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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3082, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873502

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 subvariants are genetically divergent. We conducted a matched, test-negative, case-control study to estimate duration of protection of the second and third/booster doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against BA.1 and BA.2 infections in Qatar. BNT162b2 effectiveness was highest at 46.6% (95% CI: 33.4-57.2%) against symptomatic BA.1 and at 51.7% (95% CI: 43.2-58.9%) against symptomatic BA.2 infections in the first three months after the second dose, but declined to ~10% or below thereafter. Effectiveness rebounded to 59.9% (95% CI: 51.2-67.0%) and 43.7% (95% CI: 36.5-50.0%), respectively, in the first month after the booster dose, before declining again. Effectiveness against COVID-19 hospitalization and death was 70-80% after the second dose and >90% after the booster dose. mRNA-1273 vaccine protection showed similar patterns. mRNA vaccines provide comparable, moderate, and short-lived protection against symptomatic BA.1 and BA.2 Omicron infections, but strong and durable protection against COVID-19 hospitalization and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 44, 2022 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess primary care physicians' satisfaction towards initiation of phone consultation during COVID-19 pandemic management in Qatar and to identify the factors associated with dis/satisfaction. DESIGN: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted from 1 June to 30 July 2020. SETTING: All the available 27 public primary healthcare centers in Qatar at the time of the study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ninety-four primary care physicians working in the publicly run primary healthcare corporation in Qatar. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall satisfaction of primary care physicians with the initiation of phone consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic in Qatar and their satisfaction towards each aspect of this management. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-nine primary care physicians participated in the survey with a response rate of 53.1%. Overall, about 45% and 21% of respondents agreed that COVID-19 disease management has highly impacted and very highly impacted their daily practice, respectively. More than half of the physicians (59.9%) indicated being satisfied/highly satisfied with the initiation of telephone consultation service. On the other hand, few physicians were satisfied (14.3%) or highly satisfied (3.4%) with conducting telephone consultations with patients who lack previous electronic medical records. Also, only 20.3% and 3.8% of physicians were satisfied and highly satisfied with the lack of physical examination in telephone consultations, respectively. On bivariate analysis, primary care physicians' age was significantly associated with the perceived level of impact of COVID-19 management on daily practice (P = 0.03). There was no significant association between participants' characteristics and the level of satisfaction toward telephone consultations. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant association between physicians' age (p = 0.048) and gender (p = 0.014) and their level of satisfaction toward communication and support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians, Primary Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Qatar/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , Telephone
3.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 412-421, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence trends from Arabic speaking countries on psychiatric symptoms before and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. We estimated the point prevalence and change in depression and anxiety symptoms scores in relation to sociodemographic variables following the resolution of the first wave in Qatar compared with before the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a trend analysis using repeated nationally representative cross-sectional surveys spanning 2017, 2018, 2020/2021 and using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. Negative binomial regression was used to model changes in these symptoms in relation sociodemographics and survey year. RESULTS: The two-week prevalence of depressive symptoms (≥10 on the PHQ-9) was 6.6% in 2017 and 6.5% in 2020/2021 (p = 0.986). The two-week prevalence of anxiety symptoms (≥10 on the GAD-7) was 3.6% in 2018 and 5.1% in 2020/2021 (p = 0.062). The data for 2020/21 showed a 35.1% and 29.2% decrease in depression and anxiety symptoms scores compared to pre-pandemic years (2017/2018) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. LIMITATIONS: Screening tools rather than structured interviews were used to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression and anxiety after the first COVID wave did not differ significantly to pre-pandemic estimates. The end of the first wave of the pandemic weakened the associations of these symptoms with traditional sociodemographic risk factors. The 2020/21 depression and anxiety symptoms scores remained high for Qataris and Arabs, suggesting that these cultural groups may benefit most from public mental health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 212, 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected all dimensions of day to day life across the world and medical education was no exception. With this study, we aimed to understand the effect of nationwide restrictions on medical education in Qatar, the models of education adopted during this period and perceptions of participants to the same. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing an online questionnaire distributed via convenience sampling between April-October 2020. Study participants were faculty and trainees in governmental undergraduate and postgraduate medical education institutes. Two sets of questionnaires were designed for each group. They were asked a series of questions to assess pre- and post-COVID pandemic educational practices, their preferred teaching methods, and their familiarity with electronic teaching platforms. Faculty respondents were asked about their perceived barriers to delivery of medical education during the pandemic and their agreement on a 5-point Likert scale on specific elements. Trainees were asked a series of multiple-choice questions to characterize their pre- and post-COVID pandemic educational experiences. Both groups were asked open-ended questions to provide qualitative insights into their answers. Data were analysed using STATA software version 12.0. RESULTS: Majority of trainees (58.5%) responded that the pandemic has adversely affected medical education at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Trainees (58.5%) and faculty (35.7%) reported an increased reliance on e-learning. Trainees preferred face-to-face education, while faculty preferred a combination of models of education delivery (33.5% versus 37.1%, p = 0.38). Although 52.5% of the faculty had no previous experience of delivering education through e-learning modalities, 58.9% however felt confident in using e-learning software. CONCLUSIONS: Faculty and trainees agree that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the provision of medical education and training in Qatar, with an increased dependence on e-learning. As trainee's prefer face-to-face models of education, we may have to consider restructuring of medical curricula in order to ensure that optimum learning is achieved via e-learning, while at the same time enhancing our use, knowledge and understanding of the e -learning methods. Further research is warranted to assess if these changes have influenced objective educational outcomes like graduation rates or board scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0255185, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several reports document a decrease in the rates of stroke hospital admissions during the covid-19 pandemic. There is very little information whether the admission rates will change as the infection is controlled. We report on our rates of admissions before, during and following the peak of covid-19 infections in a prospective database from Qatar. METHODS AND RESULTS: The stroke admissions in the six months prior to COVID-19 pandemic averaged 229/month. There was a decrease to 157/month in March-June during the peak of the pandemic. In the 6 months following the peak, as covid-19 numbers began to decrease, the average numbers increased back to 192/month. There was an increase in severe ischemic strokes and decreased in functional recovery. The decreased admissions were mainly driven by fewer stroke mimics. Patients presenting with ischemic stroke or cerebral hemorrhage remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer stroke mimics presenting to the hospital can explain the fewer admissions and poor outcome at the height of the covid-19 pandemic. The continued decrease in the number of ischemic stroke and stroke mimic admissions following the pandemic peak requires more study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology
6.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022033, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Qatar Biobank (QBB) is actively acquiring data on the range of short- and long-term health impacts associated with COVID-19. This is performed through the COVID-19 biorepository National project. In this report, we describe the most common indications for the referral to Qatar's healthcare system of COVID-19 biorepository participants in comparison with the Qatar Biobank (QBB) general population study. Methods Patients with a laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, who were Qatar residents that could communicate in Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu were eligible to participate in the COVID-19 biorepository project. Biological samples of Consented participants were collected on a weekly basis until recovery, and then monthly for a year. Participants were also offered a bone density scan three months after recovery and non-contrast MRI brain and whole-body scan six months after recovery. Number of participants requiring referral for medical follow up after recovery for any abnormal clinically significant findings were recorded and statistically compared to general population referred participants Results: The majority of referrals for the general population study was for osteopenia versus diabetes for the COVID-19 biorepository project Conclusion Descriptive analysis of the referral data of the COVID-19 participants and QBB general population (not previously affected by the virus) shows a clear difference between the two populations' reasons for referrals. Diabetes for COVID 19 recovered participants versus osteopenia for general population Keywords: COVID19, Reason for Referrals, Diabetes, Qatar biobank.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biological Specimen Banks , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Qatar/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
7.
N Engl J Med ; 386(19): 1804-1816, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning of vaccine protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and the emergence of the omicron (or B.1.1.529) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have led to expedited efforts to scale up booster vaccination. Protection conferred by booster doses of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines in Qatar, as compared with protection conferred by the two-dose primary series, is unclear. METHODS: We conducted two matched retrospective cohort studies to assess the effectiveness of booster vaccination, as compared with that of a two-dose primary series alone, against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19-related hospitalization and death during a large wave of omicron infections from December 19, 2021, through January 26, 2022. The association of booster status with infection was estimated with the use of Cox proportional-hazards regression models. RESULTS: In a population of 2,239,193 persons who had received at least two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine, those who had also received a booster were matched with persons who had not received a booster. Among the BNT162b2-vaccinated persons, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic omicron infection was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3 to 2.5) in the booster cohort and 4.5% (95% CI, 4.3 to 4.6) in the nonbooster cohort after 35 days of follow-up. Booster effectiveness against symptomatic omicron infection, as compared with that of the primary series, was 49.4% (95% CI, 47.1 to 51.6). Booster effectiveness against Covid-19-related hospitalization and death due to omicron infection, as compared with the primary series, was 76.5% (95% CI, 55.9 to 87.5). BNT162b2 booster effectiveness against symptomatic infection with the delta (or B.1.617.2) variant, as compared with the primary series, was 86.1% (95% CI, 67.3 to 94.1). Among the mRNA-1273-vaccinated persons, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic omicron infection was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2) in the booster cohort and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1) in the nonbooster cohort after 35 days; booster effectiveness against symptomatic omicron infection, as compared with the primary series, was 47.3% (95% CI, 40.7 to 53.3). Few severe Covid-19 cases were noted in the mRNA-1273-vaccinated cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The messenger RNA (mRNA) boosters were highly effective against symptomatic delta infection, but they were less effective against symptomatic omicron infection. However, with both variants, mRNA boosters led to strong protection against Covid-19-related hospitalization and death. (Funded by Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar and others.).


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Qatar/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(4): 824-828, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718868

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationship of COVID-19 to stroke is important. We compare characteristics of pre-pandemic stroke (PPS), cases in acute COVID infection (CS) and in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 infection (RCS). We interrogated the Qatar stroke database for all stroke admissions between Jan 2020 and Feb 2021 (PPS) to CS and RCS to determine how COVID-19 affected ischemic stroke sub-types, clinical course, and outcomes prior to, during and post-pandemic peak. There were 3264 cases admitted (pre-pandemic: 3111, stroke in COVID-19: 60 and recovered COVID-19 stroke: 93). Patients with CS were significantly younger, had more severe symptoms, fever on presentation, more ICU admissions and poor stroke recovery at discharge when compared to PPS and RCS. Large vessel disease and cardioembolic disease was significantly higher in CS compared to PPS or RCS. There was a significant decline in stroke mimics in CS. Stroke in RCS has characteristics similar to PPS with no evidence of lasting effects of the virus on the short-term. However, CS is a more serious disease and tends to be more severe and have a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053398, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, characteristics, treatment, associated risk factors and outcome of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective observational data review. SETTING: A multicentre study from ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Qatar. PARTICIPANTS: 1788 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission from 1 March 2020 to 1 November 2020 were enrolled in this study. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was to identify the incidence of COVID-19-associated pneumothorax in patients requiring ICU admission. Secondary endpoints were to determine the associated risk factors, treatment, mortality and morbidity. RESULTS: 1788 patients from 3 centres were reviewed in the study. The total episodes of pneumothorax were 75. Pneumothorax occurred in 4.2% of the patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. The majority of the subjects were male (n=72, 96%). The mean age was 55.1 (±12.7 years). The majority of the subjects were nationals of South Asian countries and the Middle East and North Africa regions. 52% (n=39) of the patients were previously healthy without comorbidities before ICU admission. The recurrence rate was 9.3%. The median length of ICU stay was 28 days (20.5-45.8 days). After developing pneumothorax, the length of mechanical ventilation ranged from 6 to 32 days, with a median of 13 days. 44% of patients eventually ended up with tracheostomy. In-hospital mortality in the patients with COVID-19-related pneumothorax was 53.3% (n=40). The odds of mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with pneumothorax is 7.15 (95% CI 4.45 to 11.48, p<0.0001) compared with those who did not develop pneumothorax. This indicates pneumothorax is a potential independent risk factor associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumothorax is a common complication in patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission, associated with poor prognosis and outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by the Medical Research Centre (MRC) Qatar. (MRC-01-20-1116).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 05004, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective reproduction number, Rt , is a tool to track and understand pandemic dynamics. This investigation of Rt estimations was conducted to guide the national COVID-19 response in Qatar, from the onset of the pandemic until August 18, 2021. METHODS: Real-time "empirical" Rt Empirical was estimated using five methods, including the Robert Koch Institute, Cislaghi, Systrom-Bettencourt and Ribeiro, Wallinga and Teunis, and Cori et al. methods. Rt was also estimated using a transmission dynamics model (Rt Model-based ). Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Correlations between different Rt estimates were assessed by calculating correlation coefficients, and agreements between these estimates were assessed through Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Rt Empirical captured the evolution of the pandemic through three waves, public health response landmarks, effects of major social events, transient fluctuations coinciding with significant clusters of infection, and introduction and expansion of the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. The various estimation methods produced consistent and overall comparable Rt Empirical estimates with generally large correlation coefficients. The Wallinga and Teunis method was the fastest at detecting changes in pandemic dynamics. Rt Empirical estimates were consistent whether using time series of symptomatic PCR-confirmed cases, all PCR-confirmed cases, acute-care hospital admissions, or ICU-care hospital admissions, to proxy trends in true infection incidence. Rt Model-based correlated strongly with Rt Empirical and provided an average Rt Empirical . CONCLUSIONS: Rt estimations were robust and generated consistent results regardless of the data source or the method of estimation. Findings affirmed an influential role for Rt estimations in guiding national responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, even in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number , Humans , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 104, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Infection control measures during the Covid-19 pandemic have focused on limiting physical contact and decontamination by observing cleaning and hygiene rituals. Breastfeeding requires close physical contact and observance of hygienic measures like handwashing. Worries around contamination increase during the perinatal period and can be expressed as increase in obsessive compulsive symptoms. These symptoms have shown to impact breastfeeding rates. This study attempts to explore any relationship between the Covid-19 pandemic and perinatal obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and whether the Covid-19 pandemic has any impact on intent to breastfeed. METHODS: A cross sectional survey of perinatal women attending largest maternity centre in Qatar was carried out during the months of October to December 2020. Socio-demographic information, intent to breastfeed and information around obsessive compulsive thoughts around Covid-19 pandemic were collected using validated tools. RESULTS: 15.7% respondents report intent to not breastfeed. 21.4% respondents reported obsessive-compulsive symptoms. 77.3% respondents believed the biggest source of infection was from others while as only 12% of the respondents believed that the source of infection was through breastfeeding and 15.7% believed the vertical transmission as the main source of risk of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were increased and the rates of intent to breastfeed were decreased when compared with pre pandemic rates. The obsessive-compulsive symptoms and the intent to not breastfeed were significantly associated with fear of infection to the new-born. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were not significantly correlated with intent to breastfeed and can be seen as adaptive strategies utilized by women to continue breastfeeding in the context of fear of infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Intention , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Perinatal Care , Pregnancy , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 52-54, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654529

ABSTRACT

Complementing whole genome sequencing strategies with high-throughput multiplex RT-qPCR genotyping allows for more comprehensive and real-time tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. During the second and third waves of COVID-19 in Qatar, PCR genotyping, combined with Sanger sequencing of un-typeable samples, was employed to describe the epidemiology of the Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. A total of 9792 nasopharyngeal PCR-positive samples collected between April-June 2021 were successfully genotyped, revealing the importation and transmission dynamics of these three variants in Qatar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genotype , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Qatar/epidemiology
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 532, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655582

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals and in those who had a prior infection have been observed globally, but the transmission potential of these infections is unknown. The RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) value is inversely correlated with viral load and culturable virus. Here, we investigate differences in RT-qPCR Ct values across Qatar's national cohorts of primary infections, reinfections, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) breakthrough infections, and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) breakthrough infections. Our matched-cohort analyses of the randomly diagnosed infections show higher mean Ct value in all cohorts of breakthrough infections compared to the cohort of primary infections in unvaccinated individuals. The Ct value is 1.3 (95% CI: 0.9-1.8) cycles higher for BNT162b2 breakthrough infections, 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9-4.5) cycles higher for mRNA-1273 breakthrough infections, and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.5-4.5) cycles higher for reinfections in unvaccinated individuals. Since Ct value correlates inversely with SARS-CoV-2 infectiousness, these differences imply that vaccine breakthrough infections and reinfections are less infectious than primary infections in unvaccinated individuals. Public health benefits of vaccination may have been underestimated, as COVID-19 vaccines not only protect against acquisition of infection, but also appear to protect against transmission of infection.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Load , Young Adult
16.
Acta Biomed ; 92(6): e2021543, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649966

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging reporting of children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection for better understanding and management of the disease. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included the first 15 pediatrics patient with a confirmed diagnosis of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the state of Qatar. We studied and analyzed their demographic data, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were studied (mean age 3.5 ± 2.7year). Recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was identified in all of them (100%). The majority of these patients had 4 or more systems involvement. Nine of the 15 presented with Kawasaki disease - picture and all had gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). Five required Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission. Lab investigations revealed high D-Dimer, hyponatremia, and hypoalbuminemia in all. Low hemoglobin (Hb) , thrombocytopenia, and sterile pyuria occurred in 86.6%, 60% and 75% of them, respectively. Treatment with combined anti-inflammatory medications (intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids) was used in along with immunomodulatory agents (Anakinra) in a selected group of refractory patients. No mortality happened. CONCLUSION: Our young children who presented with MIS-C related to SARS-CoV-2 infection had significantly higher Kawasaki-disease picture compared to other reports. One third of them required PICU admission but no mortality occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613758

ABSTRACT

Young drivers are generally associated with risky driving behaviors that can lead to crash involvement. Many self-report measurement scales are used to assess such risky behaviors. This study is aimed to understand the risky driving behaviors of young adults in Qatar and how such behaviors are associated with crash involvement. This was achieved through the usage of validated self-report measurement scales adopted for the Arabic context. A nationwide cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted in Qatar from January to April 2021. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the survey was conducted online. Therefore, respondents were selected conveniently. Hence, the study adopted a non-probability sampling method in which convenience and snowball sampling were used. A total of 253 completed questionnaires were received, of which 57.3% were female, and 42.7% were male. Approximately 55.8% of these young drivers were involved in traffic accidents after obtaining their driving license. On average, most young drivers do have some risky driving behavior accompanied by a low tendency to violate traffic laws, and their driving style is not significantly controlled by their personality on the road. The older young drivers are more involved in traffic accidents than the younger drivers, i.e., around 1.5 times more likely. Moreover, a young male driver is 3.2 times less likely to be involved in traffic accidents than a female driver. In addition, males are only 0.309 times as likely as females to be involved in an accident and have approximately a 70% lower likelihood of having an accident versus females. The analysis is complemented with the association between young drivers' demographic background and psychosocial-behavioral parameters (linking risky driving behavior, personality, and obligation effects on crash involvement). Some interventions are required to improve driving behavior, such as driving apps that are able to monitor and provide corrective feedback.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(46): 7995-8009, 2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus most commonly presents with respiratory symptoms. While gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations either at presentation or during hospitalization are also common, their impact on clinical outcomes is controversial. Some studies have described worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms, while others have shown either no association or a protective effect. There is a need for consistent standards to describe GI symptoms in COVID-19 patients and to assess their effect on clinical outcomes, including mortality and disease severity. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of GI symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and their correlation with disease severity and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 601 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization between May 1-15, 2020. GI symptoms were recorded at admission and during hospitalization. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were retrieved. Clinical outcomes included all-cause mortality, disease severity at presentation, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and need for mechanical ventilation. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictors of the adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of any GI symptom at admission was 27.1% and during hospitalization was 19.8%. The most common symptoms were nausea (98 patients), diarrhea (76 patients), vomiting (73 patients), and epigastric pain or discomfort (69 patients). There was no difference in the mortality between the two groups (6.21% vs 5.5%, P = 0.7). Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have severe disease at presentation (33.13% vs 22.5%, P < 0.001) and prolonged hospital stay (15 d vs 14 d, P = 0.04). There was no difference in other clinical outcomes, including ICU admission, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, or need for mechanical ventilation. Drugs associated with the development of GI symptoms during hospitalization were ribavirin (diarrhea 26.37% P < 0.001, anorexia 17.58%, P = 0.02), hydroxychloroquine (vomiting 28.52%, P = 0.009) and lopinavir/ritonavir (nausea 32.65% P = 0.049, vomiting 31.47% P = 0.004, and epigastric pain 12.65% P = 0.048). In the multivariate regression analysis, age > 65 years was associated with increased mortality risk [odds ratio (OR) 7.53, confidence interval (CI): 3.09-18.29, P < 0.001], ICU admission (OR: 1.79, CI: 1.13-2.83, P = 0.012), and need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.89, CI:1.94-2.99, P = 0.007). Hypertension was an independent risk factor for ICU admission (OR: 1.82, CI:1.17-2.84, P = 0.008) and need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.66, CI: 1.05-2.62, P = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Patients with GI symptoms are more likely to have severe disease at presentation; however, mortality and disease progression is not different between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Digestive System , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Qatar/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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