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JCI Insight ; 7(1)2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528616


Sangivamycin is a nucleoside analog that is well tolerated by humans and broadly active against phylogenetically distinct viruses, including arenaviruses, filoviruses, and orthopoxviruses. Here, we show that sangivamycin is a potent antiviral against multiple variants of replicative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration in the nanomolar range in several cell types. Sangivamycin suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication with greater efficacy than remdesivir (another broad-spectrum nucleoside analog). When we investigated sangivamycin's potential for clinical administration, pharmacokinetic; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME); and toxicity properties were found to be favorable. When tested in combination with remdesivir, efficacy was additive rather than competitive against SARS-CoV-2. The proven safety in humans, long half-life, potent antiviral activity (compared to remdesivir), and combinatorial potential suggest that sangivamycin is likely to be efficacious alone or in combination therapy to suppress viremia in patients. Sangivamycin may also have the ability to help combat drug-resistant or vaccine-escaping SARS-CoV-2 variants since it is antivirally active against several tested variants. Our results support the pursuit of sangivamycin for further preclinical and clinical development as a potential coronavirus disease 2019 therapeutic.

Antiviral Agents , Pyrimidine Nucleosides , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/toxicity , Vero Cells
Eur J Med Chem ; 209: 112884, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800277


A novel methodology to access alkynyl nucleoside analogues is elaborated. Highly fluorescent 5-alkynylfuropyrimidines were synthesized (97-46%) and their antiviral properties investigated in vitro. Regiochemistry of the functionalization was achieved with the aid of 5-endo-dig electrophilic halocyclization of acetyl 5-p-tolyl- or 5-p-pentylphenyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Structure of one of the resulting nucleosides, 6-p-tolyl-5-iodo-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one, was confirmed by X-ray crystallography, and its conformation was compared to related nucleosides. Diverse alkynyl substituents were introduced at the heterobicyclic base C-5 position via Sonogashira coupling of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ones. The resulting compounds had fluorescence emissions of 452-481 nm. High quantum yields of 0.53-0.60 were observed for 9-ethynyl-9-fluorenol and propargyl alcohol/methyl ether-modified furopyrimidines. These modified nucleosides, designed in the form of ribose acetyl esters, are potential tools for fluorescent tagging, studying nucleoside metabolism, 2'-deoxyribonucleoside kinase activity, and antiviral activity. Antiviral assays against a broad spectrum of DNA and RNA viruses showed that in human embryonic lung (HEL) cell cultures some of the compounds posess antiviral activity (EC50 1.3-13.2 µM) against varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The alkynyl furopyrimidine with two p-pentylphenyl substituents emerged as the best compound with reasonable and selective anti-VZV activity, confirming p-pentylphenyl potency as a pharmacophore.

Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemistry , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line , Fluorescence , Halogenation , Herpesvirus 3, Human/drug effects , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/drug therapy , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/virology
Med Chem ; 16(3): 368-384, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71681


BACKGROUND: Nucleoside analogues are well-known antitumor, antiviral, and chemotherapeutic agents. Alterations on both their sugar and the heterocyclic parts may lead to significant changes in the spectrum of their biological activity and the degree of selective toxicity, as well as in their physicochemical properties. METHODS: C5-arylalkynyl-ß-D-ribofuranonucleosides 3-6, 3΄-deoxy 12-15, 3΄-deoxy-3΄-C-methyl- ß-D-ribofurananucleosides 18-21 and 2΄-deoxy-ß-D-ribofuranonucleosides 23-26 of uracil, were synthesized using a one-step Sonogashira reaction under microwave irradiation and subsequent deprotection. RESULTS: All newly synthesized nucleosides were tested for their antitumor or antiviral activity. Moderate cytostatic activity against cervix carcinoma (HeLa), murine leukemia (L1210) and human lymphocyte (CEM) tumor cell lines was displayed by the protected 3΄-deoxy derivatives 12b,12c,12d, and the 3΄-deoxy-3΄-methyl 18a,18b,18c. The antiviral evaluation revealed appreciable activity against Coxsackie virus B4, Respiratory syncytial virus, Yellow Fever Virus and Human Coronavirus (229E) for the 3΄-deoxy compounds 12b,14, and the 3΄-deoxy-3΄-methyl 18a,18c,18d, accompanied by low cytotoxicity. CONCLUSION: This report describes the total and facile synthesis of modified furanononucleosides of uracil, with alterations on both the sugar and the heterocyclic portions. Compounds 12b,14 and 18a,c,d showed noticeable antiviral activity against a series of RNA viruses and merit further biological and structural optimization investigations.

Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/pharmacology , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice , Pyrimidine Nucleosides/chemistry