Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(17): 2224-2236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700911

ABSTRACT

Among antiviral drugs, the vast majority targets only one or two related viruses. The conventional model, one virus - one drug, significantly limits therapeutic options. Therefore, in the strategy of controlling viral infections, there is a necessity to develop compounds with pleiotropic effects. Favipiravir (FPV) emerged as a strong candidate to become such a drug. The aim of the study is to present up-to-date information on the role of favipiravir in the treatment of viral respiratory infections. The anti-influenza activity of favipiravir has been confirmed in cell culture experiments, animal models, and clinical trials. Thoroughly different - from the previously registered drugs - mechanism of action suggests that FVP can be used as a countermeasure for the novel or re-emerging influenza virus infections. In recent months, favipiravir has been broadly investigated due to its potential efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. Based on preclinical and clinical studies and a recently published meta-analysis it seems that favipiravir may be a promising antiviral drug in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. FPV is also effective against other RNA respiratory viruses and may be a candidate for the treatment of serious infections caused by human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
2.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648677

ABSTRACT

The human population is still facing appalling conditions due to several outbreaks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The absence of specific drugs, appropriate vaccines for mutants, and knowledge of potential therapeutic agents makes this situation more difficult. Several 1, 2, 4-triazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidine (TP)-derivative compounds were comprehensively studied for antiviral activities against RNA polymerase of HIV, HCV, and influenza viruses, and showed immense pharmacological interest. Therefore, TP-derivative compounds can be repurposed against the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to ensure the genomic variability and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp protein. The molecular docking of natural and synthetic TP compounds to RdRp and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed to analyse the dynamic behaviour of TP compounds at the active site of the RdRp protein. TP compounds were also docked against other non-structural proteins (NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP5, NSP8, NSP13, and NSP15) of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the inhibition potential of TP compounds was compared with Remdesivir and Favipiravir drugs as a positive control. Additionally, TP compounds were analysed for inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV RdRp protein. This study demonstrates that TP analogues (monomethylated triazolopyrimidine and essramycin) represent potential lead molecules for designing an effective inhibitor to control viral replication. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will strengthen the use of these inhibitors as suitable drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Computational Biology/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/chemistry , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/drug effects , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Triazoles/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572668

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antiviral therapies hold promise as a first-line defense against emerging viruses by blunting illness severity and spread until vaccines and virus-specific antivirals are developed. The nucleobase favipiravir, often discussed as a broad-spectrum inhibitor, was not effective in recent clinical trials involving patients infected with Ebola virus or SARS-CoV-2. A drawback of favipiravir use is its rapid clearance before conversion to its active nucleoside-5'-triphosphate form. In this work, we report a synergistic reduction of flavivirus (dengue, Zika), orthomyxovirus (influenza A), and coronavirus (HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2) replication when the nucleobases favipiravir or T-1105 were combined with the antimetabolite 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr). The 6MMPr/T-1105 combination increased the C-U and G-A mutation frequency compared to treatment with T-1105 or 6MMPr alone. A further analysis revealed that the 6MMPr/T-1105 co-treatment reduced cellular purine nucleotide triphosphate synthesis and increased conversion of the antiviral nucleobase to its nucleoside-5'-monophosphate, -diphosphate, and -triphosphate forms. The 6MMPr co-treatment specifically increased production of the active antiviral form of the nucleobases (but not corresponding nucleosides) while also reducing levels of competing cellular NTPs to produce the synergistic effect. This in-depth work establishes a foundation for development of small molecules as possible co-treatments with nucleobases like favipiravir in response to emerging RNA virus infections.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Synergism , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Humans , Methylthioinosine/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23465, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556248

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) mainly affects young children and immunocompromised patients, causing morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients. Since no specific treatment is available, this study aims to explore the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents including favipiravir and remdesivir for treating HCoV-NL63 infection. We first successfully modelled the 3D structure of HCoV-NL63 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) based on the experimentally solved SARS-CoV-2 RdRp structure. Molecular docking indicated that favipiravir has similar binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 RdRp with LibDock scores of 75 and 74, respectively. The LibDock scores of remdesivir to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 were 135 and 151, suggesting that remdesivir may have a higher affinity to HCoV-NL63 compared to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. In cell culture models infected with HCoV-NL63, both favipiravir and remdesivir significantly inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses. Overall, remdesivir compared to favipiravir is more potent in inhibiting HCoV-NL63 in cell culture. Importantly, there is no evidence of resistance development upon long-term exposure to remdesivir. Furthermore, combining favipiravir or remdesivir with the clinically used antiviral cytokine interferon-alpha resulted in synergistic effects. These findings provided a proof-of-concept that anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, in particular remdesivir, have the potential to be repurposed for treating HCoV-NL63 infection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus NL63, Human/enzymology , Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Haplorhini , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(12): 434, 2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536308

ABSTRACT

A novel and sensitive voltammetric nanosensor was developed for the first time for trace level monitoring of favipiravir based on gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag CSNPs) with conductive polymer poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and functionalized multi carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNTs) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The formation of Au@Ag CSNPs/PEDOT:PSS/F-MWCNT composite was confirmed by various analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under the optimized conditions and at a typical working potential of + 1.23 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the Au@Ag CSNPs/PEDOT:PSS/F-MWCNT/GCE revealed linear quantitative ranges from 0.005 to 0.009 and 0.009 to 1.95 µM with a limit of detection 0.46 nM (S/N = 3) with acceptable relative standard deviations (1.1-4.9 %) for pharmaceutical formulations, urine, and human plasma samples without applying any sample pretreatment (1.12-4.93%). The interference effect of antiviral drugs, biological compounds, and amino acids was negligible, and the sensing system demonstrated outstanding reproducibility, repeatability, stability, and reusability. The findings revealed that this assay strategy has promising applications in diagnosing FAV in clinical samples, which could be attributed to the large surface area on active sites and high conductivity of bimetallic nanocomposite.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Electrochemistry/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotechnology/methods , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Colloids/chemistry , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Linear Models , Nanotubes , Polymers/chemistry
6.
ChemMedChem ; 16(22): 3418-3427, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525425

ABSTRACT

Currently, limited therapeutic options are available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have developed a set of pyrazine-based small molecules. A series of pyrazine conjugates was synthesized by microwave-assisted click chemistry and benzotriazole chemistry. All the synthesized conjugates were screened against the SAR-CoV-2 virus and their cytotoxicity was determined. Computational studies were carried out to validate the biological data. Some of the pyrazine-triazole conjugates (5 d-g) and (S)-N-(1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-phenylethyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide 12 i show significant potency against SARS-CoV-2 among the synthesized conjugates. The selectivity index (SI) of potent conjugates indicates significant efficacy compared to the reference drug (Favipiravir).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/toxicity , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 20(3): 446-455, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518187

ABSTRACT

AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase from the TAM (TYRO3 AXL and MER) subfamily, and its ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) are implicated in pathogenesis of a wide array of cancers, acquisition of resistance to diverse anticancer therapies and cellular entry of viruses. The continuous development of AXL inhibitors for treatment of patients with cancer and COVID-19 underscores the need to better characterize the cellular effects of AXL targeting.In the present study, we compared the cellular phenotypes of CRISPR-Cas9-induced depletion of AXL and its pharmacological inhibition with bemcentinib, LDC1267 and gilteritinib. Specifically, we evaluated GAS6-AXL signaling, cell viability and invasion, the endo-lysosomal system and autophagy in glioblastoma cells. We showed that depletion of AXL but not of TYRO3 inhibited GAS6-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling effectors, AKT and ERK1/2, indicating that AXL is a primary receptor for GAS6. AXL was also specifically required for GAS6-dependent increase in cell viability but was dispensable for viability of cells grown without exogenous addition of GAS6. Furthermore, we revealed that LDC1267 is the most potent and specific inhibitor of AXL activation among the tested compounds. Finally, we found that, in contrast to AXL depletion and its inhibition with LDC1267, cell treatment with bemcentinib and gilteritinib impaired the endo-lysosomal and autophagy systems in an AXL-independent manner. IMPLICATIONS: Altogether, our findings are of high clinical importance as we discovered that two clinically advanced AXL inhibitors, bemcentinib and gilteritinib, may display AXL-independent cellular effects and toxicity.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Benzocycloheptenes/therapeutic use , Lysosomes/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Autophagy , Benzocycloheptenes/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Transfection , Triazoles/pharmacology
8.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiometabolic disease may confer increased risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by activation of the aldose reductase pathway. We hypothesized that aldose reductase inhibition with AT-001 might reduce viral inflammation and risk of adverse outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an open-label prospective phase 2 clinical trial to assess safety, tolerability and efficacy of AT-001 in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, history of diabetes mellitus and chronic heart disease. Eligible participants were prospectively enrolled and treated with AT-001 1500 mg BID for up to 14 days. Safety, tolerability, survival and length of hospital stay (LOS) were collected from the electronic medical record and compared with data from two matched control groups (MC1 and MC2) selected from a deidentified registry of COVID-19 patients at the same institution. RESULTS: AT-001 was safe and well tolerated in the 10 participants who received the study drug. In-hospital mortality observed in the AT-001 group was 20% vs. 31% in MC1 and 27% in MC2. Mean LOS observed in the AT-001 group was 5 days vs. 10 days in MC1 and 25 days in MC2. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and co-morbid diabetes mellitus and heart disease, treatment with AT-001 was safe and well tolerated. Exposure to AT-001 was associated with a trend of reduced mortality and shortened LOS. While the observed trend did not reach statistical significance, the present study provides the rationale for investigating potential benefit of AT-001 in COVID 19 affected patients in future studies.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors , Benzothiazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Registries , Aged , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
10.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103595, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Favipiravir and Molnupiravir, orally available antivirals, have been reported to exert antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. First efficacy data have been recently reported in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We here report on the combined antiviral effect of both drugs in a SARS-CoV-2 Syrian hamster infection model. The infected hamsters were treated twice daily with the vehicle (the control group) or a suboptimal dose of each compound or a combination of both compounds. FINDINGS: When animals were treated with a combination of suboptimal doses of Molnupiravir and Favipiravir at the time of infection, a marked combined potency at endpoint is observed. Infectious virus titers in the lungs of animals treated with the combination are reduced by ∼5 log10 and infectious virus are no longer detected in the lungs of >60% of treated animals. When start of treatment was delayed with one day a reduction of titers in the lungs of 2.4 log10 was achieved. Moreover, treatment of infected animals nearly completely prevented transmission to co-housed untreated sentinels. Both drugs result in an increased mutation frequency of the remaining viral RNA recovered from the lungs of treated animals. In the combo-treated hamsters, an increased frequency of C-to-T mutations in the viral RNA is observed as compared to the single treatment groups which may explain the pronounced antiviral potency of the combination. INTERPRETATION: Our findings may lay the basis for the design of clinical studies to test the efficacy of the combination of Molnupiravir/Favipiravir in the treatment of COVID-19. FUNDING: stated in the acknowledgment.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Lung/virology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine/pharmacology , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Mesocricetus , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
11.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389458

ABSTRACT

A novel series of some hydrazones bearing thiazole moiety were generated via solvent-drop grinding of thiazole carbohydrazide 2 with various carbonyl compounds. Also, dehydrative-cyclocondensation of 2 with active methylene compounds or anhydrides gave the respective pyarzole or pyrazine derivatives. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Additionally, the anti-viral activity of all the products was tested against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) using molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The average binding affinities of the compounds 3a, 3b, and 3c (-8.1 ± 0.33 kcal/mol, -8.0 ± 0.35 kcal/mol, and -8.2 ± 0.21 kcal/mol, respectively) are better than that of the positive control Nelfinavir (-6.9 ± 0.51 kcal/mol). This shows the possibility of these three compounds to effectively bind to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and hence, contradict the virus lifecycle.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Hydrazones/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazoles/chemical synthesis , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics , User-Computer Interface , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1735, 2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387332

ABSTRACT

Despite no or limited pre-clinical evidence, repurposed drugs are massively evaluated in clinical trials to palliate the lack of antiviral molecules against SARS-CoV-2. Here we use a Syrian hamster model to assess the antiviral efficacy of favipiravir, understand its mechanism of action and determine its pharmacokinetics. When treatment is initiated before or simultaneously to infection, favipiravir has a strong dose effect, leading to reduction of infectious titers in lungs and clinical alleviation of the disease. Antiviral effect of favipiravir correlates with incorporation of a large number of mutations into viral genomes and decrease of viral infectivity. Antiviral efficacy is achieved with plasma drug exposure comparable with those previously found during human clinical trials. Notably, the highest dose of favipiravir tested is associated with signs of toxicity in animals. Thereby, pharmacokinetic and tolerance studies are required to determine whether similar effects can be safely achieved in humans.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genome, Viral , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
13.
FEBS Lett ; 595(18): 2366-2382, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363633

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) currently being used to manage COVID-19. Accumulation of mutations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RdRp may facilitate antigenic drift, generating favipiravir resistance. Focussing on the chain-termination mechanism utilized by favipiravir, we used high-throughput interface-based protein design to generate > 100 000 designs of the favipiravir-binding site of RdRp and identify mutational hotspots. We identified several single-point mutants and designs having a sequence identity of 97%-98% with wild-type RdRp, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can develop favipiravir resistance with few mutations. Out of 134 mutations documented in the CoV-GLUE database, 63 specific mutations were already predicted as resistant in our calculations, thus attaining ˜ 47% correlation with the sequencing data. These findings improve our understanding of the potential signatures of adaptation in SARS-CoV-2 against favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Point Mutation/genetics
14.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(8): e10239, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335457

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying potential therapeutics are global imperatives. Using a quantitative systems pharmacology approach, we identified a set of repurposable and investigational drugs as potential therapeutics against COVID-19. These were deduced from the gene expression signature of SARS-CoV-2-infected A549 cells screened against Connectivity Map and prioritized by network proximity analysis with respect to disease modules in the viral-host interactome. We also identified immuno-modulating compounds aiming at suppressing hyperinflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients, based on the transcriptome of ACE2-overexpressing A549 cells. Experiments with Vero-E6 cells infected by SARS-CoV-2, as well as independent syncytia formation assays for probing ACE2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell fusion using HEK293T and Calu-3 cells, showed that several predicted compounds had inhibitory activities. Among them, salmeterol, rottlerin, and mTOR inhibitors exhibited antiviral activities in Vero-E6 cells; imipramine, linsitinib, hexylresorcinol, ezetimibe, and brompheniramine impaired viral entry. These novel findings provide new paths for broadening the repertoire of compounds pursued as therapeutics against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Salmeterol Xinafoate/pharmacology , Vero Cells
15.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108940, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157178

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has currently precipitated the COVID-19 global health crisis. We developed a medium-throughput drug-screening system and identified a small-molecule library of 34 of 430 protein kinase inhibitors that were capable of inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 cytopathic effect in human epithelial cells. These drug inhibitors are in various stages of clinical trials. We detected key proteins involved in cellular signaling pathways mTOR-PI3K-AKT, ABL-BCR/MAPK, and DNA-damage response that are critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection. A drug-protein interaction-based secondary screen confirmed compounds, such as the ATR kinase inhibitor berzosertib and torin2 with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Berzosertib exhibited potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in multiple cell types and blocked replication at the post-entry step. Berzosertib inhibited replication of SARS-CoV-1 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as well. Our study highlights key promising kinase inhibitors to constrain coronavirus replication as a host-directed therapy in the treatment of COVID-19 and beyond as well as provides an important mechanism of host-pathogen interactions.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , DNA Damage , Isoxazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 33-35, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144720

ABSTRACT

As of October 2020, there is still no specific drug to treat COVID-19 as it rages worldwide. Favipiravir, indicated for the treatment of new and re-emerging influenza infections, has been suggested to be effective against SARS-CoV-2, although this is not yet fully validated. We administered favipiravir to a 64-year-old female patient with COVID-19. Her symptoms resolved quickly after the start of treatment, with reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load, but she developed a fever again on day 12. Since the fever was relieved by discontinuation of favipiravir, and based on positive results with a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test, we diagnosed her with favipiravir-induced drug fever. A decrease in the serum concentration of favipiravir was observed along with resolution of the fever. The present case suggests that drug fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of relapsing fever episodes in COVID-19 patients receiving favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Amides/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Fever/chemically induced , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173720, 2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has intensified into a global pandemic with over a million deaths worldwide. Experimental research analyses have been implemented and executed with the sole rationale to counteract SARS-CoV-2, which has initiated potent therapeutic strategy development in coherence with computational biology validation focusing on the characterized viral drug targets signified by proteomic and genomic data. Spike glycoprotein is one of such potential drug target that promotes viral attachment to the host cellular membrane by binding to its receptor ACE-2 via its Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD). Multiple Sequence alignment and relative phylogenetic analysis revealed significant sequential disparities of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to previously encountered SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV strains. We implemented a drug re-purposing approach wherein the inhibitory efficacy of a cluster of thirty known drug candidates comprising of antivirals, antibiotics and phytochemicals (selection contingent on their present developmental status in underway clinical trials) was elucidated by subjecting them to molecular docking analyses against the spike protein RBD model (developed using homology modelling and validated using SAVES server 5.0) and the composite trimeric structures of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Our results indicated that Camostat, Favipiravir, Tenofovir, Raltegravir and Stavudine showed significant interactions with spike RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Proficient bioavailability coupled with no predicted in silico toxicity rendered them as prospective alternatives for designing and development of novel combinatorial therapy formulations for improving existing treatment regimes to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Esters , Gabexate/analogs & derivatives , Gabexate/pharmacology , Guanidines , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , Stavudine/pharmacology , Tenofovir/pharmacology
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(7)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060504

ABSTRACT

The RNA polymerase inhibitor favipiravir is currently in clinical trials as a treatment for infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), despite limited information about the molecular basis for its activity. Here we report the structure of favipiravir ribonucleoside triphosphate (favipiravir-RTP) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) bound to a template:primer RNA duplex, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure shows clear evidence for the inhibitor at the catalytic site of the enzyme, and resolves the conformation of key side chains and ions surrounding the binding pocket. Polymerase activity assays indicate that the inhibitor is weakly incorporated into the RNA primer strand, and suppresses RNA replication in the presence of natural nucleotides. The structure reveals an unusual, nonproductive binding mode of favipiravir-RTP at the catalytic site of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, which explains its low rate of incorporation into the RNA primer strand. Together, these findings inform current and future efforts to develop polymerase inhibitors for SARS coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Amides/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Amides/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrazines/chemistry , Ribonucleotides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Single Molecule Imaging/methods
19.
Mol Cancer Res ; 19(4): 549-554, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058113

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as one of the biggest global health threats worldwide. As of October 2020, more than 44 million confirmed cases and more than 1,160,000 deaths have been reported globally, and the toll is likely to be much higher before the pandemic is over. There are currently little therapeutic options available and new potential targets are intensively investigated. Recently, Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) has emerged as an interesting candidate. Elevated levels of BTK activity have been reported in blood monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19, compared with those from healthy volunteers. Importantly, various studies confirmed empirically that administration of BTK inhibitors (acalabrutinib and ibrutinib) decreased the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality rate for hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. Herein, we review the current information regarding the role of BTK in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections and the suitability of its inhibitors as drugs to treat COVID-19. The use of BTK inhibitors in the management of COVID-19 shows promise in reducing the severity of the immune response to the infection and thus mortality. However, BTK inhibition may be contributing in other ways to inhibit the effects of the virus and this will need to be carefully studied.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/pharmacology , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/enzymology , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
20.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 31(4): 325-337, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039698

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic urgently demands for both prevention and treatment strategies. RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp), which has no counterpart in human cells, is an excellent target for drug development. Given the time-consuming process of drug development, repurposing drugs approved for other indications or at least successfully tested in terms of safety and tolerability, is an attractive strategy to rapidly provide an effective medication for severe COVID-19 cases.Areas covered: The currently available data and upcominSg studies on RdRp which can be repurposed to halt SARS-CoV-2 replication, are reviewed.Expert opinion: Drug repurposing and design of novel compounds are proceeding in parallel to provide a quick response and new specific drugs, respectively. Notably, the proofreading SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease activity could limit the potential for drugs designed as immediate chain terminators and favor the development of compounds acting through delayed termination. While vaccination is awaited to curb the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, even partially effective drugs from repurposing strategies can be of help to treat severe cases of disease. Considering the high conservation of RdRp among coronaviruses, an improved knowledge of its activity in vitro can provide useful information for drug development or drug repurposing to combat SARS-CoV-2 as well as future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/pharmacology , Drug Development , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL