
Sci Adv ; 7(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388432

ABSTRACT

Using AI, we identified baricitinib as having antiviral and anticytokine efficacy. We now show a 71% (95% CI 0.15 to 0.58) mortality benefit in 83 patients with moderate-severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with few drug-induced adverse events, including a large elderly cohort (median age, 81 years). An additional 48 cases with mild-moderate pneumonia recovered uneventfully. Using organotypic 3D cultures of primary human liver cells, we demonstrate that interferon-α2 increases ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in parenchymal cells by greater than fivefold. RNA-seq reveals gene response signatures associated with platelet activation, fully inhibited by baricitinib. Using viral load quantifications and superresolution microscopy, we found that baricitinib exerts activity rapidly through the inhibition of host proteins (numb-associated kinases), uniquely among antivirals. This reveals mechanistic actions of a Janus kinase-1/2 inhibitor targeting viral entry, replication, and the cytokine storm and is associated with beneficial outcomes including in severely ill elderly patients, data that incentivize further randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/metabolism , Italy , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Platelet Activation , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA-Seq , Spain , Virus Internalization/drug effects
4.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(9): e10426, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355289

ABSTRACT

Although 15-20% of COVID-19 patients experience hyper-inflammation induced by massive cytokine production, cellular triggers of this process and strategies to target them remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein substantially induces multiple inflammatory molecules in myeloid cells and human PBMCs. Using a combination of phenotypic screening with machine learning-based modeling, we identified and experimentally validated several protein kinases, including JAK1, EPHA7, IRAK1, MAPK12, and MAP3K8, as essential downstream mediators of NTD-induced cytokine production, implicating the role of multiple signaling pathways in cytokine release. Further, we found several FDA-approved drugs, including ponatinib, and cobimetinib as potent inhibitors of the NTD-mediated cytokine release. Treatment with ponatinib outperforms other drugs, including dexamethasone and baricitinib, inhibiting all cytokines in response to the NTD from SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated cytokine release in myeloid cells in vitro and lung inflammation mouse model. Together, we propose that agents targeting multiple kinases required for SARS-CoV-2-mediated cytokine release, such as ponatinib, may represent an attractive therapeutic option for treating moderate to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Animals , Azetidines/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Machine Learning , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutrophils/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridazines/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 224: 113683, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293756

ABSTRACT

The worldwide circulation of different viruses coupled with the increased frequency and diversity of new outbreaks, strongly highlight the need for new antiviral drugs to quickly react against potential pandemic pathogens. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs) represent the ideal option for a prompt response against multiple viruses, new and re-emerging. Starting from previously identified anti-flavivirus hits, we report herein the identification of promising BSAAs by submitting the multi-target 2,6-diaminopurine chemotype to a system-oriented optimization based on phenotypic screening on cell cultures infected with different viruses. Among the synthesized compounds, 6i showed low micromolar potency against Dengue, Zika, West Nile and Influenza A viruses (IC50 = 0.5-5.3 µM) with high selectivity index. Interestingly, 6i also inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in different cell lines, with higher potency on Calu-3 cells that better mimic the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo (IC50 = 0.5 µM, SI = 240). The multi-target effect of 6i on flavivirus replication was also analyzed in whole cell studies (in vitro selection and immunofluorescence) and against isolated host/viral targets.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Flavivirus/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Purines/chemistry , Purines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Biochem J ; 478(13): 2481-2497, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289949

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented itself as one of the most critical public health challenges of the century, with SARS-CoV-2 being the third member of the Coronaviridae family to cause a fatal disease in humans. There is currently only one antiviral compound, remdesivir, that can be used for the treatment of COVID-19. To identify additional potential therapeutics, we investigated the enzymatic proteins encoded in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. In this study, we focussed on the viral RNA cap methyltransferases, which play key roles in enabling viral protein translation and facilitating viral escape from the immune system. We expressed and purified both the guanine-N7 methyltransferase nsp14, and the nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase with its activating cofactor, nsp10. We performed an in vitro high-throughput screen for inhibitors of nsp14 using a custom compound library of over 5000 pharmaceutical compounds that have previously been characterised in either clinical or basic research. We identified four compounds as potential inhibitors of nsp14, all of which also showed antiviral capacity in a cell-based model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Three of the four compounds also exhibited synergistic effects on viral replication with remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Caps/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorobenzenes/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Assays , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/isolation & purification , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Indazoles/pharmacology , Indenes/pharmacology , Indoles/pharmacology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/isolation & purification , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nitriles/pharmacology , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Substrate Specificity , Trifluperidol/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/isolation & purification , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism
7.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(10): 1274-1285, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192122

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib is a JAK1/2 inhibitor that was first approved for treating moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but that later showed considerable efficacy in the control of exaggerated inflammatory responses that occur in a wide range of diseases. There is a growing body of evidence, obtained from clinical trials and case reports, demonstrating clinical and paraclinical improvement in patients following administration of baricitinib including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, interferon-mediated autoinflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease, diabetic kidney disease, and, recently, coronavirus disease-19. However, despite overall encouraging results, many adverse effects have been observed in baricitinib-treated patients, ranging from simple infections to increased risk of malignancies, particularly in long-term use. The significant efficacy of baricitinib, versus the probable adverse effects, urge further investigation before establishing it as a part of standard therapeutic protocols. Here, we have provided a review of the studies that have used baricitinib for treating various inflammatory disorders and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of its administration.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Azetidines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/drug therapy , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2512, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054059

ABSTRACT

Whenever some phenomenon can be represented as a graph or a network it seems pertinent to explore how much the mathematical properties of that network impact the phenomenon. In this study we explore the same philosophy in the context of immunology. Our objective was to assess the correlation of "size" (number of edges and minimum vertex cover) of the JAK/STAT network with treatment effect in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), phenotype of viral infection and effect of immunosuppressive agents on a system infected with the coronavirus. We extracted the JAK/STAT pathway from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, hsa04630). The effects of the following drugs, and their combinations, commonly used in RA were tested: methotrexate, prednisolone, rituximab, tocilizumab, tofacitinib and baricitinib. Following viral systems were also tested for their ability to evade the JAK/STAT pathway: Measles, Influenza A, West Nile virus, Japanese B virus, Yellow Fever virus, respiratory syncytial virus, Kaposi's sarcoma virus, Hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus, Hendra and Nipah virus and Coronavirus. Good correlation of edges and minimum vertex cover with clinical efficacy were observed (for edge, rho = - 0.815, R2 = 0.676, p = 0.007, for vertex cover rho = - 0.793, R2 = 0.635, p = 0.011). In the viral systems both edges and vertex cover were associated with acuteness of viral infections. In the JAK/STAT system already infected with coronavirus, maximum reduction in size was achieved with baricitinib. To conclude, algebraic and combinatorial invariant of a network may explain its biological behaviour. At least theoretically, baricitinib may be an attractive target for treatment of coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Janus Kinases/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Azetidines/pharmacology , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Janus Kinases/genetics , Methotrexate/pharmacology , Models, Statistical , Piperidines/pharmacology , Prednisolone/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , STAT Transcription Factors/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030457

ABSTRACT

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/pharmacology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(2): 471-478, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006383

ABSTRACT

A series of 7-deazaadenine ribonucleosides bearing alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, or hetaryl groups at position 7 as well as their 5'-O-triphosphates and two types of monophosphate prodrugs (phosphoramidates and S-acylthioethanol esters) were prepared and tested for antiviral activity against selected RNA viruses (Dengue, Zika, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, and SARS-CoV-2). The modified triphosphates inhibited the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases at micromolar concentrations through the incorporation of the modified nucleotide and stopping a further extension of the RNA chain. 7-Deazaadenosine nucleosides bearing ethynyl or small hetaryl groups at position 7 showed (sub)micromolar antiviral activities but significant cytotoxicity, whereas the nucleosides bearing bulkier heterocycles were still active but less toxic. Unexpectedly, the monophosphate prodrugs were similarly or less active than the corresponding nucleosides in the in vitro antiviral assays, although the bis(S-acylthioethanol) prodrug 14h was transported to the Huh7 cells and efficiently released the nucleoside monophosphate.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Ribonucleosides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/drug effects , Humans , Phosphates/pharmacology , Purine Nucleosides , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , West Nile virus/drug effects , Zika Virus/drug effects
12.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 316-329, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922935

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by systemic hyper-inflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Cytokine storm refers to a set of clinical conditions caused by excessive immune reactions and has been recognized as a leading cause of severe COVID-19. While comparisons have been made between COVID-19 cytokine storm and other kinds of cytokine storm such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cytokine release syndrome, the pathogenesis of cytokine storm has not been clearly elucidated yet. Recent studies have shown that impaired response of type-1 IFNs in early stage of COVID-19 infection played a major role in the development of cytokine storm, and various cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1 were involved in severe COVID-19. Furthermore, many clinical evidences have indicated the importance of anti-inflammatory therapy in severe COVID-19. Several approaches are currently being used to treat the observed cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, and expectations are especially high for new cytokine-targeted therapies, such as tocilizumab, anakinra, and baricitinib. Although a number of studies have been conducted on anti-inflammatory treatments for severe COVID-19, no specific recommendations have been made on which drugs should be used for which patients and when. In this review, we provide an overview of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and treatments currently being used to address it. In addition, we discuss the potential therapeutic role of extracorporeal cytokine removal to treat the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/pharmacology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , STAT Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
13.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(6): 704-723, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922755

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-Cov-2 has posed a severe threat to the whole world with its highly infectious, progressive nature with up to 10% mortality rates. The severity of the situation faced by the whole world and the lack of efficient therapeutics to treat this viral disease have led the WHO to depend on the drug-repurposing approach to tackle this major global health problem. This review aims at highlighting the various synthetic approaches employed for the synthesis of these FDA approved drugs that have been presently used for COVID-19 treatment. Additionally, a brief overview of several therapeutic strategies is also presented. This review will encourage the scientific community across the globe to come up with better and efficient synthetic protocols and also novel chemical entities along with this core with more potent activity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/chemical synthesis , Azetidines/chemistry , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/methods , Humans , Nitriles , Purines/chemical synthesis , Purines/chemistry , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/chemical synthesis , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sulfonamides/chemical synthesis , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10100, 2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832425

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses are responsible for a large variety of animal infections. Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus member of the family Arteriviridae from the order Nidovirales like the Coronaviridae. EAV causes respiratory and reproductive diseases in equids. Although two vaccines are available, the vaccination coverage of the equine population is largely insufficient to prevent new EAV outbreaks around the world. In this study, we present a high-throughput in vitro assay suitable for testing candidate antiviral molecules on equine dermal cells infected by EAV. Using this assay, we identified three molecules that impair EAV infection in equine cells: the broad-spectrum antiviral and nucleoside analog ribavirin, and two compounds previously described as inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the fourth enzyme of the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway. These molecules effectively suppressed cytopathic effects associated to EAV infection, and strongly inhibited viral replication and production of infectious particles. Since ribavirin is already approved in human and small animal, and that several DHODH inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials, our results open new perspectives for the management of EAV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Arterivirus Infections/drug therapy , Equartevirus/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arterivirus Infections/veterinary , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses/genetics , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/metabolism , Purines/antagonists & inhibitors , Purines/biosynthesis , Purines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/biosynthesis , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , RNA/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2094, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789288

ABSTRACT

The spread of the novel human respiratory coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is a global public health emergency. There is no known successful treatment as of this time, and there is a need for medical options to mitigate this current epidemic. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and is primarily trophic for the lower and upper respiratory tract. A number of current studies on COVID-19 have demonstrated the substantial increase in pro-inflammatory factors in the lungs during infection. The virus is also documented in the central nervous system and, particularly in the brainstem, which plays a key role in respiratory and cardiovascular function. Currently, there are few antiviral approaches, and several alternative drugs are under investigation. Two of these are Idelalisib and Ebastine, already proposed as preventive strategies in airways and allergic diseases. The interesting and evolving potential of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) inhibitors, together with Ebastine, lies in their ability to suppress the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α, by T cells. This may represent an optional therapeutic choice for COVID-19 to reduce inflammatory reactions and mortality, enabling patients to recover faster. This concise communication aims to provide new potential therapeutic targets capable of mitigating and alleviating SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Butyrophenones/pharmacology , Butyrophenones/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Piperidines/pharmacology , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Quinazolinones/pharmacology , Quinazolinones/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 21(2): 219-228, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735642

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that was first isolated from a group of patients hospitalized with pneumonia in China at the end of 2019, and, in February 2020, the syndrome it caused was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization. In the absence of specific antiviral treatments capable of neutralizing the etiological agent, one therapeutic approach is to control the cytokine storm responsible for the most severe forms of the disease. The characteristic cytokine profile of severely affected patients is increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). AREAS COVERED: This article discusses the pathogenesis of COVID-19 as a rationale for using the biological and targeted synthetic drugs used in rheumatology (anti-TNF, anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 agents and baricitinib) to treat the disease, and provides key information concerning their potential benefits and adverse effects. EXPERT OPINION: Interleukin inhibition seems to be a promising means of treating COVID-19 patients when respiratory function declines (or even earlier) if there are laboratory data indicating the presence of a cytokine storm because the interleukins are key drivers of inflammation. However, it is important to consider the risks and benefits of biological agents carefully, and critically analyze the evidence concerning their use in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Rheumatology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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