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1.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 391.e1-391.e3, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702213

ABSTRACT

As of January 2022, there have been over 350 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the world. The most common symptoms in those infected are fever, cough, malaise, and myalgia, however pulmonary, hematologic, gastrointestinal, renal, and neurologic complications have also been reported. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an uncommon neurological syndrome characterized by acute or subacute spinal cord dysfunction that can lead to paresthesias, sensory and autonomic impairment, and even paralysis. Etiologies are often unclear; however, potential causes include infection, neoplastic, drug or toxin induced, autoimmune, and acquired. Treatment for ATM primarily consists of steroids and plasmapheresis, which often reverses any neurologic symptoms. ATM has rarely been reported as a complication of COVID-19 infections. A 43-year-old female presented to the emergency department for evaluation of progressive numbness and tingling in her legs ten days after developing upper respiratory symptoms from a COVID-19 infection. Physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a diagnosis of ATM. During her hospital course, she experienced rapid progression of her paresthesias and developed complete loss of motor function in her upper and lower extremities. Within 48 hours after emergency department arrival, she required intubation due to worsening diaphragmatic and chest wall paralysis. Her treatment included a long-term steroid regimen and plasmapheresis, and unfortunately, she did not have any neurologic recovery. We present a very rare case of ATM progressing to complete quadriplegia following COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnosis , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/therapy , Paresthesia/complications , Quadriplegia/etiology
3.
Skelet Muscle ; 11(1): 10, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV2 virus could be potentially myopathic. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) is frequently found elevated in severe SARS-CoV2 infection, which indicates skeletal muscle damage precipitating limb weakness or even ventilatory failure. CASE PRESENTATION: We addressed such a patient in his forties presented with features of severe SARS-CoV2 pneumonia and high serum CPK. He developed severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and received intravenous high dose corticosteroid and tocilizumab to counter SARS-CoV2 associated cytokine surge. After 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV), weaning was unsuccessful albeit apparently clear lung fields, having additionally severe and symmetric limb muscle weakness. Ancillary investigations in addition with serum CPK, including electromyogram, muscle biopsy, and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested acute myopathy possibly due to skeletal myositis. CONCLUSION: We wish to stress that myopathogenic medication in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia should be used with caution. Additionally, serum CPK could be a potential marker to predict respiratory failure in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia as skeletal myopathy affecting chest muscles may contribute ventilatory failure on top of oxygenation failure due to SARS-CoV2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Electromyography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/blood , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neural Conduction , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Ventilator Weaning
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106496

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Incontinence/etiology
6.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 607-612, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the infectious agent responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are well described, less defined is the clinical neurological spectrum of COVID-19. We reported a case of COVID-19 patient with acute monophasic Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and a literature review on the SARS-CoV-2 and GBS etiological correlation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68 years-old man presented to the emergency department with symptoms of acute progressive symmetric ascending flaccid tetraparesis. Oropharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive. Neurological examination showed bifacial nerve palsy and distal muscular weakness of lower limbs. The cerebrospinal fluid assessment showed an albuminocytologic dissociation. Electrophysiological studies showed delayed distal latencies and absent F waves in early course. A diagnosis of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) subtype of GBS was then made. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are still under study. The case we described of GBS in COVID-19 patient adds to those already reported in the literature, in support of SARS-CoV-2 triggers GBS. COVID-19 associated neurological clinic should probably be seen not as a corollary of classic respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, but as SARS-CoV-2-related standalone clinical entities. To date, it is essential for all Specialists, clinicians and surgeons, to direct attention towards the study of this virus, to better clarify the spectrum of its neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Quadriplegia/diagnosis , Quadriplegia/physiopathology
7.
J Clin Neurosci ; 83: 119-122, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033546

ABSTRACT

The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic posed an unprecedented challenge to almost all fields of medicine and Neurology is not an exception. Collecting information about its complications and related conditions will help clinicians to become more confident in managing this disease. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is mostly described as a post-infectious phenomenon and its occurrence during acute phase of illness is of interest. GBS has recently been reported during the active phase of COVID-19 for the first time. Severity and fast progression of GBS associated with COVID-19 have also been shown in recent studies. Here we report three cases of GBS during the active phase of COVID-19 with severe symptoms and fast progression to quadriplegia and facial diplegia over 2 days, which led to death in one case due to severe autonomic dysfunction. We suggest SARS-CoV-2 might be associated with rather a severe, rapidly progressive and life-threatening phenotype of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Progression , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Neurologic Examination , Quadriplegia/etiology , Treatment Outcome
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 118, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994222

ABSTRACT

We are reporting a case of Acute Post-Infectious Flaccid paralysis also commonly known as Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in a patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection. GBS often occurs following an infectious trigger which induces autoimmune reaction causing damage to peripheral nerves. So far, only 8 cases have been described in association with COVID-19. This is the first to be described in Tanzania in an African Child, and probably the first in the continent. This report is presented for clinicians to be aware and for the medical fraternity to look into this unusual presentation which may shed some more light on possible pathways of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We recommend that the presentation of GBS with acute respiratory distress should warrant extra precaution and a testing for COVID-19 especially when the symptoms of COVID-19 are protean.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Fatal Outcome , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Tanzania , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Biomedica ; 40(1): 14-19, 2020 03 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922941

ABSTRACT

The term 'porphyria' comes from the Greek 'porphyra'. It refers to a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders caused by the enzymatic deficiency in the biosynthesis of the heme group. Acute intermittent porphyria is caused by a deficiency of the porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. A 40-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain for ten days (which required laparotomy that evidenced no surgical pathology), severe hydroelectrolytic disorder due to hyponatremia and resistant hypokalemia, persistent tachycardia and hypertension. Seven days later, she developed acute flabby quadriparesis and presented a single generalized tonic-clonic convulsive crisis. Neurophysiological studies supported mixed axonal polyneuropathy and urine results of porphobilinogen and porphyrins were elevated. After acute intermittent porphyria was diagnosed, hemin was administered, which stabilized the patient's clinical signs and normalized the porphobilinogen. The prevalence of this entity is 1 in 2,000 people. It is an autosomal dominant disease, which affects mainly women between 20 and 40 years of age. This entity manifests with neurological and visceral symptoms. Management consists of hematin and dextrose administration avoiding hypotonic solutions because of the risk of exacerbating hyponatremia.


El término 'porfiria' proviene del griego 'porphyra' y alude a un grupo heterogéneo de trastornos metabólicos causados por una deficiencia enzimática en la biosíntesis del grupo hemo. La causa de la porfiria intermitente aguda es la deficiencia de la enzima deaminasa del porfobilinógeno. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años que presentó dolor abdominal de 10 días de evolución, trastorno hidroelectrolítico grave debido a hiponatremia e hipopotasemia, taquicardia e hipertensión arterial sistémica persistentes, por lo cual fue sometida a una laparotomía en la que no se encontró ninguna afección de origen quirúrgico, A los siete días del examen inicial, la paciente desarrolló cuadriparesia flácida aguda y presentó una crisis convulsiva tónico-clónica generalizada. Los estudios neurofisiológicos evidenciaron una polineuropatía axonal mixta, y los valores de porfobilinógeno y porfirinas en orina eran elevados. Tras diagnosticarse porfiria intermitente aguda, esta se trató con hemina, lo que estabilizó los signos clínicos y normalizó el porfobilinógeno. La prevalencia de esta enfermedad es de 1 en 2.000 personas. Tiene un patrón de herencia autosómico dominante y se manifiesta principalmente en mujeres con edades entre los 20 y los 40 años. La enfermedad cursa con síntomas neurológicos y viscerales, y se trata con la administración de hemina y dextrosa, evitando las soluciones hipotónicas por el riesgo de exacerbar la hiponatremia.


Subject(s)
Porphyria, Acute Intermittent/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Hemin/therapeutic use , Humans , Neurons/metabolism , Porphobilinogen/urine , Porphyria, Acute Intermittent/complications , Porphyria, Acute Intermittent/drug therapy , Porphyria, Acute Intermittent/epidemiology , Porphyrins/urine , Prevalence , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Seizures/etiology , Symptom Assessment , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance/etiology , Young Adult
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