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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736922

ABSTRACT

Flu is a serious health, medical, and economic problem, but no therapy is yet available that has satisfactory results and reduces the occurrence of these problems. Nearly 20 years after the registration of the previous therapy, baloxavir marboxil, a drug with a new mechanism of action, recently appeared on the market. This is a promising step in the fight against the influenza virus. This article presents the possibilities of using all available antiviral drugs specific for influenza A and B. We compare all currently recommended anti-influenza medications, considering their mechanisms of action, administration, indications, target groups, effectiveness, and safety profiles. We demonstrate that baloxavir marboxil presents a similar safety and efficacy profile to those of drugs already used in the treatment of influenza. Further research on combination therapy is highly recommended and may have promising results.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Neuraminidase/therapeutic use , Pyridones
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(3): e25885, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729149

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, dolutegravir-based treatment was recommended as first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Dolutegravir has clinically significant interactions with several commonly used drugs, such as rifampicin, metformin and cation-containing medicines. National guidelines detail these interactions and how to manage them. While previous international studies have shown low healthcare worker knowledge of drug-drug interactions, there is a paucity of information on antiretroviral interaction knowledge in the South African setting, where much ART is nurse-led. The study aimed to determine this knowledge and to describe which variables were associated with gaps in knowledge. METHODS: An anonymous online survey of healthcare workers in the field of HIV was conducted in August/September 2020. The survey was designed, tested and piloted, and included sections on demographics, guideline access and training, interaction knowledge, counselling and the effect of COVID-19. Dissemination was via e-mail and social media (convenience sampling). Descriptive and inferential analysis was done using proportions and the 95% confidence interval to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Research ethics approval was obtained from the University of Cape Town's Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC Ref: 357/2020). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In total, 1950 survey responses were included in the analysis - 47.1% nurses, 35.8% doctors and 8.9% pharmacists. When asked whether they were aware that dolutegravir has interactions, 70% said yes, 13.9% said no and 16.1% did not answer. Knowledge of specific interactions and the dosing changes needed was low with a wide range between different drugs: 79.7% knew to double the dolutegravir dose with rifampicin, but with calcium, 5.1% picked both correct dosing options and 33.7% picked one of the two correct options. Access to guidelines and training were positively associated with drug interaction knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in the awareness and knowledge of dolutegravir interactions and how to adjust dosing among South African healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Interactions , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Oxazines , Piperazines , Pyridones , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
3.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 69: 102038, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed the health-care systems around the world in a remarkable way. We describe the strategies adopted to cope with the limitations imposed by the pandemic to the access to health care by patients diagnosed with idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational analysis including IPF patients under antifibrotic drugs (nintedanib and pirfenidone) that accessed to the Outpatient clinic of the University of Palermo, Italy. Patients received a phone number and an email address in case of any urgency and a virtual meeting was settled up monthly. RESULTS: 40 patients (M/F: 30/10) were followed up, 33 under nintedanib treatment, 7 under pirfenidone. Among patients under nintedanib, 1 patient reported high fever (T max 39 °C) and purulent sputum with no sign of infections, 1 had hemoptysis that was spontaneously resolved. 2 patients accessed to the emergency department for the worsening of dyspnea; 5 patients had diarrhea that resolved with symptomatic drugs in few days. 3 patients had an increase of alkaline phosphatase levels, leading to the withdrawal of the antifibrotic drug for 15 days, and subsequent normalization of the plasmatic levels. Among patients under pirfenidone, one subject had an increase of ferritin serum levels with no symptoms. The remaining subjects were in stable clinical conditions. None of the patients reported hospitalization or exacerbations, and did not experience antifibrotic withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to demonstrate that by implementing alternative ways to monitor the disease, patients did not incur in increased rates of acute exacerbations or higher frequency of side effects and antifibrotic treatment withdrawal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pyridones/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(9): 917-928, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706820

ABSTRACT

Clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings support an association between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and thromboembolic disease. Acute COVID-19 infection is characterized by mononuclear cell reactivity and pan-endothelialitis, contributing to a high incidence of thrombosis in large and small blood vessels, both arterial and venous. Observational studies and randomized trials have investigated whether full-dose anticoagulation may improve outcomes compared with prophylactic dose heparin. Although no benefit for therapeutic heparin has been found in patients who are critically ill hospitalized with COVID-19, some studies support a possible role for therapeutic anticoagulation in patients not yet requiring intensive care unit support. We summarize the pathology, rationale, and current evidence for use of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19 and describe the main design elements of the ongoing FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation trial, in which 3,600 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 not requiring intensive care unit level of care are being randomized to prophylactic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose enoxaparin vs therapeutic-dose apixaban. (FREEDOM COVID-19 Anticoagulation Strategy [FREEDOM COVID]; NCT04512079).


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/virology
5.
Org Lett ; 24(3): 804-808, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632912

ABSTRACT

A chemical investigation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus californicus led to the isolation of a polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid, calipyridone A (1). A putative biosynthetic gene cluster cpd for production of 1 was next identified by genome mining. The role of the cpd cluster in the production of 1 was confirmed by multiple gene deletion experiments in the host strain as well as by heterologous expression of the hybrid gene cpdA inAspergillus oryzae. Moreover, chemical analyses of the mutant strains allowed the biosynthesis of 1 to be elucidated. The results indicate that the generation of the 2-pyridone moiety of 1 via nucleophilic attack of the iminol nitrogen to the carbonyl carbon is different from the biosynthesis of other fungal 2-pyridone products through P450-catalyzed tetramic acid ring expansions. In addition, two biogenetic intermediates, calipyridones B and C, showed modest inhibition effects on the plaque-forming ability of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/metabolism , Pyridones/metabolism , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Gene Deletion , Humans , Multigene Family/genetics , Polyketides/metabolism , Polyketides/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyrrolidinones/metabolism , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(9): e104-e109, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The effect of apixaban on anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) assays and international normalized ratio (INR) complicates transitions between anticoagulant agents. When switching from apixaban to warfarin, the recommendation is to begin both a parenteral anticoagulant and warfarin at the time of the next apixaban dose and to discontinue the parenteral agent when the INR is in an acceptable range. This proves challenging in renal dysfunction, as continued presence of apixaban contributes to both a prolonged effect on the INR and continued therapeutic levels of anticoagulation. SUMMARY: This case describes the transition of apixaban to warfarin in a patient with acute on chronic kidney disease and recent deep vein thrombosis, utilizing chromogenic apixaban anti-Xa assays to assess the level of anticoagulation and avoid unnecessary parenteral anticoagulation. CONCLUSION: Utilization of apixaban anti-Xa levels aided in the transition from apixaban to warfarin in a patient with chronic renal failure and avoided need for parenteral bridging therapy.


Subject(s)
Kidney Diseases , Warfarin , Anticoagulants , Factor Xa Inhibitors , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Pyrazoles , Pyridones
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546479

ABSTRACT

A 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for COVID-19. He had been treated for essential thrombocythemia (ET). He was diagnosed severe illness of COVID-19, oxygen therapy and dexamethasone were administered. There was a possibility of thromboembolic events in this case, apixaban for prophylaxis was added. With these treatments, the patient has made a good recovery, and he was discharged on hospital day 11. There is no standard strategy for prophylaxis of thrombosis in patients with ET, and apixaban could be a clinical benefit for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocythemia, Essential , Adult , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Pyrazoles , Pyridones , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocythemia, Essential/complications , Thrombocythemia, Essential/drug therapy
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
10.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(12): 1183-1195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541410

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lung injury in severe COVID-19 pneumonia can rapidly evolve to established pulmonary fibrosis, with prognostic implications in the acute phase of the disease and long-lasting impact on the quality of life of COVID-19 survivors. This is an emerging medical need, and it has been hypothesized that antifibrotic treatments could have a role in ameliorating the fibrotic process in the lungs of these patients. AREAS COVERED: The safety and efficacy of available antifibrotic drugs (nintedanib and pirfenidone) and novel promising agents are being assessed in several ongoing clinical trials that were performed either in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care, or in discharged patients presenting fibrotic sequalae from COVID-19. Literature search was performed using Medline and Clinicaltrials.org databases (2001-2021). EXPERT OPINION: Despite the strong rationale support the use of antifibrotic therapies in COVID-related fibrosis, there are several uncertainties regarding the timing for their introduction and the real risks/benefits ratio of antifibrotic treatment in the acute and the chronic phases of the disease. The findings of ongoing clinical trials and the long-term observation of longitudinal cohorts will eventually clarify the best management approach for these patients.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Animals , Critical Illness , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones
11.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525396

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102328, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiometabolic disease may confer increased risk of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients by activation of the aldose reductase pathway. We hypothesized that aldose reductase inhibition with AT-001 might reduce viral inflammation and risk of adverse outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an open-label prospective phase 2 clinical trial to assess safety, tolerability and efficacy of AT-001 in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, history of diabetes mellitus and chronic heart disease. Eligible participants were prospectively enrolled and treated with AT-001 1500 mg BID for up to 14 days. Safety, tolerability, survival and length of hospital stay (LOS) were collected from the electronic medical record and compared with data from two matched control groups (MC1 and MC2) selected from a deidentified registry of COVID-19 patients at the same institution. RESULTS: AT-001 was safe and well tolerated in the 10 participants who received the study drug. In-hospital mortality observed in the AT-001 group was 20% vs. 31% in MC1 and 27% in MC2. Mean LOS observed in the AT-001 group was 5 days vs. 10 days in MC1 and 25 days in MC2. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and co-morbid diabetes mellitus and heart disease, treatment with AT-001 was safe and well tolerated. Exposure to AT-001 was associated with a trend of reduced mortality and shortened LOS. While the observed trend did not reach statistical significance, the present study provides the rationale for investigating potential benefit of AT-001 in COVID 19 affected patients in future studies.


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors , Benzothiazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Registries , Aged , Benzothiazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology
13.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(12): e14961, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483892

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term pirfenidone treatment on prolonged COVID-19 pneumonia. METHOD: Hospital files of patients hospitalised with a diagnosis of critical COVID-19 pneumonia from November 2020 to March 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Chest computed tomography images taken both before treatment and 2 months after treatment, demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters of patients receiving pirfenidone + methylprednisolone (n = 13) and only methylprednisolones (n = 9) were recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed after the second month of the treatment. CT involvement rates were determined by machine learning. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients, 13 of whom (59.1%) were using methylprednisolone + pirfenidone and 9 of whom (40.9%) were using only methylprednisolone were included. When the blood gas parameters and pulmonary function tests of the patients were compared at the end of the second month, it was found that the FEV1, FEV1%, FVC and FVC% values were statistically significantly higher in the methylprednisolone + pirfenidone group compared with the methylprednisolone group (P = .025, P = .012, P = .026 and P = .017, respectively). When the rates of change in CT scans at diagnosis and second month of treatment were examined, it was found that the involvement rates in the methylprednisolone + pirfenidone group were statistically significantly decreased (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Antifibrotic agents can reduce fibrosis that may develop in the future. These can also help dose reduction and/or non-use strategy for methylprednisolone therapy, which has many side effects. Further large series and randomised controlled studies are needed on this subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Vital Capacity
14.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463908

ABSTRACT

A group of Vanguard Community Health Centre doctors embarked on a Health System's Improvement (HSI) project with the aim of reducing harm to renal function in patients who were either commenced on or switched to a dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen since 2019, when the usual monitoring and evaluation of ART-regimen switches were disrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This intended harm-reduction exercise, involving a reflective process that was facilitated by the family physician, led to the development of a Vanguard Renal Protection Surveillance tool, which is now used at Vanguard to detect and prevent renal decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Kidney/physiology , Oxazines , Physicians, Family , Piperazines , Pyridones , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JAMA ; 326(17): 1703-1712, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460106

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acutely ill inpatients with COVID-19 typically receive antithrombotic therapy, although the risks and benefits of this intervention among outpatients with COVID-19 have not been established. Objective: To assess whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy can safely reduce major adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes among symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ACTIV-4B Outpatient Thrombosis Prevention Trial was designed as a minimal-contact, adaptive, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy among 7000 symptomatic but clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19. The trial was conducted at 52 US sites between September 2020 and June 2021; final follow-up was August 5, 2021. Prior to initiating treatment, participants were required to have platelet count greater than 100 000/mm3 and estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Interventions: Random allocation in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to aspirin (81 mg orally once daily; n = 164), prophylactic-dose apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily; n = 165), therapeutic-dose apixaban (5 mg orally twice daily; n = 164), or placebo (n = 164) for 45 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality, symptomatic venous or arterial thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for cardiovascular or pulmonary cause. The primary analyses for efficacy and bleeding events were limited to participants who took at least 1 dose of trial medication. Results: On June 18, 2021, the trial data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination because of lower than anticipated event rates; at that time, 657 symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 had been randomized (median age, 54 years [IQR, 46-59]; 59% women). The median times from diagnosis to randomization and from randomization to initiation of study treatment were 7 days and 3 days, respectively. Twenty-two randomized participants (3.3%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 prior to initiating treatment. Among the 558 patients who initiated treatment, the adjudicated primary composite end point occurred in 1 patient (0.7%) in the aspirin group, 1 patient (0.7%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, 2 patients (1.4%) in the 5-mg apixaban group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the placebo group. The risk differences compared with placebo for the primary end point were 0.0% (95% CI not calculable) in the aspirin group, 0.7% (95% CI, -2.1% to 4.1%) in the 2.5-mg apixaban group, and 1.4% (95% CI, -1.5% to 5.0%) in the 5-mg apixaban group. Risk differences compared with placebo for bleeding events were 2.0% (95% CI, -2.7% to 6.8%), 4.5% (95% CI, -0.7% to 10.2%), and 6.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 12.9%) among participants who initiated therapy in the aspirin, prophylactic apixaban, and therapeutic apixaban groups, respectively, although none were major. Findings inclusive of all randomized patients were similar. Conclusions and Relevance: Among symptomatic clinically stable outpatients with COVID-19, treatment with aspirin or apixaban compared with placebo did not reduce the rate of a composite clinical outcome. However, the study was terminated after enrollment of 9% of participants because of an event rate lower than anticipated. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498273.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aspirin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects
16.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 6(11): 889-902, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433978

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AMP kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor implicated in regulation of lipid metabolism, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of PXL770, a novel direct AMPK activator, in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: STAMP-NAFLD, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2a study, was done across 15 US clinical sites. Patients aged 18-75 years with liver fat content of at least 10% at baseline when assessed by MRI-proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), via an interactive web response system, to receive oral PXL770 250 mg once daily, 250 mg twice daily, or 500 mg once daily, or matched placebo. Patients were stratified according to type 2 diabetes status and study site. The primary endpoint was relative change in liver fat content from baseline compared with placebo at week 12, assessed by MRI-PDFF. The primary endpoint was analysed in an ANCOVA model with treatment and stratification criteria as factors and baseline liver fat content as a covariate in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all as-randomised patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Safety was analysed in the safety population, defined as all as-treated patients receiving at least one dose of the study treatment. The trial has been completed and the final results are reported. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03763877. FINDINGS: Between March 29, 2019, and March 13, 2020, 387 patients were screened, of whom 120 were included in the modified intention-to-treat and safety analyses (30 in the 250 mg once daily group, 30 in the 250 mg twice daily group, 29 in the 500 mg once daily group, and 31 in the placebo group). The mean relative change from baseline in liver fat content at week 12 was -1·1% in the placebo group, -1·0% in the 250 mg once daily group (mean difference versus placebo 0·1% [95% CI -15·4 to 15·7], p=0·99), -14·3% in the 250 mg twice daily group (-13·1% [-28·1 to 1·8], p=0·084), and -14·7% in the 500 mg once daily group (-13·5% [-28·5 to 1·4], p=0·076). At least one treatment-emergent adverse event occurred in 23 (77%) of 30 patients in the 250 mg once daily group, 20 (67%) of 30 patients in the 250 mg twice daily group, 21 (72%) of 29 patients in the 500 mg once daily group, and 21 (68%) of 31 patients in the placebo group. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was diarrhoea (five [17%] of patients in the 250 mg once daily group, seven [23%] in the 250 mg twice daily group, six [21%] in the 500 mg once daily group, and none in the placebo group). No life-threatening events or treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: PXL770 treatment did not meet the primary outcome of liver fat improvement compared with placebo. Treatment was well tolerated. Given indications that metabolic features improved with PXL770 treatment, AMPK activation might be a promising pharmacological target for patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD, and could also be considered for further assessment in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. FUNDING: Poxel.


Subject(s)
Adenylate Kinase/metabolism , Lipid Regulating Agents/therapeutic use , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Tetrahydronaphthalenes/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Pyridones/adverse effects , Tetrahydronaphthalenes/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411086

ABSTRACT

Our therapeutic arsenal against viruses is very limited and the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the critical need for effective antivirals against emerging coronaviruses. Cellular assays allowing a precise quantification of viral replication in high-throughput experimental settings are essential to the screening of chemical libraries and the selection of best antiviral chemical structures. To develop a reporting system for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we generated cell lines expressing a firefly luciferase maintained in an inactive form by a consensus cleavage site for the viral protease 3CLPro of coronaviruses, so that the luminescent biosensor is turned on upon 3CLPro expression or SARS-CoV-2 infection. This cellular assay was used to screen a metabolism-oriented library of 492 compounds to identify metabolic vulnerabilities of coronaviruses for developing innovative therapeutic strategies. In agreement with recent reports, inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis were found to prevent SARS-CoV-2 replication. Among the top hits, we also identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor Setanaxib. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Setanaxib was further confirmed using ACE2-expressing human pulmonary cells Beas2B as well as human primary nasal epithelial cells. Altogether, these results validate our cell-based functional assay and the interest of screening libraries of different origins to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 for drug repurposing or development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases, Firefly/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pyrazolones/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 346-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401066

ABSTRACT

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are not recommended in COVID-19 patients receiving dexamethasone because of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions affecting anticoagulant concentration and activity. To evaluate short- and long-term pharmacokinetic interactions, serial through and peak DOAC plasma levels were prospectively measured during and after dexamethasone therapy, as well as during the acute phase and after recovery from COVID-19 in hospitalized, non-critically ill patients undergoing treatment with DOACs. Thirty-three (18 males, mean age 79 years) consecutive patients received DOACs (17 apixaban, 12 rivaroxaban, 4 edoxaban) for atrial fibrillation (n = 22), venous thromboembolism (n = 10), and acute myocardial infarction (n = 1). Twenty-six patients also received dexamethasone at a dose of 6 mg once daily for a median of 14 days. Trough DOAC levels on dexamethasone were within and below expected reference ranges respectively in 87.5 and 8.3% of patients, with no statistically significant differences at 48-72 h and 14-21 days after dexamethasone discontinuation. Peak DOAC levels on dexamethasone were within expected reference ranges in 58.3% of patients, and below ranges in 33.3%, of whom over two thirds had low values also off dexamethasone. No significant differences in DOAC levels were found during hospitalization and after resolution of COVID-19. Overall, 28 patients were discharged alive, and none experienced thrombotic or bleeding events. In this study, dexamethasone administration or acute COVID-19 seemed not to affect DOAC levels in hospitalized, non-critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Administration, Oral , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(11): 1615-1618, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384377

ABSTRACT

AIM: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been divided by scientific opinion into three phases: the first as asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic and the second and the third with greater severity, characterized by a hyperinflammatory and fibrotic state, responsible for lung lesions, in some cases fatal. The development of antiviral drugs directed against SARS-CoV-2 and effective vaccines is progressing; meanwhile, the best pharmacological objective is related to the management of all the complications caused by this viral infection, mainly controlling the inflammatory and fibrotic state and preventing the infection from moving into the most serious phases. SUBJECT AND METHOD: Describe the scientific rationale related to the use of an antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone, as monotherapy and/or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs to manage and control complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Based on the scientific literature and epidemiological results and considering the pathophysiological, biological, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, an antifibrotic drug such as pirfenidone as monotherapy or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs can be (acting early, at the right doses and at the right time) therapeutically effective to avoid serious complications during viral infection. The same approach can also be effective as postinfection therapy in patients with residual pulmonary fibrotic damage. Management of inflammation and fibrotic status with a combination therapy of pirfenidone and IL-6 or IL-1 inhibitors could represent a pharmacological synergy with added value. CONCLUSION: In this article, we consider the role of antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection on going or in the stage of postinfection with pulmonary fibrotic consequences. The scientific rationale for its use is also described.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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