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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 917-928, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706820

ABSTRACT

Clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings support an association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and thromboembolic disease. Acute COVID-19 infection is characterized by mononuclear cell reactivity and pan-endothelialitis, contributing to a high incidence of thrombosis in large and small blood vessels, both arterial and venous. Observational studies and randomized trials have investigated whether full-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes compared with prophylactic dose heparin. Although no benefit for therapeutic heparin has been found in patients who are critically ill hospitalized with COVID-19, some studies support a possible role for therapeutic anticoagulation in patients not yet requiring intensive care unit support. We summarize the pathology, rationale, and current evidence for use of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19 and describe the main design elements of the ongoing FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation trial, in which 3,600 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 not requiring intensive care unit level of care are being randomized to prophylactic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose apixaban. (FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation Strategy [FREEDOM COVID]; NCT04512079).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(1): 63-72, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702718

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is characterised by a viral phase and a severe pro-inflammatory phase. The inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway limits the pro-inflammatory state in moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: We analysed the data obtained by an observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with ruxolitinib in 22 hospitals of Mexico. The applied dose was determined based on physician's criteria. The benefit of ruxolitinib was evaluated using the 8-points ordinal scale developed by the NIH in the ACTT1 trial. Duration of hospital stay, changes in pro-inflammatory laboratory values, mortality, and toxicity were also measured. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients were reported at 22 sites in Mexico from March to June 2020; 80.8% received ruxolitinib 5 mg BID and 19.16% received ruxolitinib 10 mg BID plus standard of care. At beginning of treatment, 223 patients were on oxygen support and 59 on invasive ventilation. The percentage of patients on invasive ventilation was 53% in the 10 mg and 13% in the 5 mg cohort. A statistically significant improvement measured as a reduction by 2 points on the 8-point ordinal scale was described (baseline 5.39 ± 0.93, final 3.67± 2.98, p = 0.0001). There were 74 deaths. Serious adverse events were presented in 6.9% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ruxolitinib appears to be safe in COVID-19 patients, with clinical benefits observed in terms of decrease in the 8-point ordinal scale and pro-inflammatory state. Further studies must be done to ensure efficacy against mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyrazoles , Pyrimidines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Nitriles , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112592, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588215

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The most grievous complication of the COVID-19 is the acute respiratory distress syndrome. A specific, rescue treatment for rapidly deteriorating patients should emerge to improve respiratory function and help patients to survive the most challenging period. Drugs used in targeted therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) appears to be suitable for this task and this article describes their potential for treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. METHODS: The authors reviewed the following databases for randomized controlled trials, reviews and meta-analyses published up to July 2020: Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database and ClinicalKey. The authors included every study contributory to the assessment of the potential of drugs used in targeted PAH therapy in treatment of COVID-19. RESULTS: Endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, riociguat and prostacyclin have proven ani-inflammatory effect and reduce pulmonary artery blood pressure, lung oedema and remodelling. Bosentan shows antiviral properties and sildenafil, as well as epoprostenol, inhibits apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Among patients with lung lesions the decrease of pulmonary blood pressure can lead to increase of ventilation/perfusion mismatch and decrease of blood oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: Among all assessed drugs bosentan, sildenafil and epoprostenol appear to be most promising and a combination of these drugs should be considered due to synergism. The targeted PAH therapy in treatment of COVID-19 associated ARDS could be a useful tool saving lives of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, its introduction should be investigated and monitored very carefully as it can lead to transient deterioration of patient condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Artery/drug effects , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 569-578, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587444

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of risk factors and interventions influencing outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to evolve, revealing advances emerging from hypotheses formed at the start of the pandemic. Epidemiologic studies have shown that asthma control, rather than a diagnosis of asthma, is a determinant of COVID-19 severity. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, even in those with impaired cellular immunity, are variable. IL-6 has emerged as a reliable biomarker of COVID-19 severity, and large clinical trials have shown the potential for improving outcomes through inhibition of IL-6 signaling in some patients. Studies of genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 have also revealed the importance of interferon homeostasis in the defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Because COVID-19 vaccines constitute the primary tool for ending this pandemic, strategies have been developed to address potential allergic and immune-mediated reactions. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes within the context of allergic and immunologic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Asthma/virology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/mortality , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Prognosis , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1407-1418, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, participants were enrolled from 101 centres across 12 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Hospitalised adults with COVID-19 receiving standard of care were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily baricitinib (4 mg) or matched placebo for up to 14 days. Standard of care included systemic corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and antivirals, including remdesivir. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion who progressed to high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death by day 28, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. All-cause mortality by day 28 was a key secondary endpoint, and all-cause mortality by day 60 was an exploratory endpoint; both were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population defined as all randomly allocated participants who received at least one dose of study drug and who were not lost to follow-up before the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04421027. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 1525 participants were randomly assigned to the baricitinib group (n=764) or the placebo group (n=761). 1204 (79·3%) of 1518 participants with available data were receiving systemic corticosteroids at baseline, of whom 1099 (91·3%) were on dexamethasone; 287 (18·9%) participants were receiving remdesivir. Overall, 27·8% of participants receiving baricitinib and 30·5% receiving placebo progressed to meet the primary endpoint (odds ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·67 to 1·08], p=0·18), with an absolute risk difference of -2·7 percentage points (95% CI -7·3 to 1·9). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 8% (n=62) for baricitinib and 13% (n=100) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41-0·78]; nominal p=0·0018), a 38·2% relative reduction in mortality; one additional death was prevented per 20 baricitinib-treated participants. The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% (n=79) for baricitinib and 15% (n=116) for placebo (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·47-0·83]; p=0·0050). The frequencies of serious adverse events (110 [15%] of 750 in the baricitinib group vs 135 [18%] of 752 in the placebo group), serious infections (64 [9%] vs 74 [10%]), and venous thromboembolic events (20 [3%] vs 19 [3%]) were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: Although there was no significant reduction in the frequency of disease progression overall, treatment with baricitinib in addition to standard of care (including dexamethasone) had a similar safety profile to that of standard of care alone, and was associated with reduced mortality in hospitalised adults with COVID-19. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , Asia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Double-Blind Method , Europe , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Treatment Outcome
8.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 163, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flares of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been described in the context of various infections. Flares of rheumatic diseases in adults have been described following infection with SARS-CoV-2 in several cohorts. So far, the effect of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course of JIA is unknown. METHODS: The database of the German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology was searched for patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent disease flare, admitted from July 2020 until June 2021. cJADAS-27, ESR and C-reactive protein, as well as uveitis activity, medication at the time of flare and treatment of flare was extracted. Patient cases were described individually. RESULTS: Out of 988 patients admitted, five patients with remission off medication (n = 2) or inactive disease on medication (n = 3) were identified, with flare symptoms up to four weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Flares can occur after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with JIA in remission or inactive disease on medication. Treating physicians need to be aware of this fact, especially when counseling patients with rheumatic diseases about the respective dangers of COVID-19 and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Symptom Flare Up , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/metabolism , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Child , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/physiopathology
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1523-1534, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540137

ABSTRACT

The benefits of baricitinib in coronavirus disease-2019 are inadequately defined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of baricitinib to determine its clinical efficacy and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Databases were searched from their inception to September 5, 2021. The primary outcome was the coefficient of mortality. We also compared secondary indicators and adverse events between baricitinib treatment and placebo or other treatments. Twelve studies of 3564 patients were included and assessed qualitatively (modified Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores). Baricitinib effectively improved the mortality rate (relative risk of mortality = 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.69; p < 0.001; I2 = 2%), and this result was unchanged by subgroup analysis. Baricitinib improved intensive care unit admission, the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, and improved the oxygenation index. Data from these studies also showed that baricitinib slightly reduced the risk of adverse events. Regarding the choice of the drug dosage of baricitinib, the high-dose group appeared to have additional benefits for clinical efficacy. Our study shows that baricitinib may be a promising, safe, and effective anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 drug candidate, with the advantages of low cost, easy production, and convenient storage.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Azetidines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(23): 1538-1542, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537357

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiological course of COVID-19 can be distinguished in a phase of viral replication and an inflammatory phase. Hyperinflammatory processes promote the development of severe COVID-19. Therefore, immunomodulating agents came into focus. Dexamethasone has already become standard of care for treatment of severe COVID-19. Two large randomized trials and a meta-analysis of collectively nine randomized trials showed a reduced mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 if Tocilizumab - an IL-6-rezeptor antagonist - was added to standard of care. Treatment with Baricitinib - a JAK 1/2 inhibitor - may also be beneficial for patients without or on low oxygen supplementation. National and international guidelines recommend Tocilizumab for treatment of severe COVID-19. Treatment with JAK inhibitors is an option for hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19. It should be emphasized that comedication of JAK inhibitors and Tocilizumab is not recommended. Further high quality research is required for the widespread use of immunomodulating agents in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Humans , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 827-831, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic is currently underway. A massive worldwide vaccination campaign is still underway, representing the most promising weapon available to stop the pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: However, research continues to investigate the most effective drug treatments to reduce and avoid the most serious complications caused by COVID-19 infection. Recently, new evidence of good therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19 has emerged for the antiviral Remdesivir and the immunomodulatory Baricitinib, also in combination. The first one showed SARS-CoV-2 antireplicative activity, the second one useful to reduce the hyperinflammatory state caused by cytokine storm in the most severe phases of the infection. CONCLUSIONS: In this short communication we describe the molecular pharmacological mechanisms and the latest evidence for the use of these therapeutic agents in the treatment of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics
12.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525396

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
14.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460106

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
15.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 78(3): 294-302, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 morbimortality is mainly associated with development of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which has been related to an augmented immune response of the host with elevated circulating cytokines. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, single arm (compared with a historical control), add-on, experimental phase 2 study, ruxolitinib 5 mg BID was added to standard of care in COVID-19 patients. Main objective was to determine efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib in patients with COVID-19-related SARS. Results: Even though we could not show a significant reduction of COVID-19 pneumonia patients requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation (primary endpoint), a trend to a lower mortality rate in critical ill patients receiving ruxolitinib was reported. Administered ruxolitinib dose had to be increased according to protocol in 32% of patients, without additional toxicity. Conclusion: Side effects profile was manageable, and no direct organ injury was caused by the study drug. Ruxolitinib had a fast anti-inflammatory effect, and one-third of patients felt well immediately after starting treatment.


Introducción: La morbimortalidad por COVID-19 se asocia principalmente con el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS), relacionado con una respuesta inmunitaria aumentada del huésped con aumento de los niveles circulantes de citoquinas. Métodos: En este estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico, de un solo brazo (en comparación con un control histórico), en fase 2, se agregó ruxolitinib 5 mg dos veces al día al estándar de tratamiento en pacientes con COVID-19. El objetivo principal fue determinar la eficacia y seguridad de ruxolitinib en pacientes con SARS relacionado con COVID-19. Resultados: aunque no fue posible demostrar una reducción significativa de la proporción de pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19 que requerían ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica (criterio de valoración principal), se observó una tendencia a una menor tasa de mortalidad en los pacientes críticos que recibieron ruxolitinib. La dosis de ruxolitinib administrada tuvo que aumentarse de acuerdo con el protocolo en el 32% de los pacientes, sin toxicidad adicional. Conclusión: El perfil de efectos secundarios fue manejable y el fármaco en estudio no causó lesiones orgánicas directas. El ruxolitinib tuvo un efecto antiinflamatorio rápido y un tercio de los pacientes manifestó bienestar inmediatamente después de comenzar el tratamiento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Nitriles , Prospective Studies , Pyrimidines
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 21866-21902, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many recent studies have investigated the role of drug interventions for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, an important question has been raised about how to select the effective and secure medications for COVID-19 patients. The aim of this analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of the various medications available for severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients based on randomized placebo-controlled trials (RPCTs). METHODS: We did an updated network meta-analysis. We searched the databases from inception until July 31, 2021, with no language restrictions. We included RPCTs comparing 49 medications and placebo in the treatment of severe and non-severe patients (aged 18 years or older) with COVID-19 infection. We extracted data on the trial and patient characteristics, and the following primary outcomes: all-cause mortality, the ratios of virological cure, and treatment-emergent adverse events. Odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as effect estimates. RESULTS: From 3,869 publications, we included 61 articles related to 73 RPCTs (57 in non-severe COVID-19 patients and 16 in severe COVID-19 patients), comprising 20,680 patients. The mean sample size was 160 (interquartile range 96-393) in this study. The median duration of follow-up drugs intervention was 28 days (interquartile range 21-30). For increase in virological cure, we only found that proxalutamide (OR 9.16, 95% CI 3.15-18.30), ivermectin (OR 6.33, 95% CI 1.22-32.86), and low dosage bamlanivimab (OR 5.29, 95% CI 1.12-24.99) seemed to be associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients when compared with placebo, in which proxalutamide seemed to be better than low dosage bamlanivimab (OR 5.69, 95% CI 2.43-17.65). For decrease in all-cause mortality, we found that proxalutamide (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.09-0.19), imatinib (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.96), and baricitinib (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42-0.82) seemed to be associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients; however, we only found that immunoglobulin gamma (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.89) was related to severe COVID-19 patients when compared with placebo. For change in treatment-emergent adverse events, we only found that sotrovimab (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.13-0.34) was associated with non-severe COVID-19 patients; however, we did not find any medications that presented a statistical difference when compared with placebo among severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: We conclude that marked variations exist in the efficacy and safety of medications between severe and non-severe patients with COVID-19. It seems that monoclonal antibodies (e.g., low dosage bamlanivimab, baricitinib, imatinib, and sotrovimab) are a better choice for treating severe or non-severe COVID-19 patients. Clinical decisions to use preferentially medications should carefully consider the risk-benefit profile based on efficacy and safety of all active interventions in patients with COVID-19 at different levels of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Network Meta-Analysis , Oxazoles/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiohydantoins/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(1): 399-407, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor baricitinib may block viral entry into pneumocytes and prevent cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. We aimed to assess whether baricitinib improved pulmonary function in patients treated with high-dose corticosteroids for moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This observational study enrolled patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia [arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) <200 mmHg] who received lopinavir/ritonavir and HCQ plus either corticosteroids (CS group, n = 50) or corticosteroids and baricitinib (BCT-CS group, n = 62). The primary end point was the change in oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2)/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients requiring supplemental oxygen at discharge and 1 month later. Statistics were adjusted by the inverse propensity score weighting (IPSW). RESULTS: A greater improvement in SpO2/FiO2 from hospitalization to discharge was observed in the BCT-CS vs CS group (mean differences adjusted for IPSW, 49; 95% CI: 22, 77; P < 0.001). A higher proportion of patients required supplemental oxygen both at discharge (62.0% vs 25.8%; reduction of the risk by 82%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.43; P < 0.001) and 1 month later (28.0% vs 12.9%, reduction of the risk by 69%, OR adjusted for IPSW, 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.86; P = 0.024) in the CS vs BCT-CS group. CONCLUSIONS: . In patients with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia a combination of baricitinib with corticosteroids was associated with greater improvement in pulmonary function when compared with corticosteroids alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance, ENCEPP (EUPAS34966, http://www.encepp.eu/encepp/viewResource.htm? id = 34967).


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Endothelium, Vascular , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
20.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 815-825, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor is a small-molecule cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator regimen shown to be efficacious in patients with at least one Phe508del allele, which indicates that this combination can modulate a single Phe508del allele. In patients whose other CFTR allele contains a gating or residual function mutation that is already effectively treated with previous CFTR modulators (ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor), the potential for additional benefit from restoring Phe508del CFTR protein function is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled trial involving patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes. After a 4-week run-in period with ivacaftor or tezacaftor-ivacaftor, patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or active control for 8 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline through week 8 in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. RESULTS: After the run-in period, 132 patients received elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor and 126 received active control. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was higher by 3.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 4.6) relative to baseline and higher by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 2.2 to 4.7) relative to active control and a sweat chloride concentration that was lower by 22.3 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.2 to 24.5) relative to baseline and lower by 23.1 mmol per liter (95% CI, 20.1 to 26.1) relative to active control (P<0.001 for all comparisons). The change from baseline in the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain score (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better quality of life) with elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was 10.3 points (95% CI, 8.0 to 12.7) and with active control was 1.6 points (95% CI, -0.8 to 4.1). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups; adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in one patient (elevated aminotransferase level) in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group and in two patients (anxiety or depression and pulmonary exacerbation) in the active control group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious and safe in patients with Phe508del-gating or Phe508del-residual function genotypes and conferred additional benefit relative to previous CFTR modulators. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX18-445-104 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04058353.).


Subject(s)
Aminophenols/therapeutic use , Benzodioxoles/therapeutic use , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aminophenols/adverse effects , Benzodioxoles/adverse effects , Child , Chloride Channel Agonists/adverse effects , Chlorides/analysis , Cystic Fibrosis/genetics , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/genetics , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Genotype , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Male , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridines/adverse effects , Quinolines/adverse effects , Sweat/chemistry
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