Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 52
Filter
1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 111(6): 1324-1333, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802136

ABSTRACT

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulating therapies, including elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor, are primarily eliminated through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A-mediated metabolism. This creates a therapeutic challenge to the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) due to the potential for significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, the population with CF is more at risk of serious illness following COVID-19 infection and hence it is important to manage the DDI risk and provide treatment options. CYP3A-mediated DDI of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was evaluated using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach. Modeling was performed incorporating physiological information and drug-dependent parameters of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor to predict the effect of ritonavir (the CYP3A inhibiting component of the combination) on the pharmacokinetics of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor. The elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor models were verified using independent clinical pharmacokinetic and DDI data of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor with a range of CYP3A modulators. When ritonavir was administered on Days 1 through 5, the predicted area under the curve (AUC) ratio of ivacaftor (the most sensitive CYP3A substrate) on Day 6 was 9.31, indicating that its metabolism was strongly inhibited. Based on the predicted DDI, the dose of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor should be reduced when coadministered with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir to elexacaftor 200 mg-tezacaftor 100 mg-ivacaftor 150 mg on Days 1 and 5, with delayed resumption of full-dose elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor on Day 9, considering the residual inhibitory effect of ritonavir as a mechanism-based inhibitor. The simulation predicts a regimen of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor administered concomitantly with nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in people with CF that will likely decrease the impact of the drug interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Aminophenols/pharmacology , Benzodioxoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloride Channel Agonists/therapeutic use , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mutation , Nitriles/pharmacokinetics , Proline/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyridines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines , Quinolines/pharmacology , Quinolones , Ritonavir/pharmacokinetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742735

ABSTRACT

Enhancing treatment uptake for hepatitis C to achieve the elimination goals set by the World Health Organization could be achieved by reducing the treatment duration. The aim of this study was to compare the sustained virological response at week 12 (SVR12) after four weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) + ribavirin compared to eight weeks of GLE/PIB and to estimate predictors for SVR12 with four weeks of treatment through a multicenter open label randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized 2:1 (4 weeks:8 weeks) and stratified by genotype 3 and were treatment naïve of all genotypes and without significant liver fibrosis. A total of 27 patients were analyzed for predictors for SVR12, including 15 from the first pilot phase of the study. In the 'modified intention to treat' group, 100% (7/7) achieved cure after eight weeks and for patients treated for four weeks the SVR12 was 58.3% (7/12). However, patients with a baseline viral load <2 mill IU/mL had 93% SVR12. The study closed prematurely due to the low number of included patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results suggest that viral load should be taken into account when considering trials of short course treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Aminoisobutyric Acids , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles , Cyclopropanes , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Lactams, Macrocyclic , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Pandemics , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Pyrrolidines , Quinoxalines , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 160, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721596

ABSTRACT

The role of dimer formation for the onset of catalytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MProWT) was assessed using a predominantly monomeric mutant (MProM). Rates of MProWT and MProM catalyzed hydrolyses display substrate saturation kinetics and second-order dependency on the protein concentration. The addition of the prodrug GC376, an inhibitor of MProWT, to MProM leads to an increase in the dimer population and catalytic activity with increasing inhibitor concentration. The activity reaches a maximum corresponding to a dimer population in which one active site is occupied by the inhibitor and the other is available for catalytic activity. This phase is followed by a decrease in catalytic activity due to the inhibitor competing with the substrate. Detailed kinetics and equilibrium analyses are presented and a modified Michaelis-Menten equation accounts for the results. These observations provide conclusive evidence that dimer formation is coupled to catalytic activity represented by two equivalent active sites.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Circular Dichroism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Thermodynamics
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 154, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699831

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has an exonuclease-based proofreader, which removes nucleotide inhibitors such as Remdesivir that are incorporated into the viral RNA during replication, reducing the efficacy of these drugs for treating COVID-19. Combinations of inhibitors of both the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the exonuclease could overcome this deficiency. Here we report the identification of hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitors Pibrentasvir and Ombitasvir as SARS-CoV-2 exonuclease inhibitors. In the presence of Pibrentasvir, RNAs terminated with the active forms of the prodrugs Sofosbuvir, Remdesivir, Favipiravir, Molnupiravir and AT-527 were largely protected from excision by the exonuclease, while in the absence of Pibrentasvir, there was rapid excision. Due to its unique structure, Tenofovir-terminated RNA was highly resistant to exonuclease excision even in the absence of Pibrentasvir. Viral cell culture studies also demonstrate significant synergy using this combination strategy. This study supports the use of combination drugs that inhibit both the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase and exonuclease for effective COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Exonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Anilides/pharmacology , Animals , Base Sequence , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Synergism , Exonucleases/genetics , Exonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Proline/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Valine/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
5.
Arch Virol ; 167(4): 1125-1130, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694546

ABSTRACT

Given the structural similarities of the viral enzymes of different coronaviruses (CoVs), we investigated the potency of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents boceprevir and GC376 for counteracting seasonal coronavirus infections. In contrast to previous findings that both boceprevir and GC376 are potent inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, we found that GC376 is much more effective than boceprevir in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 and three seasonal CoVs (NL63, 229E, and OC43) in cell culture models. However, these results are discordant with a molecular docking analysis that suggested comparable affinity of boceprevir and GC376 for the different Mpro enzymes of the four CoVs. Collectively, our results support future development of GC376 but not boceprevir (although it is an FDA-approved antiviral medication) as a pan-coronavirus antiviral agent. Furthermore, we caution against overinterpretation of in silico data when developing antiviral therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonic Acids
6.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide since it first emerged. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health and the global economy has highlighted the medical need for the development of broadly acting interventions against emerging viral threats. Galidesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo efficacy against several RNA viruses of public health concern, including those causing yellow fever, Ebola, Marburg, and Rift Valley fever. In vitro studies have shown that the antiviral activity of galidesivir also extends to coronaviruses. Herein, we describe the efficacy of galidesivir in the Syrian golden hamster model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Treatment with galidesivir reduced lung pathology in infected animals compared with untreated controls when treatment was initiated 24 h prior to infection. These results add to the evidence of the applicability of galidesivir as a potential medical intervention for a range of acute viral illnesses, including coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenine/therapeutic use , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Viral Load/drug effects
7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 758-766, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The combination of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir has shown preliminary efficacy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in four open-label studies with small sample sizes. This larger trial aimed to assess if the addition of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir to standard care improved clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial in adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 19 hospitals in Iran. Patients were randomized to oral sofosbuvir/daclatasvir 400/60 mg once-daily or placebo in addition to standard of care. Patients were included if they had positive PCR or diagnostic chest CT, O2 saturation <95% and compatible symptoms. The primary outcome was hospital discharge within 10 days of randomization. Secondary outcomes included mortality and time to clinical events. The trial is registered on the Iran Registry of Clinical Trials under IRCT20200624047908N1. RESULTS: Between July and October 2020, 1083 patients were randomized to either the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm (n = 541) or the placebo arm (n = 542). No significant difference was observed in the primary outcome of hospital discharge within 10 days, which was achieved by 415/541 (77%) in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm and 411/542 (76%) in the placebo arm [risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.95-1.08, P = 0.734]. In-hospital mortality was 60/541 (11%) in the sofosbuvir/daclatasvir arm versus 55/542 (10%) in the placebo arm (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.54, P = 0.615). No differences were observed in time to hospital discharge or time to in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no significant effect of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir versus placebo on hospital discharge or survival in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sofosbuvir , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Carbamates , Humans , Imidazoles , Pyrrolidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Valine/analogs & derivatives
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6750-6759, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544329

ABSTRACT

Only a few treatments are approved for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections, with continuous debate about their clinical impact. Repurposing antiviral treatments might prove the fastest way to identify effective therapy. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus daclatasvir (DCV) or ravidasvir (RDV) added to standard care (SOC) for patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection. Multicentre parallel randomized controlled open-label trial. One hundred and twenty eligible patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection were randomized to one of the study arms. Ten days of treatment with SOF plus DCV or RDV in addition to the standard of care compared to SOC. Follow up in 7 days. Sum of the counted symptoms at 7 and 10 days, mean change in oxygen saturation level, viral negativity, and rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Compared to SOC, the SOF-DCV group experienced a significantly lower sum of the counted symptoms (fever, headache, generalized aches, or respiratory distress) combined with no evidence of deterioration (ICU admission and mechanical ventilation) on Days 7 and 10 of treatment. Oxygen saturation also significantly improved among the SOF-DCV group compared to SOC starting from Day 4. The study also showed positive trends regarding the efficacy of SOF-DCV with a lower incidence of mortality. On the other hand, adding SOF-RDV to SOC did not show significant improvements in endpoints. The results support the efficacy and safety of SOF-DCV as an add-on to SOC for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Valine/therapeutic use
9.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515726

ABSTRACT

Understanding pathways that might impact coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations and disease outcomes is necessary for better disease management and for therapeutic development. Here, we analyzed alterations in sphingolipid (SL) levels upon infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infection induced elevation of SL levels in both cells and sera of infected mice. A significant increase in glycosphingolipid levels was induced early post SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was essential for viral replication. This elevation could be reversed by treatment with glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors. Levels of sphinganine, sphingosine, GA1, and GM3 were significantly increased in both cells and the murine model upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. The potential involvement of SLs in COVID-19 pathology is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Sphingolipids/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Dioxanes/pharmacology , Gangliosides/blood , Gangliosides/metabolism , Glucosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Mice, Transgenic , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingolipids/blood , Sphingosine/analogs & derivatives , Sphingosine/blood , Sphingosine/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
11.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480881

ABSTRACT

We performed an in silico, in vitro, and in vivo assessment of a potassium 2-[2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamido]ethanesulfonate (compound 1) as a potential prodrug for cognitive function improvement in ischemic brain injury. Using in silico methods, we predicted the pharmacological efficacy and possible safety in rat models. In addition, in silico data showed neuroprotective features of compound 1, which were further supported by in vitro experiments in a glutamate excitotoxicity-induced model in newborn rat cortical neuron cultures. Next, we checked whether compound 1 is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier in intact and ischemic animals. Compound 1 improved animal behavior both in intact and ischemic rats and, even though the concentration in intact brains was low, we still observed a significant anxiety reduction and activity escalation. We used molecular docking and molecular dynamics to support our hypothesis that compound 1 could affect the AMPA receptor function. In a rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia, we studied the effects of compound 1 on the behavior and neurological deficit. An in vivo experiment demonstrated that compound 1 significantly reduced the neurological deficit and improved neurological symptom regression, exploratory behavior, and anxiety. Thus, here, for the first time, we show that compound 1 can be considered as an agent for restoring cognitive functions.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Animals , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Brain Ischemia , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamic Acid/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Pyrrolidines/chemical synthesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stroke
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
13.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105183, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458592

ABSTRACT

The likelihood of continued circulation of COVID-19 and its variants, and novel coronaviruses due to future zoonotic transmissions, combined with the current paucity of coronavirus antivirals, emphasize the need for improved screening in developing effective antivirals for the treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) and other coronaviruses. Here we report the development of a live-cell based assay for evaluating the intracellular function of the critical, highly-conserved CoV2 target, the Main 3C-like protease (Mpro). This assay is based on expression of native wild-type mature CoV2 Mpro, the function of which is quantitatively evaluated in living cells through cleavage of a biosensor leading to loss of fluorescence. Evaluation does not require cell harvesting, allowing for multiple measurements from the same cells facilitating quantification of Mpro inhibition, as well as recovery of function upon removal of inhibitory drugs. The pan-coronavirus Mpro inhibitor, GC376, was utilized in this assay and effective inhibition of intracellular CoV2 Mpro was found to be consistent with levels required to inhibit CoV2 infection of human lung cells. We demonstrate that GC376 is an effective inhibitor of intracellular CoV2 Mpro at low micromolar levels, while other predicted Mpro inhibitors, bepridil and alverine, are not. Results indicate this system can provide a highly effective high-throughput coronavirus Mpro screening system.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Humans
14.
Virology ; 564: 33-38, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447220

ABSTRACT

Endemic seasonal coronaviruses cause morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients, but no specific treatment is available. Molnupiravir is a promising pipeline antiviral drug for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially by targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This study aims to evaluate the potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections. Molecular docking revealed that the active form of molnupiravir, ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), has similar binding affinity to RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. In cell culture models, treatment of molnupiravir effectively inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses of the three seasonal coronaviruses. A time-of-drug-addition experiment indicates the specificity of molnupiravir in inhibiting viral components. Furthermore, combining molnupiravir with the protease inhibitor GC376 resulted in enhanced antiviral activity. Our findings highlight that the great potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal coronavirus infected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Seasons , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
15.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415189

ABSTRACT

Galidesivir (BCX4430) is an adenosine nucleoside analog that is broadly active in cell culture against several RNA viruses of various families. This activity has also been shown in animal models of viral disease associated with Ebola, Marburg, yellow fever, Zika, and Rift Valley fever viruses. In many cases, the compound is more efficacious in animal models than cell culture activity would predict. Based on favorable data from in vivo animal studies, galidesivir has recently undergone evaluation in several phase I clinical trials, including against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and as a medical countermeasure for the treatment of Marburg virus disease.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/pharmacology , Animals , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Marburgvirus/drug effects , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374472

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Crystallography, X-Ray , Enzyme Assays , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology
18.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373669

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 2/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Flavanones/pharmacology , Glucosides/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Proteolysis/drug effects , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/deficiency , Animals , Cell Line , Colitis/chemically induced , Colitis/drug therapy , Cullin Proteins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/pharmacology , Dextran Sulfate/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Inflammation/chemically induced , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/drug effects , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitination
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6750-6759, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371342

ABSTRACT

Only a few treatments are approved for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections, with continuous debate about their clinical impact. Repurposing antiviral treatments might prove the fastest way to identify effective therapy. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir (SOF) plus daclatasvir (DCV) or ravidasvir (RDV) added to standard care (SOC) for patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection. Multicentre parallel randomized controlled open-label trial. One hundred and twenty eligible patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection were randomized to one of the study arms. Ten days of treatment with SOF plus DCV or RDV in addition to the standard of care compared to SOC. Follow up in 7 days. Sum of the counted symptoms at 7 and 10 days, mean change in oxygen saturation level, viral negativity, and rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Compared to SOC, the SOF-DCV group experienced a significantly lower sum of the counted symptoms (fever, headache, generalized aches, or respiratory distress) combined with no evidence of deterioration (ICU admission and mechanical ventilation) on Days 7 and 10 of treatment. Oxygen saturation also significantly improved among the SOF-DCV group compared to SOC starting from Day 4. The study also showed positive trends regarding the efficacy of SOF-DCV with a lower incidence of mortality. On the other hand, adding SOF-RDV to SOC did not show significant improvements in endpoints. The results support the efficacy and safety of SOF-DCV as an add-on to SOC for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzimidazoles/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamates/therapeutic use , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrrolidines/therapeutic use , Sofosbuvir/therapeutic use , Valine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Genotype , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Valine/therapeutic use
20.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1476-1498, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352121

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, and the situation worsens daily, associated with acute increases in case fatality rates. The main protease (Mpro) enzyme produced by SARS-CoV-2 was recently demonstrated to be responsible for not only viral reproduction but also impeding host immune responses. The element selenium (Se) plays a vital role in immune functions, both directly and indirectly. Thus, we hypothesised that Se-containing heterocyclic compounds might curb the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We performed a molecular docking analysis and found that several of the selected selenocompounds showed potential binding affinities for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, especially ethaselen (49), which exhibited a docking score of -6.7 kcal/mol compared with the -6.5 kcal/mol score for GC376 (positive control). Drug-likeness calculations suggested that these compounds are biologically active and possess the characteristics of ideal drug candidates. Based on the binding affinity and drug-likeness results, we selected the 16 most effective selenocompounds as potential anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. We also validated the structural integrity and stability of the drug candidate through molecular dynamics simulation. Using further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we believe that the targeted compound identified in this study (ethaselen) could pave the way for the development of prospective drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections and trigger specific host immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Selenium/analysis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Heterocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Sulfonic Acids
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL