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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765101

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy that is characterized by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, consumption thrombocytopenia and organ injury. It is caused by a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13, which can be either congenital or acquired. There is a plethora of things that can cause the acquired form, including medications and infections. Vaccines have also been shown to cause TTP. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, with multiple new vaccines being developed and distributed to the masses, the medical community needs to be aware of adverse events associated with these new vaccines. We present a case of TTP following administration of the Moderna booster vaccine.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Anemia, Hemolytic/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Pandemics , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications
3.
Intern Med ; 61(3): 407-412, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666883

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man without underlying diseases presented with fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice 1 week after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and showed hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. An a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity level of <10% and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity confirmed the diagnosis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Combination therapy with plasma exchange, corticosteroid, and rituximab improved the clinical outcome. We herein report the first Japanese case of TTP possibly associated with vaccination. Physicians should be alert for this rare but life-threatening hematological complication following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 411, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report a case of a 25-year-old male patient, who developed acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) after receiving a first dose of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Spikevax (mRNA-1273, Moderna Biotech, USA). While this is the first case in literature describing a case of aTTP after receiving the Spikevax vaccine, there are two other cases after mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccine and two after adenoviral SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with persisting malaise, fever, headache, word-finding difficulties, nausea, vomiting, petechial bleeding, and hematuria 13 days after receiving a first dose of vaccination. Laboratory testing showed low platelet count, Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia, and mild acute kidney injury. We excluded vaccine induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) as another important differential diagnosis and the final diagnosis was established after ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with a ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity was found to be < 1% (reference range > 40%) and ADAMTS-13 antibodies being 72.2 IU/L (reference range < 12 IU/L). We initiated empiric therapy of plasmapheresis and corticosteroids on admission and started caplacizumab the day after. The patient's thrombocyte count normalized 3 days after admission, hemolysis and acute kidney injury resolved after 2 weeks. The patient received 2 doses of rituximab (1 g each) after the diagnosis of immune TTP was established. One month after the initial presentation, the patient is in good overall condition, but still receives daily caplacizumab due to ADAMTS-13 activity of < 1%. CONCLUSIONS: Low platelet count after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has gained attraction after vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has been described as a rare but severe complication of adenoviral-based vaccines. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an important differential diagnosis, but there are only few reports of TTP following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Despite pathophysiological and clinical differences of both entities, diagnostic uncertainty can result in the acute setting, since they share main symptoms such as headache and neurological alterations in addition to thrombocytopenia. In difference to other cases reported, this patient developed first symptoms of TTP as early as 4 days after vaccination, which suggests that vaccination merely acted as trigger for occult TTP, instead of truly inducing an autoimmunological process.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Adult , Humans , Male , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Intern Med ; 61(3): 407-412, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528762

ABSTRACT

A 57-year-old man without underlying diseases presented with fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice 1 week after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and showed hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. An a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity level of <10% and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity confirmed the diagnosis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Combination therapy with plasma exchange, corticosteroid, and rituximab improved the clinical outcome. We herein report the first Japanese case of TTP possibly associated with vaccination. Physicians should be alert for this rare but life-threatening hematological complication following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462939

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old Indian woman presented with acute dysphasia, left upper limb numbness and thrombocytopenia 12 days after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca/Vaxzevria). MRI of the brain was unremarkable. Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia with thrombocytopenia was noted on her peripheral blood film. A diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) was confirmed through the findings of absent ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity and markedly raised titre of ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. Prompt treatment with plasma exchange, adjunctive steroids and rituximab was commenced. A remission of TTP was achieved and she was discharged 3 weeks after admission. While other immune-mediated conditions have been documented after receipt of the vaccine, this report highlights the first case of immune-mediated TTP diagnosed after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Rituximab/adverse effects
9.
J Autoimmun ; 124: 102728, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440155

ABSTRACT

Extremely rare reactions characterized by thrombosis and thrombocytopenia have been described in subjects that received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination 5-16 days earlier. Although patients with vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) have high levels of antibodies to platelet factor 4 (PF4)-polyanion complexes, the exact mechanism of the development of thrombosis is still unknown. Here we reported serum studies as well as proteomics and genomics analyses demonstrating a massive complement activation potentially linked to the presence of anti-PF4 antibodies in a patient with severe VITT. At admission, complement activity of the classical and lectin pathways were absent (0% for both) with normal levels of the alternative pathway (73%) in association with elevated levels of the complement activation marker sC5b-9 (630 ng/mL [n.v. 139-462 ng/mL]) and anti-PF4 IgG (1.918 OD [n.v. 0.136-0.300 OD]). The immunoblotting analysis of C2 showed the complete disappearance of its normal band at 110 kDa. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment allowed to recover complement activity of the classical pathway (91%) and lectin pathway (115%), to reduce levels of sC5b-9 (135 ng/mL) and anti-PF4 IgG (0.681 OD) and to normalize the C2 pattern at immunoblotting. Proteomics and genomics analyses in addition to serum studies showed that the absence of complement activity during VITT was not linked to alterations of the C2 gene but rather to a strong complement activation leading to C2 consumption. Our data in a single patient suggest monitoring complement parameters in other VITT patients considering also the possibility to target complement activation with specific drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Complement C2 , Complement Membrane Attack Complex , Complement Pathway, Classical , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Complement C2/genetics , Complement C2/metabolism , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/genetics , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Complement Pathway, Classical/drug effects , Complement Pathway, Classical/genetics , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin/drug effects , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Female , Humans , Platelet Factor 4/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/genetics
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105942, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281474

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a rare syndrome following the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Reported patients developed mainly venous thrombosis. We describe a case of a young healthy women suffering from acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion without cerebral venous thrombosis 8 days after vaccination and its consequences on recanalization strategy. Considering the thrombocytopenia, intravenous thrombolysis was contraindicated. She underwent mechanical thrombectomy with complete recanalization and dramatically improved clinically. Positive detection of anti-PF4-heparin-antibodies confirmed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia diagnosis. In case of acute ischemic stroke after recent ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, platelet count should be systematically checked before giving thrombolysis, and direct mechanical thrombectomy should be proposed in patients with large vessel occlusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/therapy , Thrombectomy , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Antibodies/blood , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Heparin/immunology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/chemically induced , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105938, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281473

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a novel human pathogen causing fulminant respiratory syndrome (COVID-19). Although COVID-19 is primarily a disease of the lungs with florid respiratory manifestations, there are increasing reports of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and thromboembolic complications. Developing an effective and reliable vaccine was emergently pursued to control the catastrophic spread of the global pandemic. We report a fatal case of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We attribute this fatal thrombotic condition to the vaccine due to the remarkable temporal relationship. The proposed mechanism of VITT is production of rogue antibodies against platelet factor-4 resulting in massive platelet aggregation. Healthcare providers should be aware of the possibility of such fatal complication, and the vaccine recipients should be warned about the symptoms of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/blood , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/physiopathology , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(9): 2314-2317, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2020 the Israeli Health Ministry began a mass vaccination campaign with the BNT162b2 vaccine. This was an important step in overcoming the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Autoimmune phenomenon have been described after receiving vaccinations. PATIENTS/METHODS: Here we describe a case series of patients who developed acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, a rare autoimmune disease, within several days of receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity should be evaluated in patients with history of aTTP before and after any vaccination, especially the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and immunosuppression treatment should be considered before vaccination in cases of low ADAMTS13 activity. Patients should be closely monitored after the vaccine for clinical situation and laboratory data. Post vaccination thrombocytopenia assessment should include immune thrombocytopenic purpura, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia and acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Rare Diseases , SARS-CoV-2
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