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1.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525396

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
2.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460106

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 815-825, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one Phe508del allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single Phe508del allele. In patients whose other CFTR allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated with previous CFTR modulators (ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor), the potential for additional benefit from restoring Phe508del CFTR protein function is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes. After a 4-week run-in period with ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor, patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or active control for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline through week 8 in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. RESULTS: After the run-in period, 132 patients received elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and 126 received active control. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was higher by 3.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 4.6) relative to baseline and higher by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.7) relative to active control and a sweat chloride concentration that was lower by 22.3 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.2 to 24.5) relative to baseline and lower by 23.1 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.1 to 26.1) relative to active control (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The change from baseline in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better quality of life) with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was 10.3 points (95% CI, 8.0 to 12.7) and with active control was 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.8 to 4.1). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups; adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in one patient (elevated aminotransferase level) in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group and in two patients (anxiety or depression and pulmonary exacerbation) in the active control group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious and safe in patients with Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes and conferred additional benefit relative to previous CFTR modulators. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX18-445-104 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04058353.).


Subject(s)
Aminophenols/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aminophenols/adverse effects , Benzodioxoles/adverse effects , Child , Chloride Channel Agonists/adverse effects , Chlorides/analysis , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Genotype , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quinolines/adverse effects , Sweat/chemistry
4.
Respir Investig ; 59(6): 799-803, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and is also an important disease in Japan. Thus, the optimal treatment strategy for severe COVID-19 should be established urgently. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib-a Janus kinase inhibitor, remdesivir, and dexamethasone (BRD) are unknown. METHODS: Patients who received combination therapy with BRD at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center were enrolled in the study. All patients received baricitinib (≤14 d), remdesivir (≤10 d), and dexamethasone (≤10 d). The efficacy and adverse events were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 44 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. The 28-d mortality rate was low at 2.3% (1/44 patients). The need for invasive mechanical ventilation was avoided in most patients (90%, 17/19 patients). Patients who received BRD therapy had a median hospitalization duration of 11 d, time to recovery of 9 d, duration of intensive care unit stay of 6 d, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation of 5 d, and duration of supplemental oxygen therapy of 5 d. Adverse events occurred in 15 patients (34%). Liver dysfunction, thrombosis, iliopsoas hematoma, renal dysfunction, ventilator-associated pneumonia, infective endocarditis, and herpes zoster occurred in 11%, 11%, 2%, 2%, 2%, 2%, and 2% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with BRD was effective in treating severe COVID-19, and the incidence rate of adverse events was low. The results of the present study are encouraging; however, further randomized clinical studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
5.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323103

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important enzyme involved in prostaglandins biosynthesis from arachidonic acid. COX-2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and plays a major tumor promoting function. Accordingly, many efforts have been devoted to efficiently target the catalytic site of this enzyme in cancer cells, by using COX-2 specific inhibitors such as celecoxib. However, despite their potent anti-tumor properties, the myriad of detrimental effects associated to the chronic inhibition of COX-2 in healthy tissues, has considerably limited their use in clinic. In addition, increasing evidence indicate that these anti-cancerous properties are not strictly dependent on the inhibition of the catalytic site. These findings have led to the development of non-active COX-2 inhibitors analogues aiming at preserving the antitumor effects of COX-2 inhibitors without their side effects. Among them, two celecoxib derivatives, 2,5-Dimethyl-Celecoxib and OSU-03012, have been developed and suggested for the treatment of viral (e.g., recently SARS-CoV-2), inflammatory, metabolic diseases and cancers. These molecules display stronger anti-tumor properties than celecoxib and thus may represent promising anti-cancer molecules. In this review, we discuss the impact of these two analogues on cancerous processes but also their potential for cancer treatment alone or in combination with existing approaches.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Celecoxib/adverse effects , Celecoxib/analogs & derivatives , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
6.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 455-458, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305444

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In this article, we present a case of apixaban elimination prolonged by 450% in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 because of multiple conditions, including drug-drug interaction, severe inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Therapeutic drug monitoring was used to explain unusual routine coagulation assays. This grand round highlights the importance of dialog between the clinician and a therapeutic drug monitoring consultant for optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Monitoring/methods , Pyrazoles/metabolism , Pyridones/metabolism , Renal Elimination/drug effects , Teaching Rounds/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions/physiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/metabolism , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/adverse effects , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Renal Elimination/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2752-2758, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301522

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults are at the highest risk of severe disease and death due to COVID-19. Randomized data have shown that baricitinib improves outcomes in these patients, but focused stratified analyses of geriatric cohorts are lacking. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of baricitinib in older adults with COVID-19 moderate-to-severe pneumonia. METHODS: This is a propensity score [PS]-matched retrospective cohort study. Patients from the COVID-AGE and Alba-Score cohorts, hospitalized for moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia, were categorized in two age brackets of age <70 years old (86 with baricitinib and 86 PS-matched controls) or ≥70 years old (78 on baricitinib and 78 PS-matched controls). Thirty-day mortality rates were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Mean age was 79.1 for those ≥70 years and 58.9 for those <70. Exactly 29.6% were female. Treatment with baricitinib resulted in a significant reduction in death from any cause by 48% in patients aged 70 or older, an 18.5% reduction in 30-day absolute mortality risk (n/N: 16/78 [20.5%] baricitinib, 30/78 [38.5%] in PS-matched controls, p < 0.001) and a lower 30-day adjusted fatality rate (HR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.47; p < 0.001). Beneficial effects on mortality were also observed in the age group <70 (8.1% reduction in 30-day absolute mortality risk; HR 0.14; 95% CI 0.03-0.64; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib is associated with an absolute mortality risk reduction of 18.5% in adults older than 70 years hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Azetidines , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Purines , Pyrazoles , Sulfonamides , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects
8.
Acta Haematol ; 144(6): 620-626, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263968

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Although most patients present a mild infection, effective strategies are required for patients who develop the severe disease. Anti-inflammatory treatment with JAK inhibitors has been considered in SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this study, we presented our experience in a group of severe SARS-CoV-2 Chilean patients. This prospective study was performed on consecutive patients presenting severe respiratory failure owing to COVID-19 or high-risk clinical condition associated with SARS-CoV-2, and who were treated with ruxolitinib for management of associated inflammation. Overall, 18 patients presenting SARS-CoV-2 viral-induced hyperinflammation were treated with ruxolitinib, with 16 patients previously treated with steroids, 4 with tocilizumab, and 3 with both treatments. RESULTS: Ten patients evolved with favorable response, including 7 patients admitted with severe respiratory failure (PaFi less than 200 mm Hg in high-flow nasal cannula), presenting complete regression of hyperinflammation, regression of the lung lesions, and subsequent discharge. In the remaining 8 patients, 25% showed reduced inflammation, but early discharge was not achieved owing to the slow evolution of respiratory failure. Unfortunately, 3 patients demonstrated a severe respiratory failure. The early initiation of ruxolitinib was found to be associated with better clinical evolution (p < 0.005). CONCLUSION: In this study, ruxolitinib resolved hyperinflammatory state in 55% of the patients, regardless of the previous steroid or tocilizumab therapy. Unfortunately, few patients demonstrated severe evolution despite ruxolitinib therapy. Notably, the treatment starting time appears to play an important role in achieving good outcomes. Further validation in randomized controlled trials is crucial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chile , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nitriles/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3847, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242037

ABSTRACT

Ruxolitinib is the first janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and JAK2 inhibitor that was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) agency for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The drug targets the JAK/STAT signalling pathway, which is critical in regulating the gliogenesis process during nervous system development. In the study, we assessed the effect of non-maternal toxic dosages of ruxolitinib (0-30 mg/kg/day between E7.5-E20.5) on the brain of the developing mouse embryos. While the pregnant mice did not show any apparent adverse effects, the Gfap protein marker for glial cells and S100ß mRNA marker for astrocytes were reduced in the postnatal day (P) 1.5 pups' brains. Gfap expression and Gfap+ cells were also suppressed in the differentiating neurospheres culture treated with ruxolitinib. Compared to the control group, adult mice treated with ruxolitinib prenatally showed no changes in motor coordination, locomotor function, and recognition memory. However, increased explorative behaviour within an open field and improved spatial learning and long-term memory retention were observed in the treated group. We demonstrated transplacental effects of ruxolitinib on astrogenesis, suggesting the potential use of ruxolitinib to revert pathological conditions caused by gliogenic-shift in early brain development such as Down and Noonan syndromes.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/drug effects , Learning/drug effects , Maternal Exposure , Memory/drug effects , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Nitriles/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Biomarkers , Female , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Neurogenesis/genetics , Nitriles/adverse effects , Organ Specificity/drug effects , Pregnancy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects
10.
Ther Drug Monit ; 43(4): 455-458, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In this article, we present a case of apixaban elimination prolonged by 450% in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 because of multiple conditions, including drug-drug interaction, severe inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Therapeutic drug monitoring was used to explain unusual routine coagulation assays. This grand round highlights the importance of dialog between the clinician and a therapeutic drug monitoring consultant for optimal patient care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Monitoring/methods , Pyrazoles/metabolism , Pyridones/metabolism , Renal Elimination/drug effects , Teaching Rounds/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Interactions/physiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Factor Xa Inhibitors/metabolism , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/adverse effects , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Renal Elimination/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172743

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old man was admitted with severe acute kidney injury and nephrotic syndrome. He was started on eltrombopag for chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura 6 weeks earlier. An ultrasound of the kidneys was normal and an auto-antibody screen was negative. The use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship (score of 5) between the patient's development of acute renal failure and eltrombopag therapy. Literature review identified only one other case of nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury associated with eltrombopag therapy in which a kidney biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Due to the challenges faced during the prevailing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and persistent low platelet counts a renal biopsy was not undertaken. On stopping eltrombopag, the patients renal function stabilised and he successfully went into remission following treatment with high dose corticosteroids and diuretics. This report of a serious case of reversible renal failure and nephrotic syndrome after treatment with eltrombopag may serve to inform clinicians about the possible severe renal adverse effects of eltrombopag before its commencement for future use.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Benzoates/adverse effects , Hydrazines/adverse effects , Nephrotic Syndrome/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Humans , Kidney/drug effects , Male
13.
Leukemia ; 35(4): 1218, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139731
14.
Leukemia ; 35(4): 1219, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104464
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Baricitinib is supposed to have a double effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Firstly, it reduces the inflammatory response through the inhibition of the Januse-Kinase signalling transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Moreover, it reduces the receptor mediated viral endocytosis by AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) inhibition. We propose the use of baricinitib to prevent the progression of the respiratory insufficiency in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia in onco-haematological patients. In this phase Ib/II study, the primary objective in the safety cohort is to describe the incidence of severe adverse events associated with baricitinib administration. The primary objective of the randomized phase (baricitinib cohort versus standard of care cohort) is to evaluate the number of patients who did not require mechanical oxygen support since start of therapy until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). The secondary objectives of the study (only randomized phase of the study) are represented by the comparison between the two arms of the study in terms of mortality and toxicity at day+30. Moreover, a description of the immunological related changes between the two arms of the study will be reported. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a phase I/II study with a safety run-in cohort (phase 1) followed by an open label phase II randomized controlled trial with an experimental arm compared to a standard of care arm. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be performed at the Institut Català d'Oncologia, a tertiary level oncological referral center in the Catalonia region (Spain). The eligibility criteria are: patients > 18 years affected by oncological diseases; ECOG performance status < 2 (Karnofsky score > 60%); a laboratory confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by means of real -time PCR; radiological signs of low respiratory tract disease; absence of organ dysfunction (a total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, AST/ALT≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, coagulation within normal institutional limits, creatinine clearance >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal); absence of HIV infection; no active or latent HBV or HCV infection. The exclusion criteria are: patients with oncological diseases who are not candidates to receive any active oncological treatment; hemodynamic instability at time of study enrollment; impossibility to receive oral medication; medical history of recent or active pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis or patients at high-risk of suffering them (surgical intervention, immobilization); multi organ failure, rapid worsening of respiratory function with requirement of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 50% or high-flow nasal cannula before initiation of study treatment; uncontrolled intercurrent illness (ongoing or severe active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements); allergy to one or more of study treatments; pregnant or breastfeeding women; positive pregnancy test in a pre-dose examination. Patients should have the ability to understand, and the willingness to sign, a written informed consent document; the willingness to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm; and must agree not to enroll in another study of an investigational agent prior to completion of Day +28 of study. An electronic Case Report Form in the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform will be used to collect the data of the trial. Removal from the study will apply in case of unacceptable adverse event(s), development of an intercurrent illness, condition or procedural complication, which could interfere with the patient's continued participation and voluntary patient withdrawal from study treatment (all patients are free to withdraw from participation in this study at any time, for any reasons, specified or unspecified, and without prejudice). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Treatment will be administered on an inpatient basis. We will compare the experimental treatment with baricitinib plus the institutional standard of care compared with the standard of care alone. During the phase I, we will define the dose-limiting toxicity of baricitinib and the dose to be used in the phase 2 part of the study. The starting baricitinib dose will be an oral tablet 4 mg-once daily which can be reduced to 2 mg depending on the observed toxicity. The minimum duration of therapy will be 5 days and it can be extended to 7 days. The standard of care will include the following therapies. Antibiotics will be individualized based on clinical suspicion, including the management of febrile neutropenia. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease will be administered to all participants. Remdesivir administration will be considered only in patients with severe pneumonia (SatO2 <94%) with less than 7 days of onset of symptoms and with supplemental oxygen requirements but not using high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the randomized phase, tocilizumab or interferon will not be allowed in the experimental arm. Tocilizumab can be used in patients in the standard of care arm at the discretion of the investigator. If it is prescribed it will be used according to the following criteria: patients who, according to his baseline clinical condition, would be an ICU tributary, interstitial pneumonia with severe respiratory failure, patients who are not on mechanical ventilation or ECMO and who are still progressing with corticoid treatment or if they are not candidates for corticosteroids. Mild ARDS (PAFI <300 mmHg) with radiological or blood gases deterioration that meets at least one of the following criteria: CRP >100mg/L D-Dimer >1,000µg/L LDH >400U/L Ferritin >700ng/ml Interleukin 6 ≥40ng/L. The use of tocilizumab is not recommended if there are AST/ALT values greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, neutrophils <500 cells/mm3, sepsis due to other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, presence of comorbidity that can lead to a poor prognosis, complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation, ongoing skin infection. The dose will be that recommended by the Spanish Medicine Agency in patients ≥75Kg: 600mg dose whereas in patients <75kg: 400mg dose. Exceptionally, a second infusion can be assessed 12 hours after the first in those patients who experience a worsening of laboratory parameters after a first favourable response. The use of corticosteroids will be recommended in patients who have had symptoms for more than 7 days and who meet all the following criteria: need for oxygen support, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure or rapid deterioration of gas exchange, appearance or worsening of bilateral alveolar-interstitial infiltrates at the radiological level. In case of indication, it is recommended: dexamethasone 6mg/d p.o. or iv for 10 days or methylprednisolone 32mg/d orally or 30mg iv for 10 days or prednisone 40mg day p.o. for 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Phase 1 part: to describe the toxicity profile of baricitinib in COVID19 oncological patients during the 5-7 day treatment period and until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). Phase 2 part: to describe the number of patients in the experimental arm that will not require mechanical oxygen support compared to the standard of care arm until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). RANDOMISATION: For the phase 2 of the study, the allocation ratio will be 1:1. Randomization process will be carried out electronically through the REDcap platform ( https://www.project-redcap.org/ ) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study. No blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The first part of the study (safety run-in cohort) will consist in the enrollment of 6 to 12 patients. In this population, we will test the toxicity of the experimental treatment. An incidence of severe adverse events grade 3-4 (graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5.0) inferior than 33% will be considered sufficient to follow with the next part of the study. The second part of the study we will perform an interim analysis of efficacy at first 64 assessed patients and a definitive one will analyze 128 assessed patients. Interim and definitive tests will be performed considering in both cases an alpha error of 0.05. We consider for the control arm this rate is expected to be 0.60 and for the experimental arm of 0.80. Considering this data, a superiority test to prove a difference of 0.20 with an overall alpha error of 0.10 and a beta error of 0.2 will be performed. Considering a 5% of dropout rate, it is expected that a total of 136 patients, 68 for each study arm, will be required to complete study accrual. TRIAL STATUS: Version 5.0. 14th October 2020 Recruitment started on the 16th of December 2020. Expected end of recruitment is June 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AEMPs: 20-0356 EudraCT: 2020-001789-12, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search (Not publically available as Phase I trial) Clinical trials: BARCOVID19, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (In progress) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(12): 1333-1343, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008230

ABSTRACT

Importance: Baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor, effectively reduced disease severity in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in 2 phase 3 monotherapy studies. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of 4 mg and 2 mg of baricitinib in combination with background topical corticosteroid (TCS) therapy in adults with moderate to severe AD who previously had an inadequate response to TCS therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 randomized clinical trial, BREEZE-AD7 (Study of Baricitinib [LY3009104] in Combination With Topical Corticosteroids in Adults With Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis) was conducted from November 16, 2018, to August 22, 2019, at 68 centers across 10 countries in Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America. Patients 18 years or older with moderate to severe AD and an inadequate response to TCSs were included. After completing the study, patients were followed up for up to 4 weeks or enrolled in a long-term extension study. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 2 mg of baricitinib once daily (n = 109), 4 mg of baricitinib once daily (n = 111), or placebo (n = 109) for 16 weeks. The use of low-to-moderate potency TCSs was allowed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a validated Investigator Global Assessment for Atopic Dermatitis (vIGA-AD) score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear), with a 2-point or greater improvement from baseline at week 16. Results: Among 329 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.8 [12.4] years; 216 [66%] male), at week 16, a vIGA-AD score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) was achieved by 34 patients (31%) receiving 4 mg of baricitinib and 26 (24%) receiving 2 mg of baricitinib compared with 16 (15%) receiving placebo (odds ratio vs placebo, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.4-5.6]; P = .004 for the 4-mg group; 1.9 [95% CI, 0.9-3.9]; P = .08 for the 2-mg group). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 64 of 111 patients (58%) in the 4-mg group, 61 of 109 patients (56%) in the 2-mg group, and 41 of 108 patients (38%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 patients (4%) in the 4-mg group, 2 (2%) in the 2-mg group, and 4 (4%) in the placebo group. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, and folliculitis. Conclusions and Relevance: A dose of 4 mg of baricitinib in combination with background TCS therapy significantly improved the signs and symptoms of moderate to severe AD, with a safety profile consistent with previous studies of baricitinib in AD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03733301.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Oral , Adult , Azetidines/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Folliculitis/chemically induced , Folliculitis/epidemiology , Folliculitis/immunology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Janus Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngitis/chemically induced , Nasopharyngitis/epidemiology , Nasopharyngitis/immunology , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/chemically induced , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Young Adult
18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(9): 795-807, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is associated with dysregulated inflammation. The effects of combination treatment with baricitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, plus remdesivir are not known. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating baricitinib plus remdesivir in hospitalized adults with Covid-19. All the patients received remdesivir (≤10 days) and either baricitinib (≤14 days) or placebo (control). The primary outcome was the time to recovery. The key secondary outcome was clinical status at day 15. RESULTS: A total of 1033 patients underwent randomization (with 515 assigned to combination treatment and 518 to control). Patients receiving baricitinib had a median time to recovery of 7 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 8), as compared with 8 days (95% CI, 7 to 9) with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.32; P = 0.03), and a 30% higher odds of improvement in clinical status at day 15 (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). Patients receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation at enrollment had a time to recovery of 10 days with combination treatment and 18 days with control (rate ratio for recovery, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.08). The 28-day mortality was 5.1% in the combination group and 7.8% in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.09). Serious adverse events were less frequent in the combination group than in the control group (16.0% vs. 21.0%; difference, -5.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.8 to -0.3; P = 0.03), as were new infections (5.9% vs. 11.2%; difference, -5.3 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -1.9; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Baricitinib plus remdesivir was superior to remdesivir alone in reducing recovery time and accelerating improvement in clinical status among patients with Covid-19, notably among those receiving high-flow oxygen or noninvasive ventilation. The combination was associated with fewer serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04401579.).


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 786-789, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664612

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Indoles/administration & dosage , Indoles/adverse effects , Infliximab/administration & dosage , Infliximab/adverse effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/adverse effects , Nitriles , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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