Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 36
Filter
1.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 122, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura is a condition associated with an unusual, unexplained, and sometimes very severe reduction in the level of platelets in the blood. Though documented, its association with Graves' disease is not very common and can easily be missed or misdiagnosed, leading to excessive bleeding and mortality. Treatment with steroids and antithyroid medications has been shown to be beneficial in correcting thrombocytopenia in these patients, although the response is varied. We report on a patient with Graves' disease who presents with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old Ghanaian female presented to our hospital's emergency department with a complaint of palpitations, difficulty breathing, easy fatigue, and headaches. She had been referred from a peripheral hospital as a case of thrombocytopenia, severe anemia, and anterior neck swelling. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease 2 years ago, became euthyroid during treatment, but defaulted. On further examination and investigation, she was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and was also found to have elevated free T3 and T4, and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone. She also had high thyroid autoantibodies. She was initially started on oral prednisolone but there was no stabilization of platelets until methimazole was introduced, which improved and normalized her platelet count. CONCLUSION: The association of Graves' disease with immune thrombocytopenic purpura, though documented, is uncommon, and very few cases have been reported thus far. There have not been any reported cases in Ghana or Sub-Saharan Africa and hence, clinicians should be aware of this association when investigating immune thrombocytopenic purpura and should consider Graves' disease as a possible cause. From this study, we observed that there was no improvement in platelet count following the use of corticosteroid therapy until methimazole was started.


Subject(s)
Graves Disease , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Female , Adult , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Methimazole/therapeutic use , Ghana , Graves Disease/complications , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/complications
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1098665, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269468

ABSTRACT

Platelet factor 4 (PF4), also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4), is a specific protein synthesized from platelet α particles. The combination of PF4 and heparin to form antigenic complexes is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) related to the COVID-19 vaccine makes PF4 a research hotspot again. Similar to HIT, vaccines, bacteria, and other non-heparin exposure, PF4 can interact with negatively charged polyanions to form immune complexes and participate in thrombosis. These anions include cell surface mucopolysaccharides, platelet polyphosphates, DNA from endothelial cells, or von Willebrand factor (VWF). Among them, PF4-VWF, as a new immune complex, may induce and promote the formation of immune-associated thrombosis and is expected to become a new target and therapeutic direction. For both HIT and VITT, there is no effective and targeted treatment except discontinuation of suspected drugs. The research and development of targeted drugs based on the mechanism of action have become an unmet clinical need. Here, this study systematically reviewed the characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of PF4 and VWF, elaborated the potential mechanism of action of PF4-VWF complex in immune-associated thrombosis, summarized the current status of new drug research and development for PF4 and VWF, and discussed the possibility of this complex as a potential biomarker for early immune-associated thrombosis events. Moreover, the key points of basic research and clinical evaluation are put forward in the study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Acceleration , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Immunologic Factors , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 38, 2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura are both causes of thrombocytopenia. Recognizing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is crucial for subsequent treatment and prognosis. In clinical practice, corticosteroids and rituximab can be used to treat both immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; plasma exchange therapy is the first-line treatment in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, while corticosteroids are strongly recommended as first-line treatment in immune thrombocytopenic purpura. The differential diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is essential in clinical practice. However, case reports have suggested that immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura can occur concurrently. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 32-year-old Asian female without previous disease who presented with pancytopenia, concurrent with immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The morphology of the megakaryocytes in the bone marrow indicated immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The patient received glucocorticoid treatment, and her platelet count increased; however, schistocytes remained high during the course of the therapy. Further investigations revealed ADAMTS13 activity deficiency and positive ADAMTS13 antibodies. The high titer of antinuclear antibody and positive anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein/Smith antibody indicated a potential autoimmune disease. However, the patient did not fulfill the current criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus or mixed connective tissue disease. The patient responded well to plasma exchange therapy, and her platelet count remained normal on further follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is rare, but clinicians should be aware of this entity to ensure prompt medical intervention. Most of the reported cases involve young women. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, pregnancy, and autoimmune disease are the most common underlying conditions.


Subject(s)
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Platelet Count , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(1): e30051, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265197

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines rarely cause de novo immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) but may worsen preexisting ITP in adults. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines impact platelet counts and bleeding in children, adolescents, and young adults (C-AYA) with preexisting ITP is unknown. We report here the very limited effect of COVID-19 vaccination on platelet counts and bleeding in a single-center series of 2 C-AYA with ITP. No patient experienced worsening bleeding and only one child had a significant decrease in platelet count which improved spontaneously to her baseline without intervention. SARS-CoV2 vaccination was safe in C-AYA with ITP in this small cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Young Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/etiology , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Vaccination
6.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 81(1): 91-95, 2023 03 15.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224565

ABSTRACT

Evans syndrome (ES) is a rare and chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the concomitant or sequential association of auto-immune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and less frequently autoimmune neutropenia. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may cause various hematologic conditions. COVID-19 may also induce Evans syndrome via immune mechanisms. Here, we describe the case of a patient developing Evans syndrome as initial presentation of Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis
7.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(9): 1233-1241, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056364

ABSTRACT

The levels of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, also known as anti-PF4 or heparin complex antibodies, are used to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In HIT, anti-PF4 antibodies induced by heparin exposure cause thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. However, anti-PF4 antibodies were recently reported to be associated with the development of fatal vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019. HIT and VITT are caused by anti-PF4 antibodies and have similar pathological conditions. However, the severity of these conditions differs and the detection sensitivity of their antibodies varies depending on the assays used. Herein, we review HIT and VITT associated with anti-PF4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Antibodies , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
Haematologica ; 107(9): 2018-2036, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022628

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes our approach to the diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), its secondary forms, and choice of second-line treatment options. We very briefly summarize first-line treatment and then utilize a case-based approach. We first explore persistent, chronic ITP in a younger female. We consider many possibilities beyond primary ITP e.g., hypogammaglobulinemia, chronic infection, and anemia, and how to approach their diagnosis and management. The journey continues throughout pregnancy and the post-partum period and eventually includes fourth-line treatment after a late relapse. We then consider an older male, emphasizing differences in diagnostic considerations and management. The focus is on initiation and continuation of second-line treatment, the pros and cons of each option, and briefly the impact of treatment choices related to the endemic presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. During the review of potential second-line treatment options, we also briefly touch upon novel treatments. Finally, there is a short section on refractory disease drawn from our previous extensive review published in February 2020.1 The clinical nature of the discussions, replete with figures and tables and with the interspersion of pearls regarding efficacy and toxicity at different ages and genders, will serve the reader in the management of "typical" adult patients who develop persistent and chronic ITP.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Splenectomy , Thrombocytopenia/complications
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 271, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925808

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recombinant adenoviral vector vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been observed to be associated with vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. Though vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare complication after vaccination with recombinant adenoviral vector vaccines, it can lead to severe complications. In vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, the vector vaccine induces heparin-independent production of platelet factor 4 autoantibodies, resulting in platelet activation and aggregation. Therefore, patients suffering from vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia particularly present with signs of arterial or venous thrombosis, often at atypical sites, but also signs of bleeding due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe thrombocytopenia. We describe herein a rare case of fulminant portomesenteric thrombosis and atraumatic splenic rupture due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. This case report presents the diagnosis and treatment of a healthy 29-year-old male Caucasian patient suffering from an extended portomesenteric thrombosis associated with atraumatic splenic rupture due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia after the first dose of an adenoviral vector vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222)]. Therapeutic management of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia initially focused on systemic anticoagulation avoiding heparin and the application of steroids and intravenous immune globulins as per the recommendations of international societies of hematology and hemostaseology. Owing to the atraumatic splenic rupture and extended portomesenteric thrombosis, successful management of this case required splenectomy with additional placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt to perform local thrombaspiration, plus repeated local lysis to reconstitute hepatopetal blood flow. CONCLUSION: The complexity and wide spectrum of the clinical picture in patients suffering from vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia demand an early interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Severe cases of portomesenteric thrombosis in vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, refractory to conservative management, may require additional placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, thrombaspiration, thrombolysis, and surgical intervention for effective management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Splenic Rupture , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Adult , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic/adverse effects , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic/methods , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/therapy , Vaccines/adverse effects
11.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 39(1): 111-114, 2022.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884807

ABSTRACT

During acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is persistent deregulation of the immune system that can last up to 8 months after the acute condition is controlled. This, added to other factors, is possibly associated with an increased risk of the appearance and concurrence of autoimmune diseases. The simultaneous occurrence of GBS and ITP has been rarely reported in the literature, and GBS is rarely associated with another autoimmune disease. We present the case of a man who, one month after his recovery from acute moderate COVID-19, presented concurrent GBS and ITP with an adequate response to treatment.


Durante la infección aguda por el SARVS-CoV-2 se produce una desregulación del sistema inmune que puede durar hasta ocho meses después de controlado el cuadro agudo. Esto, sumado a otros factores, posiblemente este asociado con un aumento del riesgo de aparición y concurrencia de enfermedades autoinmunes. La aparición simultanea del síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y púrpura trombocitopénica (PTI) se ha reportado poco en la literatura, y el SGB raramente se asocia con otra enfermedad autoinmune. Presentamos el caso de un varón que luego de un mes de tener un cuadro agudo de COVID-19 moderado, presentó concurrentemente SGB y PTI con respuesta adecuada al tratamiento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854258

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 represents a global health emergency, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple vaccines have been distributed worldwide to control the spread of this pandemic. Several reports of thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia have been described after vaccination. These have been termed vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopaenia and thrombosis (VITT). We report a fatal case of VITT after receiving the first dose of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. A man in his 30s developed thrombocytopaenia, massive haemoperitoneum due to spleen rupture and extensive portal and femoral vein thrombosis. The patient rapidly developed multiple organ failure and died. We attributed this condition to the vaccine due to the temporal relationship, presence of thrombosis and thrombocytopaenia, high levels of platelet factor 4 antibodies and exclusion of other diagnoses. Healthcare providers should be aware of such rare but fatal complications of COVID-19 immunisation, as early diagnosis of VITT may improve prognosis by allowing timely appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects
14.
Platelets ; 33(5): 781-786, 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830586

ABSTRACT

As the immune thrombocytopenia exacerbation rate after booster COVID-19 vaccines is unknown, we explore the rates after first, second and booster Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines. A retrospective study of adult ITP patients, receiving 1-3 vaccines was performed. The primary outcome was clinical ITP exacerbation defined as platelet count decrease requiring initiation/escalation of ITP treatment and/or new medical attention due to bleeding, within 3 months. Secondary outcome was any clinically relevant platelet decrease during the 3 months post-vaccination. The study included 93 ITP patients receiving 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 22) or 3 (n = 69) vaccines. ITP exacerbation occurred in 2/93 (2.2%) patients following initial vaccination and in 3/69 (4.3%) following booster dose. Clinically relevant platelet decreases after initial doses occurred in 8/72 (11.1%) patients and in 8/39 (20.5%) after the booster. Clinical ITP exacerbation after booster doses did not follow clinical exacerbation after initial doses. Half of patients with clinically relevant platelet decreases after booster dose also had clinically relevant decreases following initial vaccination. We concluded that clinical ITP exacerbation is infrequent following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical exacerbation after booster doses was not preceded by clinical exacerbation after initial doses. Clinically relevant platelet decreases after booster doses occur frequently in patients with clinically relevant decreases after initial doses.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096211060581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799135

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) may be either as a primary or in association with an underlying systemic autoimmune etiology (36.2%), particularly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thrombocytopenia is infrequently observed in APS patients, with an occurrence of 22% to 42% with the frequency of thrombocytopenia, higher in APS and SLE combination than in primary APS. There have been some controversial reports regarding the treatment of APS syndrome with thrombocytopenia with TPO agonists. We like to report a case with APS syndrome with severe thrombocytopenia treated with TPO-RA and developed severe thrombocytosis and thrombosis. Our case represented the first case of TPO-RA in treating APS syndrome developed severe thrombocytosis and our case also concurred that use of TPO-RA agents should be strongly discouraged in APS until larger studies clarify the safety of TPO-RA agents in APS.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombocytosis , Thrombosis , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/drug therapy , Benzoates , Humans , Hydrazines , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Pyrazoles , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytosis/chemically induced , Thrombocytosis/complications , Thrombosis/chemically induced
16.
Blood Adv ; 6(6): 1637-1644, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741920

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder that is characterized by low platelet count and increased bleeding risk. COVID-19 vaccination has been described as a risk factor for de novo ITP, but the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP on platelet count, bleeding complications, and ITP exacerbation (≥50% decline in platelet count, or nadir platelet count < 30 × 109/L with a >20% decrease from baseline, or use of rescue therapy). Platelet counts in patients with ITP and healthy controls were collected immediately before and 1 and 4 weeks after the first and second vaccinations. Linear mixed-effects modeling was applied to analyze platelet counts over time. We included 218 patients with ITP (50.9% female; mean age, 55 years; and median platelet count, 106 × 109/L) and 200 healthy controls (60.0% female; mean age, 58 years; median platelet count, 256 × 109/L). Platelet counts decreased by 6.3% after vaccination. We did not observe any difference in decrease between the groups. Thirty patients with ITP (13.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5-19.1) had an exacerbation and 5 (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.7-5.3) suffered from a bleeding event. Risk factors for ITP exacerbation were platelet count < 50 × 109/L (odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.7), ITP treatment at time of vaccination (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-8.0), and age (OR, 0.96 per year; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Our study highlights the safety of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP and the importance of the close monitoring of platelet counts in a subgroup of patients with ITP. Patients with ITP with exacerbation responded well on therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Platelets ; 33(4): 531-535, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707820

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a condition that is distinct from thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) that may also occur after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. Previous reports revealed an increased ITP incidence after ChAdOx1, a vaccine for COVID-19. Our study aimed to highlight the key features of ITP after COVID-19 vaccination. From April to October 2021, we collected data on 23 patients, including nine men and 14 women, with ITP from five hospitals across Taiwan who received either the ChAdOx1 or mRNA-1273 vaccine before development or exacerbation of ITP. Our findings revealed that both ChAdOx1 and mRNA-1273 vaccines were associated with ITP. Many patients responded well to steroids and immune suppressants, which may also suggest that the nature of thrombocytopenia is more like ITP rather than TTS. Lack of thrombosis, low D-dimer level, and negative anti-PF4 result could help to exclude TTS, which is also a rare but a far more lethal condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Syndrome , Taiwan/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(2): 157-166, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia, also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), has emerged as a significant COVID-19-associated complication. This study analyzes the published literature of case reports and case series regarding COVID-19 infection associated with ITP. METHODOLOGY: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a systematic search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline through Clarivate and EBSCO to include the eligible studies. The authors utilized Review Manager 5.4 to conduct quantitative data synthesis for the condition of interest analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 eligible case reports and case series with 42 patients were included in this study; 54.8% of them were male. The pooled mean age of all participants was (59.5 ± 19) years with a median age of 63 years. The estimated mean time from diagnosis with COVID-19 to ITP development was 18.1 ± 21 days and the mean time to recovery from ITP was 5.8 ± 4.8 days. The pooled random effect of mean platelet count in the included six studies was 14.52, CI [8.79, 20.25]. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that ITP secondary to COVID-19 infection is slightly more prevalent among males (54.8%). Elderly patients were more vulnerable to the disease.    Most cases developed ITP within 2-3 weeks after COVID-19 infection and recovered in less than one week from ITP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
19.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 61(3): 103339, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559383

ABSTRACT

Evans syndrome is a rare condition characterized by simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia (and/or immune neutropenia). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause various hematologic conditions, such as coagulation abnormalities (e.g., bleeding or thrombosis) or cell count alterations (e.g., lymphopenia and neutrophilia). COVID-19 may also induce Evans syndrome via immune mechanisms. Here, we describe the case of a patient developing Evans syndrome shortly after COVID-19 infection. Immune thrombocytopenia and warm-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia developed simultaneously, and intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone were initially administered. Additionally, we intend to review all COVID-19-induced Evans syndrome cases currently present in the literature and emphasize the differences as well as the similarities regarding patient characteristics, relationship to COVID-19 infection, and treatment approach. Since autoimmune cytopenias are frequent in COVID-19 patients, clinicians should pay particular attention to profound and abrupt-onset cytopenias. In these circumstances, hemolysis markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobulin, Coombs tests, etc. should be investigated, and the possibility of Evans syndrome should always be considered to ensure prompt and appropriate treatment. These factors are essential to ensure hematologic recovery and prevent complications such as thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/complications , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/complications
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503863

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterised by isolated thrombocytopenia which may be idiopathic or due to a secondary aetiology. ITP is being increasingly recognised secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the current pandemic. Here, we report a case of a five-and-a-half-year-old female child on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who subsequently developed ITP secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our patient had prolonged thrombocytopenia secondary to ITP, requiring the use of second-line agents including romiplostim and eltrombopag. This is a unique case where ITP was recognised secondary to SARS-CoV-2. In such cases of thrombocytopenia, ITP should be considered as an important differential in addition to relapse of leukaemia or thrombocytopenia due to chemotherapy drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL