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1.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 185-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior circulation stroke is characterized by poor prognosis because its optimal thrombolysis "time window" is always missed. After mechanical thrombectomy (MT), the recanalization rate of posterior circulation obstruction is significantly increased, but prognosis remains poor. To best manage patients, prognostic factors are needed to inform MT triaging after posterior circulation stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for the period through April 2020. Studies included those with posterior circulation stroke cases that underwent MT. The primary outcome measure in this study was the modified Rankin Scale on day 90. RESULTS: No outcome differences were found in gender, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.68; and OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58-1.22, respectively). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke correlated with poorer prognosis (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.50-0.73; and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, respectively). However, hyperlipidemia correlated with better prognosis (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or previous stroke correlate with poorer outcomes. Intriguingly, hyperlipidemia correlates with better prognosis. These factors may help inform triage decisions when considering MT for posterior circulation stroke patients. However, large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106035, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most data on telestroke utilization come from single academic hub-and-spoke telestroke networks. Our objective was to describe characteristics of telestroke consultations among a national sample of telestroke sites on one of the most commonly used common vendor platforms, prior to the COVID-19 public health emergency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercial telestroke vendor provided data on all telestroke consultations by two specialist provider groups from 2013-2019. Kendall's τ ß nonparametric test was utilized to assess time trends. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between hospital consult utilization and alteplase use adjusting for hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Among 67,736 telestroke consultations to 132 spoke sites over the study period, most occurred in the emergency department (90%) and for stroke indications (final clinical diagnoses: TIA 13%, ischemic stroke 39%, hemorrhagic stroke 2%, stroke mimics 46%). Stroke severity was low (median NIHSS 2, IQR 0-6). Alteplase was recommended for 23% of ischemic stroke patients. From 2013 to 2019, times from ED arrival to NIHSS, CT scan, imaging review, consult, and alteplase administration all decreased (p<0.05 for all), while times from consult start to alteplase recommendation and bolus increased (p<0.01 for both). Transfer was recommended for 8% of ischemic stroke patients. Number of patients treated with alteplase per hospital increased with increasing number of consults and hospital size and was also associated with US region in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Longer duration of hospital participation in the network was associated with shorter hospital median door-to-needle time for alteplase delivery (39 min shorter per year, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Among spoke sites using a commercial telestroke platform over a seven-year time horizon, times to consult start and alteplase bolus decreased over time. Similar to academic networks, duration of telestroke participation in this commercial network was associated with faster alteplase delivery, suggesting practice improves performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Remote Consultation/trends , Stroke/surgery , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Improvement/trends , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 76: 1-9, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly since it was identified. We sought to understand its effects on vascular surgery practices stratified by VASCON surgical readiness level and determine how these effects have changed during the course of the pandemic. METHODS: All members of the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society were sent electronic surveys questioning the effects of COVID-19 on their practices in the early pandemic in April (EP) and four months later in the pandemic in August (LP) 2020. RESULTS: Response rates were 206/731 (28%) in the EP group and 108/731 (15%) in the LP group (P < 0.0001). Most EP respondents reported VASCON levels less than 3 (168/206,82%), indicating increased hospital limitations while 6/108 (6%) in the LP group reported this level (P < 0.0001). The EP group was more likely to report a lower VASCON level (increased resource limitations), and decreased clinic, hospital and emergency room consults. Despite an increase of average cases/week to pre-COVID-19 levels, 46/108 (43%) of LP report continued decreased compensation, with 57% reporting more than 10% decrease. Respondents in the decreased compensation group were more likely to have reported a VASCON level 3 or lower earlier in the pandemic (P = 0.018). 91/108(84%) of LP group have treated COVID-19 patients for thromboembolic events, most commonly acute limb ischemia (76/108) and acute DVT (76/108). While the majority of respondents are no longer delaying the vascular surgery cases, 76/108 (70%) feel that vascular patient care has suffered due to earlier delays, and 36/108 (33%) report a backlog of cases caused by the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a profound effect on vascular surgery practices earlier in the pandemic, resulting in continued detrimental effects on the provision of vascular care as well as compensation received by vascular surgeons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Surgeons/trends , Vascular Surgical Procedures/trends , Adult , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Fee-for-Service Plans/trends , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Income/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/economics , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Surgeons/economics , Time Factors , Vascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Vascular Surgical Procedures/economics
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105746, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted acute stroke care with several reports showing worldwide drops in stroke caseload during the pandemic. We studied the impact of COVID-19 on acute stroke care in our health system serving Southeast Michigan as we rolled out a policy to limit admissions and transfers. METHODS: in this retrospective study conducted at two stroke centers, we included consecutive patients presenting to the ED for whom a stroke alert was activated during the period extending from 3/20/20 to 5/20/20 and a similar period in 2019. We compared demographics, time metrics, and discharge outcomes between the two groups. RESULTS: of 385 patients presented to the ED during the two time periods, 58% were African American. There was a significant decrease in the number of stroke patients presenting to the ED and admitted to the hospital between the two periods (p <0.001). In 2020, patients had higher presenting NIHSS (median: 2 vs 5, p = 0.012), discharge NIHSS (median: 2 vs 3, p = 0.004), and longer times from LKW to ED arrival (4.8 vs 9.4 h, p = 0.031) and stroke team activation (median: 10 vs 15 min, p = 0.006). In 2020, stroke mimics rates were lower among African Americans. There were fewer hospitalizations (p <0.001), and transfers from outside facilities (p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: a trend toward faster stroke care in the ED was observed during the pandemic along with dramatically reduced numbers of ED visits, hospitalizations and stroke mimics. Delayed ED presentations and higher stroke severity characterized the African American population, highlighting deepening of racial disparities during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/ethnology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105569, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Delayed evaluation of stroke may contribute to COVID-19 pandemic-related morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated patient characteristics, process measures and outcomes associated with the decline in stroke presentation during the early pandemic. METHODS: Volumes of stroke presentations, intravenous thrombolytic administrations, and mechanical thrombectomies from 52 hospitals from January 1-June 30, 2020 were analyzed with piecewise linear regression and linear spline models. Univariate analysis compared pandemic (case) and pre-pandemic (control) groups defined in relation to the nadir of daily strokes during the study period. Significantly different patient characteristics were further evaluated with logistic regression, and significantly different process measures and outcomes were re-analyzed after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Analysis of 7,389 patients found daily stroke volumes decreased 0.91/day from March 12-26 (p < 0.0001), reaching a nadir 35.0% less than expected, and increased 0.15 strokes/day from March 27-June 23, 2020 (p < 0.0001). Intravenous thrombolytic administrations decreased 3.3/week from February 19-March 31 (p = 0.0023), reaching a nadir 33.4% less than expected, and increased 1.4 administrations/week from April 1-June 23 (p < 0.0001). Mechanical thrombectomy volumes decreased by 1.5/week from February 19-March 31, 2020 (p = 0.0039), reaching a nadir 11.3% less than expected. The pandemic group was more likely to ambulate independently at baseline (p = 0.02, OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.08-2.42), and less likely to present with mild stroke symptoms (NIH Stroke Scale ≤ 5; p = 0.04, OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02). Process measures and outcomes of each group did not differ, including door-to-needle time, door-to-puncture time, and successful mechanical thrombectomy rate. CONCLUSION: Stroke presentations and acute interventions decreased during the early COVID-19 pandemic, at least in part due to patients with lower baseline functional status and milder symptoms not seeking medical care. Public health messaging and initiatives should target these populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delayed Diagnosis/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Functional Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105343, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak raised concerns over healthcare systems' ability to provide suitable care to stroke patients. In the present study, we examined the provision of stroke care in Kobe City during the COVID-19 epidemic, where some major stroke centers ceased to provide emergency care. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The Kobe Stroke Network surveyed the number of stroke patients admitted to all primary stroke centers (PSCs) in the city between March 1 and May 23, 2020, and between March 3 and May 25, 2019. In addition, online meetings between all PSC directors were held regularly to share information. The survey items included emergency response system characteristics, number of patients with stroke hospitalized within 7 days of onset, administered treatment types (IV rt-PA, mechanical thrombectomy, surgery, and endovascular therapy), and stroke patients with confirmed COVID-19. RESULTS: During the period of interest in 2020, the number of stroke patients hospitalized across 13 PSCs was 813, which was 15.5% lower than that during the same period of 2019 (p = 0.285). The number of patients admitted with cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage decreased by 15.4% (p = 0.245), 16.1% (p = 0.659), and 14.0% (p = 0.715), respectively. However, the rates of mechanical thrombectomy and surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage were slightly increased by 12.1% (p = 0.754) and 5.0% (p = 0.538), respectively. PSCs that ceased to provide emergency care reported a decrease in the number of stroke cases of 65.7% compared with the same period in 2019, while other PSCs reported an increase of 0.8%. No case of a patient with stroke and confirmed COVID-19 was reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: Kobe City was able to maintain operation of its stroke care systems thanks to close cooperation among all city PSCs and a temporal decrease in the total number of stroke cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Neurosurgical Procedures/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(12): 1511-1521, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648791

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the impact of the lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on key quality indicators for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. METHODS: Data were obtained from 41 hospitals participating in the prospective Feedback Intervention and Treatment Times in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FITT-STEMI) study, including 15,800 patients treated for acute STEMI from January 2017 to the end of March 2020. RESULTS: There was a 12.6% decrease in the total number of STEMI patients treated at the peak of the pandemic in March 2020 as compared to the mean number treated in the March months of the preceding years. This was accompanied by a significant difference among the modes of admission to hospitals (p = 0.017) with a particular decline in intra-hospital infarctions and transfer patients from other hospitals, while the proportion of patients transported by emergency medical service (EMS) remained stable. In EMS-transported patients, predefined quality indicators, such as percentages of pre-hospital ECGs (both 97%, 95% CI = - 2.2-2.7, p = 0.846), direct transports from the scene to the catheterization laboratory bypassing the emergency department (68% vs. 66%, 95% CI = - 4.9-7.9, p = 0.641), and contact-to-balloon-times of less than or equal to 90 min (58.3% vs. 57.8%, 95%CI = - 6.2-7.2, p = 0.879) were not significantly altered during the COVID-19 crisis, as was in-hospital mortality (9.2% vs. 8.5%, 95% CI = - 3.2-4.5, p = 0.739). CONCLUSIONS: Clinically important indicators for STEMI management were unaffected at the peak of COVID-19, suggesting that the pre-existing logistic structure in the regional STEMI networks preserved high-quality standards even when challenged by a threatening pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00794001.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiology Service, Hospital/trends , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Regional Health Planning/trends , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Prospective Studies , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
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