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1.
J Med Entomol ; 59(1): 301-307, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784366

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of three groups of insect growth regulators, namely juvenile hormone mimics (methoprene and pyriproxyfen), chitin synthesis inhibitors (diflubenzuron and novaluron), and molting disruptor (cyromazine) was evaluated for the first time, against Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae from 14 districts in Sabah, Malaysia. The results showed that all field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible towards methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and cyromazine, with resistance ratio values ranging from 0.50-0.90, 0.60-1.00, 0.67-1.17, 0.71-1.29, and 0.74-1.07, respectively. Overall, the efficacy assessment of insect growth regulators in this study showed promising outcomes and they could be further explored as an alternative to conventional insecticides.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Juvenile Hormones/pharmacology , Mosquito Control/methods , Aedes/drug effects , Aedes/growth & development , Animals , Diflubenzuron/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Insecticides/pharmacology , Larva/drug effects , Larva/growth & development , Malaysia , Methoprene/pharmacology , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology
2.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 23-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (COVID-19) causes a pandemic that has been diagnosed in more than 70 million people worldwide. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms include coughing, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath, and acute inflammatory lung injury (ALI). In contrast, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure occur in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. ARDS is mediated, at least in part, by a dysregulated inflammatory response due to excessive levels of circulating cytokines, a condition known as the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Currently, there are FDA-approved therapies that attenuate the dysregulated inflammation that occurs in COVID-19 patients, such as dexamethasone or other corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors, including sarilumab, tocilizumab, and siltuximab. However, the efficacy of these treatments have been shown to be inconsistent. Compounds that activate the vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, GTS-21, attenuate ARDS/inflammatory lung injury by decreasing the extracellular levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the airways and the circulation. It is possible that HMGB1 may be an important mediator of the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Notably, high plasma levels of HMGB1 have been reported in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19, and there is a significant negative correlation between HMGB1 plasma levels and clinical outcomes. Nicotine can activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, which attenuates the up-regulation and the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Therefore, we hypothesize that low molecular weight compounds that activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as nicotine or GTS-21, may represent a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate the dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzylidene Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nicotine/metabolism , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , Pandemics , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922281, 2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a sudden and serious disease with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a novel target for inflammatory disease, and ibudilast (IBU), a PDE4 inhibitor, inhibits inflammatory response. Our study investigated the effect of IBU on the pathogenesis of neonatal ARDS and the underlying mechanism related to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression levels of PDE4, CXCR4, SDF-1, CXCR5, CXCL1, inflammatory cytokines, and proteins related to cell apoptosis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological morphology of lung tissue. Pulmonary edema score was used to assess the degree of lung water accumulation after pulmonary injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1) in serum. TUNEL assay was used to detect apoptotic cells. RESULTS Increased expression of PDE4 was observed in an LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model, and IBU ameliorated LPS-induced pathological manifestations and pulmonary edema in lung tissue. In addition, IBU attenuated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines by inactivating the chemokine axis in the LPS-induced neonatal ARDS mouse model. Finally, IBU significantly reduced LPS-induced cell apoptosis in lung tissue. CONCLUSIONS IBU, a PDE4 inhibitor, protected against ARDS by interfering with pulmonary inflammation and apoptosis. Our findings provide a novel and promising strategy to regulate pulmonary inflammation in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/pathology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438673

ABSTRACT

We report the design and synthesis of a series of new 5-chloropyridinyl esters of salicylic acid, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and related aromatic carboxylic acids for evaluation against SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme. These ester derivatives were synthesized using EDC in the presence of DMAP to provide various esters in good to excellent yields. Compounds are stable and purified by silica gel chromatography and characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral analysis. These synthetic derivatives were evaluated in our in vitro SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition assay using authentic SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro enzyme. Compounds were also evaluated in our in vitro antiviral assay using quantitative VeroE6 cell-based assay with RNAqPCR. A number of compounds exhibited potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitory activity and antiviral activity. Compound 9a was the most potent inhibitor, with an enzyme IC50 value of 160 nM. Compound 13b exhibited an enzyme IC50 value of 4.9 µM. However, it exhibited a potent antiviral EC50 value of 24 µM in VeroE6 cells. Remdesivir, an RdRp inhibitor, exhibited an antiviral EC50 value of 2.4 µM in the same assay. We assessed the mode of inhibition using mass spectral analysis which suggested the formation of a covalent bond with the enzyme. To obtain molecular insight, we have created a model of compound 9a bound to SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in the active site.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Esters/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Halogenation , Humans , Ibuprofen/analogs & derivatives , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Indomethacin/analogs & derivatives , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyridines/chemistry , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Salicylic Acid/chemistry , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Vero Cells
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 668, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387328

ABSTRACT

Except remdesivir, no specific antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently available. Here, we characterize two small-molecule-compounds, named GRL-1720 and 5h, containing an indoline and indole moiety, respectively, which target the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). We use VeroE6 cell-based assays with RNA-qPCR, cytopathic assays, and immunocytochemistry and show both compounds to block the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of 15 ± 4 and 4.2 ± 0.7 µM for GRL-1720 and 5h, respectively. Remdesivir permitted viral breakthrough at high concentrations; however, compound 5h completely blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro without viral breakthrough or detectable cytotoxicity. Combination of 5h and remdesivir exhibits synergism against SARS-CoV-2. Additional X-ray structural analysis show that 5h forms a covalent bond with Mpro and makes polar interactions with multiple active site amino acid residues. The present data suggest that 5h might serve as a lead Mpro inhibitor for the development of therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Proteases/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteases/metabolism
6.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305742

ABSTRACT

Malaria control relies heavily on the small number of existing antimalarial drugs. However, recurring antimalarial drug resistance necessitates the continual generation of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action. In order to shift the focus from only controlling this disease towards elimination and eradication, next-generation antimalarial agents need to address the gaps in the malaria drug arsenal. This includes developing drugs for chemoprotection, treating severe malaria and blocking transmission. Plasmodial kinases are promising targets for next-generation antimalarial drug development as they mediate critical cellular processes and some are active across multiple stages of the parasite's life cycle. This review gives an update on the progress made thus far with regards to plasmodial kinase small-molecule inhibitor development.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Casein Kinase I/metabolism , Culicidae , Drug Design , Drug Resistance , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphotransferases/chemistry , Plasmodium/enzymology , Pyridines/pharmacology
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282543

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused tremendous economic loss and serious health problems worldwide. In this study, we investigated 14 natural compounds isolated from Amphimedon sp. via a molecular docking study, to examine their ability to act as anti-COVID-19 agents. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic properties of the most promising compounds were studied. The docking study showed that virtually screened compounds were effective against the new coronavirus via dual inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and the 3CL main protease. In particular, nakinadine B (1), 20-hepacosenoic acid (11) and amphimedoside C (12) were the most promising compounds, as they demonstrated good interactions with the pockets of both enzymes. Based on the analysis of the molecular docking results, compounds 1 and 12 were selected for molecular dynamics simulation studies. Our results showed Amphimedon sp. to be a rich source for anti-COVID-19 metabolites.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Porifera/chemistry , Porifera/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Sugars/chemistry , Amino Sugars/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Biological Products/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/chemistry , Pyridines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21448, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242034

ABSTRACT

The in vitro interactions of isavuconazole with colistin were evaluated against 15 clinical Candida auris isolates by a microdilution checkerboard technique based on the EUCAST reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing and by agar diffusion using isavuconazole gradient concentration strips with or without colistin incorporated RPMI agar. Interpretation of the checkerboard results was done by the fractional inhibitory concentration index and by response surface analysis based on the Bliss model. By checkerboard, combination was synergistic for 93% of the isolates when interpretation of the data was done by fractional inhibitory concentration index, and for 80% of the isolates by response surface analysis interpretation. By agar diffusion test, although all MICs in combination decreased compared to isavuconazole alone, only 13% of the isolates met the definition of synergy. Essential agreement of EUCAST and gradient concentration strip MICs at +/- 2 log2 dilutions was 93.3%. Antagonistic interactions were never observed for any technique or interpretation model used.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Colistin/pharmacology , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Agar , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Synergism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(18): 10423-10429, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114156

ABSTRACT

The main protease of SARS-CoV-2 (Mpro ), the causative agent of COVID-19, constitutes a significant drug target. A new fluorogenic substrate was kinetically compared to an internally quenched fluorescent peptide and shown to be ideally suitable for high throughput screening with recombinantly expressed Mpro . Two classes of protease inhibitors, azanitriles and pyridyl esters, were identified, optimized and subjected to in-depth biochemical characterization. Tailored peptides equipped with the unique azanitrile warhead exhibited concomitant inhibition of Mpro and cathepsin L, a protease relevant for viral cell entry. Pyridyl indole esters were analyzed by a positional scanning. Our focused approach towards Mpro inhibitors proved to be superior to virtual screening. With two irreversible inhibitors, azanitrile 8 (kinac /Ki =37 500 m-1 s-1 , Ki =24.0 nm) and pyridyl ester 17 (kinac /Ki =29 100 m-1 s-1 , Ki =10.0 nm), promising drug candidates for further development have been discovered.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Nitriles/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyridines/chemistry , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 234, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065928

ABSTRACT

A new pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide and become pandemic with thousands new deaths and infected cases globally. To address coronavirus disease (COVID-19), currently no effective drug or vaccine is available. This necessity motivated us to explore potential lead compounds by considering drug repurposing approach targeting main protease (Mpro) enzyme of SARS-CoV-2. This enzyme considered to be an attractive drug target as it contributes significantly in mediating viral replication and transcription. Herein, comprehensive computational investigations were performed to identify potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro enzyme. The structure-based pharmacophore modeling was developed based on the co-crystallized structure of the enzyme with its biological active inhibitor. The generated hypotheses were applied for virtual screening based PhaseScore. Docking based virtual screening workflow was used to generate hit compounds using HTVS, SP and XP based Glide GScore. The pharmacological and physicochemical properties of the selected lead compounds were characterized using ADMET. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the binding affinities of the considered lead compounds. Binding energies revealed that compound ABBV-744 binds to the Mpro with strong affinity (ΔGbind -45.43 kcal/mol), and the complex is more stable in comparison with other protein-ligand complexes. Our study classified three best compounds which could be considered as promising inhibitors against main protease SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1856-1861, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreak of COVID-19 has been recognized as a global health concern since it causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. No specific antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of COVID-19 till date. Drug repurposing strategy helps to find out the drugs for COVID-19 treatment from existing FDA approved antiviral drugs. In this study, FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were repurposed against the major viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The 3D structures of FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs were retrieved from PubChem. Virtual screening was performed to find out the lead antiviral drug molecules against main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) using COVID-19 Docking Server. Furthermore, lead molecules were individually docked against protein targets using AutoDock 4.0.1 software and their drug-likeness and ADMET properties were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 65 FDA approved small molecule antiviral drugs screened, Raltegravir showed highest interaction energy value of -9 kcal/mol against Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 and Indinavir, Tipranavir, and Pibrentasvir exhibited a binding energy value of ≥-8 kcal/mol. Similarly Indinavir showed the highest binding energy of -11.5 kcal/mol against the target protein RdRp and Dolutegravir, Elbasvir, Tipranavir, Taltegravir, Grazoprevir, Daclatasvir, Glecaprevir, Ledipasvir, Pibrentasvir and Velpatasvir showed a binding energy value in range from -8 to -11.2 kcal/mol. The antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine also exhibited good bioavailability and drug-likeness properties. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the screened small molecule antiviral drugs Raltegravir, Indinavir, Tipranavir, Dolutegravir, and Etravirine could serve as potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 with further validation studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Indinavir/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitriles/pharmacology , Oxazines/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Pyrones/pharmacology , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(21): 4971-4974, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998832

ABSTRACT

In the search to rapidly identify effective therapies that will mitigate the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19, attention has been directed towards the repurposing of existing drugs. Candidates for repurposing include drugs that target COVID-19 pathobiology, including agents that alter angiotensin signalling. Recent data indicate that key findings in COVID-19 patients include thrombosis and endotheliitis. Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), in particular by the serine protease thrombin, is a critical element in platelet aggregation and coagulation. PAR1 activation also impacts on the actions of other cell types involved in COVID-19 pathobiology, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. Vorapaxar is an approved inhibitor of PAR1, used for treatment of patients with myocardial infarction or peripheral arterial disease. We discuss evidence for a possible beneficial role for vorapaxar in the treatment of COVID-19 patients and other as-yet non-approved antagonists of PAR1 and proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4). LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed issue on The Pharmacology of COVID-19. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.21/issuetoc.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lactones/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Receptor, PAR-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Lactones/pharmacology , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Receptors, Thrombin/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Thrombin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 981-984, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990724

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to immunothrombosis and have been associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We stimulated donor neutrophils with plasma from patients with COVID-19 and demonstrated that R406 can abrogate the release of NETs. These data provide evidence for how fostamatinib may mitigate neutrophil-associated mechanisms contributing to COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Neutrophils/drug effects , Oxazines/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Aminopyridines , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Morpholines , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
F1000Res ; 9: 1166, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934653

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), took more lives than combined epidemics of SARS, MERS, H1N1, and Ebola. Currently, the prevention and control of spread are the goals in COVID-19 management as there are no specific drugs to cure or vaccines available for prevention. Hence, the drug repurposing was explored by many research groups, and many target proteins have been examined. The major protease (M pro), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) are two target proteins in SARS-CoV-2 that have been validated and extensively studied for drug development in COVID-19. The RdRp shares a high degree of homology between those of two previously known coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Methods: In this study, the FDA approved library of drugs were docked against the active site of RdRp using Schrodinger's computer-aided drug discovery tools for in silico drug-repurposing. Results: We have shortlisted 14 drugs from the Standard Precision docking and interaction-wise study of drug-binding with the active site on the enzyme. These drugs are antibiotics, NSAIDs, hypolipidemic, coagulant, thrombolytic, and anti-allergics. In molecular dynamics simulations, pitavastatin, ridogrel and rosoxacin displayed superior binding with the active site through ARG555 and divalent magnesium. Conclusion: Pitavastatin, ridogrel and rosoxacin can be further optimized in preclinical and clinical studies to determine their possible role in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pentanoic Acids/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 12223-12240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934619

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Many viral infections are known to activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. However, the role of p38 activation in viral infection and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The role of virus-hijacked p38 MAPK activation in viral infection was investigated in this study. Methods: The correlation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and p38 activation was studied in patient tissues and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Coimmunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the interaction of p38α and the HCV core protein. In vitro kinase assays and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the phosphorylation of the HCV core protein. Plaque assays, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to determine the effect of p38 activation on viral replication. Results: HCV infection was associated with p38 activation in clinical samples. HCV infection increased p38 phosphorylation by triggering the interaction of p38α and TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (TAB1). TAB1-mediated p38α activation facilitated HCV replication, and pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α activation by SB203580 suppressed HCV infection at the viral assembly step. Activated p38α interacted with the N-terminal region of the HCV core protein and subsequently phosphorylated the HCV core protein, which promoted HCV core protein oligomerization, an essential step for viral assembly. As expected, SB203580 or the HCV core protein N-terminal peptide (CN-peptide) disrupted the p38α-HCV core protein interaction, efficiently impaired HCV assembly and impeded normal HCV replication in both cultured cells and primary human hepatocytes. Similarly, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection also activated p38 MAPK. Most importantly, pharmacological blockage of p38 activation by SB203580 effectively inhibited SFTSV, HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Our study shows that virus-hijacked p38 activation is a key event for viral replication and that pharmacological blockage of p38 activation is an antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hepacivirus/metabolism , Hepatitis C/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphorylation , Pyridines/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Core Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 98, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation, in combination with supraphysiological concentrations of oxygen (i.e., hyperoxia), is routinely used to treat patients with respiratory distress, such as COVID-19. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia compromises the clearance of invading pathogens by impairing macrophage phagocytosis. Previously, we have shown that the exposure of mice to hyperoxia induces the release of the nuclear protein high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) into the pulmonary airways. Furthermore, extracellular HMGB1 impairs macrophage phagocytosis and increases the mortality of mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). The aim of this study was to determine whether GTS-21 (3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) anabaseine), an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, could (1) inhibit hyperoxia-induced HMGB1 release into the airways; (2) enhance macrophage phagocytosis and (3) increase bacterial clearance from the lungs in a mouse model of ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHOD: GTS-21 (0.04, 0.4, and 4 mg/kg) or saline were administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice that were exposed to hyperoxia (≥ 99% O2) and subsequently challenged with PA. RESULTS: The systemic administration of 4 mg/kg i.p. of GTS-21 significantly increased bacterial clearance, decreased acute lung injury and decreased accumulation of airway HMGB1 compared to the saline control. To determine the mechanism of action of GTS-21, RAW 264.7 cells, a macrophage-like cell line, were incubated with different concentrations of GTS-21 in the presence of 95% O2. The phagocytic activity of macrophages was significantly increased by GTS-21 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GTS-21 significantly inhibited the cytoplasmic translocation and release of HMGB1 from RAW 264.7 cells and attenuated hyperoxia-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages and mouse lungs exposed to hyperoxia and infected with PA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that GTS-21 is efficacious in improving bacterial clearance and reducing acute lung injury via enhancing macrophage function by inhibiting the release of nuclear HMGB1. Therefore, the α7nAChR represents a possible pharmacological target to improve the clinical outcome of patients on ventilators by augmenting host defense against bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Benzylidene Compounds/pharmacology , Hyperoxia/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pyridines/pharmacology , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/drug therapy , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Hyperoxia/diet therapy , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , RAW 264.7 Cells
17.
J Mol Graph Model ; 101: 107730, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863411

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is an attractive target towards discovery of drugs to treat COVID-19 because of its key role in virus replication. The atomic structure of Mpro in complex with an α-ketoamide inhibitor (Lig13b) is available (PDB ID:6Y2G). Using 6Y2G and the prior knowledge that protease inhibitors could eradicate COVID-19, we designed a computational study aimed at identifying FDA-approved drugs that could interact with Mpro. We searched the DrugBank and PubChem for analogs and built a virtual library containing ∼33,000 conformers. Using high-throughput virtual screening and ligand docking, we identified Isavuconazonium, a ketoamide inhibitor (α-KI) and Pentagastrin as the top three molecules (Lig13b as the benchmark) based on docking energy. The ΔGbind of Lig13b, Isavuconazonium, α-KI, Pentagastrin was -28.1, -45.7, -44.7, -34.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that these ligands are stable within the Mpro active site. Binding of these ligands is driven by a variety of non-bonded interaction, including polar bonds, H-bonds, van der Waals and salt bridges. The overall conformational dynamics of the complexed-Mpro was slightly altered relative to apo-Mpro. This study demonstrates that three distinct classes molecules, Isavuconazonium (triazole), α-KI (ketoamide) and Pentagastrin (peptide) could serve as potential drugs to treat patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Nitriles/pharmacology , Pentagastrin/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Triazoles/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catalytic Domain , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drug Approval , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Pentagastrin/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyridines/chemistry , Triazoles/chemistry , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2750, 2020 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680538

ABSTRACT

Influenza viruses annually kill 290,000-650,000 people worldwide. Antivirals can reduce death tolls. Baloxavir, the recently approved influenza antiviral, inhibits initiation of viral mRNA synthesis, whereas oseltamivir, an older drug, inhibits release of virus progeny. Baloxavir blocks virus replication more rapidly and completely than oseltamivir, reducing the duration of infectiousness. Hence, early baloxavir treatment may indirectly prevent transmission. Here, we estimate impacts of ramping up and accelerating baloxavir treatment on population-level incidence using a new model that links viral load dynamics from clinical trial data to between-host transmission. We estimate that ~22 million infections and >6,000 deaths would have been averted in the 2017-2018 epidemic season by administering baloxavir to 30% of infected cases within 48 h after symptom onset. Treatment within 24 h would almost double the impact. Consequently, scaling up early baloxavir treatment would substantially reduce influenza morbidity and mortality every year. The development of antivirals against the SARS-CoV2 virus that function like baloxavir might similarly curtail transmission and save lives.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemics , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Thiepins/therapeutic use , Triazines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Proliferation , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dibenzothiepins , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Morpholines , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Public Health , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyridones , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Thiepins/pharmacology , Triazines/pharmacology , Viral Load , Virus Replication/drug effects
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