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2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769851

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired haemorrhagic diathesis of immune-mediated destruction, impaired production or increased splenic sequestration of platelets. It can be idiopathic (primary) or secondary (infections, medications, HIV infection, malignancies, connective tissue diseases or rarely secondary to vaccination). ITP postvaccination is termed vaccine-associated ITP (VITP) and is known to be caused by vaccines against various infectious agents such as measles-mumps-rubella, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus. Cases of VITP post SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have also been reported in the literature. Various hypotheses on the occurrence of the same are theorised, but no single theory has been proven to cause VITP conclusively. Management includes routine treatment of ITP with use of agents such as steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, or on rare occasions a thrombopoietic agent or vinca alkaloids. We present a case of VITP possibly due to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Covishield) vaccination in a middle-aged woman who responded to steroid therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Mumps Vaccine , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e75, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742199

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. VITT strongly mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and shares clinical features. Heparin is commonly used to prevent coagulation during hemodialysis. Therefore, nephrologists might encounter patients needing dialysis with a history of heparin exposure who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenia after vaccination. A 70-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury and altered mental status due to lithium intoxication. He needed consecutive hemodialysis using heparin. Deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity and accompanying severe thrombocytopenia of 15,000/µL on 24 days after vaccination and at the same time, nine days after heparin use. Anti-platelet factor 4 antibody test was positive. Anticoagulation with apixaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion resolved swelling of his left calf and thrombocytopenia. There were no definitive diagnostic tools capable of differentiating between VITT and HIT in this patient. Although VITT and HIT share treatment with IVIG and non-heparin anticoagulation, distinguishing between VITT and HIT will make it possible to establish a follow-up vaccination plan in a person who has had a thrombocytopenic thrombotic event. Further research is needed to develop the tools to make a clear distinction between the clinical syndromes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lithium/toxicity , Male , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/methods , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
5.
Blood Adv ; 6(6): 1637-1644, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741920

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder that is characterized by low platelet count and increased bleeding risk. COVID-19 vaccination has been described as a risk factor for de novo ITP, but the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP on platelet count, bleeding complications, and ITP exacerbation (≥50% decline in platelet count, or nadir platelet count < 30 × 109/L with a >20% decrease from baseline, or use of rescue therapy). Platelet counts in patients with ITP and healthy controls were collected immediately before and 1 and 4 weeks after the first and second vaccinations. Linear mixed-effects modeling was applied to analyze platelet counts over time. We included 218 patients with ITP (50.9% female; mean age, 55 years; and median platelet count, 106 × 109/L) and 200 healthy controls (60.0% female; mean age, 58 years; median platelet count, 256 × 109/L). Platelet counts decreased by 6.3% after vaccination. We did not observe any difference in decrease between the groups. Thirty patients with ITP (13.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5-19.1) had an exacerbation and 5 (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.7-5.3) suffered from a bleeding event. Risk factors for ITP exacerbation were platelet count < 50 × 109/L (odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.7), ITP treatment at time of vaccination (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-8.0), and age (OR, 0.96 per year; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Our study highlights the safety of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP and the importance of the close monitoring of platelet counts in a subgroup of patients with ITP. Patients with ITP with exacerbation responded well on therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Blood ; 139(10): 1437-1438, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1738719
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736952

ABSTRACT

This article collects several published cases in which immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is followed by essential thrombocythemia (ET) and vice versa. This surprising clinical condition is possible, but very rare and difficult to diagnose and manage. We have made an attempt to analyse the possible causes of the sequential appearance of ITP and ET taking into consideration the following: alteration of the thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor, the role of autoimmunity and inflammation, and cytokine modulation. A better understanding of these interactions may provide opportunities to determine predisposing factors and aid in finding new treatment modalities both for ITP and ET patients.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/metabolism , Thrombocythemia, Essential/metabolism , Autoantigens/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Iodide Peroxidase/metabolism , Iron-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/genetics , Thrombocythemia, Essential/genetics
8.
Blood ; 139(10): 1564-1574, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736325

ABSTRACT

Cases of de novo immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), including a fatality, following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in previously healthy recipients led to studying its impact in preexisting ITP. In this study, 4 data sources were analyzed: the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for cases of de novo ITP; a 10-center retrospective study of adults with preexisting ITP receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccination; and surveys distributed by the Platelet Disorder Support Association (PDSA) and the United Kingdom (UK) ITP Support Association. Seventy-seven de novo ITP cases were identified in VAERS, presenting with median platelet count of 3 [1-9] ×109/L approximately 1 week postvaccination. Of 28 patients with available data, 26 responded to treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and/or platelet transfusions. Among 117 patients with preexisting ITP who received a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, 19 experienced an ITP exacerbation (any of: ≥50% decline in platelet count, nadir platelet count <30 × 109/L with >20% decrease from baseline, and/or use of rescue therapy) following the first dose and 14 of 70 after a second dose. Splenectomized persons and those who received 5 or more prior lines of therapy were at highest risk of ITP exacerbation. Fifteen patients received and responded to rescue treatment. In surveys of both 57 PDSA and 43 UK patients with ITP, prior splenectomy was associated with worsened thrombocytopenia. ITP may worsen in preexisting ITP or be identified de novo post-SARS-CoV2 vaccination; both situations responded well to treatment. Proactive monitoring of patients with known ITP, especially those postsplenectomy and with more refractory disease, is indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Platelets/immunology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Splenectomy , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2036556, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730546

ABSTRACT

We report a case of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) in a 73-year-old gentleman who presented with pulmonary embolism and thrombocytopenia, two weeks after receiving inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. He responded well to nonheparin anticoagulation with complete resolution of symptoms and platelet count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccines/adverse effects
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 270-277, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631285

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare new syndrome occurring after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine immunization. Patients with VITT are characterized by a variable clinical presentation, likewise also the outcome of these patients is very variable. Here we report the lung ultrastructural findings in the course of VITT of a 58-year-old male patient. Alveoli were mainly dilated, irregular in shape, and occupied by a reticular network of fibrin, while interalveolar septa appeared thickened. The proliferation of small capillaries gave rise to plexiform structures and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis-like features. Near the alveoli occupied by a dense fibrin network, the medium-sized arteries showed a modified wall and an intraluminal thrombus. This scenario looks quite similar to that found during COVID-19, where the lungs suffer from the attack of the antigen-antibodies complexes and the virus respectively. In both diseases, the final outcome is a severe inflammation, activation of the haemostatic system and fibrinolysis.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Lung Injury/etiology , Lung Injury/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fibrin , Humans , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung Injury/immunology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology
15.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(12): 1688-1693, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622835

ABSTRACT

A 95-year-old male developed general subcutaneous petechiae, tongue hematoma, and melena two days after receiving the second BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Two days later, his platelet count decreased to below 1,000/µl. Laboratory testing was positive for a slight increase in D-dimer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin IgG antibody levels. There were no severe infections or symptomatic thrombosis. Platelet transfusions were transiently effective. He was diagnosed with newly developed immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We administered prednisolone (PSL) at 0.5 mg/kg/day and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) at 0.4 g/kg/day. From the following day, his platelet count rapidly increased, with an improvement in bleeding tendency. H. pylori was eradicated after platelet count recovery. Thrombocytopenia did not relapse although PSL was tapered three months later. Causes of thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination include ITP, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Differential diagnosis is important to determine the proper therapy. Case reports of newly diagnosed ITP after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have been increasing recently. In these cases, including ours, the responses to steroids and IVIG were good. Further follow-up studies are needed to manage thrombocytopenia following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(2): 157-166, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia, also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), has emerged as a significant COVID-19-associated complication. This study analyzes the published literature of case reports and case series regarding COVID-19 infection associated with ITP. METHODOLOGY: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a systematic search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline through Clarivate and EBSCO to include the eligible studies. The authors utilized Review Manager 5.4 to conduct quantitative data synthesis for the condition of interest analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 eligible case reports and case series with 42 patients were included in this study; 54.8% of them were male. The pooled mean age of all participants was (59.5 ± 19) years with a median age of 63 years. The estimated mean time from diagnosis with COVID-19 to ITP development was 18.1 ± 21 days and the mean time to recovery from ITP was 5.8 ± 4.8 days. The pooled random effect of mean platelet count in the included six studies was 14.52, CI [8.79, 20.25]. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that ITP secondary to COVID-19 infection is slightly more prevalent among males (54.8%). Elderly patients were more vulnerable to the disease.    Most cases developed ITP within 2-3 weeks after COVID-19 infection and recovered in less than one week from ITP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30084, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573820

ABSTRACT

We report the occurrence of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in a 77-year-old man a few days after receiving the first dose of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine tozinameran (Comirnaty®). The patient was treated with systemic corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and eltrombopag. He elected to proceed with the second dose of tozinameran 14 weeks after the first and his platelet count remained stable under a tapered eltrombopag dose. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a second tozinameran dose has been administered to a patient who developed presumed secondary ITP after the first vaccination. We also report global pharmacovigilance data for the occurrence of ITP after vaccination with tozinameran.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
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