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1.
J Mol Model ; 28(3): 64, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699453

ABSTRACT

This paper is a summary of research that looks at the potential of fullerene-like (MO)12 nanoclusters (NCs) in drug-carrying systems using density functional theory. Favipiravir/Zn12O12 (- 34.80 kcal/mol), Favipiravir/Mg12O12 (- 34.98 kcal/mol), and Favipiravir/Be12O12 (- 30.22 kcal/mol) were rated in order of drug adsorption degrees. As a result, Favipiravir attachment to (MgO)12 and (ZnO)12 might be simple, increasing Favipiravir loading efficiency. In addition, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) assessment was utilized to look at the interactions between molecules. The FMO, ESP, NBO, and Eads reactivity patterns were shown to be in excellent agreement with the QTAIM data. The electrostatic properties of the system with the biggest positive charge on the M atom and the largest Eads were shown to be the best. This system was shown to be the best attraction site for nucleophilic agents. The findings show that (MgO)12 and (ZnO)12 have great carrier potential and may be used in medication delivery.


Subject(s)
Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Density Functional Theory , Fullerenes/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Quantum Theory , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Static Electricity
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580696

ABSTRACT

The inhibition of key enzymes that may contain the viral replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have assumed central importance in drug discovery projects. Nonstructural proteins (nsps) are essential for RNA capping and coronavirus replication since it protects the virus from host innate immune restriction. In particular, nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16) in complex with nsp10 is a Cap-0 binding enzyme. The heterodimer formed by nsp16-nsp10 methylates the 5'-end of virally encoded mRNAs to mimic cellular mRNAs and thus it is one of the enzymes that is a potential target for antiviral therapy. In this study, we have evaluated the mechanism of the 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach. It was found that the calculated free energy barriers obtained at M062X/6-31+G(d,p) is in agreement with experimental observations. Overall, we provide a detailed molecular analysis of the catalytic mechanism involving the 2'-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap and, as expected, the results demonstrate that the TS stabilization is critical for the catalysis.


Subject(s)
Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Caps/chemistry , RNA Caps/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Biomechanical Phenomena , Methylation , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantum Theory , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/chemistry
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
4.
J Comput Aided Mol Des ; 35(9): 963-971, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406168

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented efforts to identify drugs that can reduce its associated morbidity/mortality rate. Computational chemistry approaches hold the potential for triaging potential candidates far more quickly than their experimental counterparts. These methods have been widely used to search for small molecules that can inhibit critical proteins involved in the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. An important target is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease Mpro, an enzyme that cleaves the viral polyproteins into individual proteins required for viral replication and transcription. Unfortunately, standard computational screening methods face difficulties in ranking diverse ligands to a receptor due to disparate ligand scaffolds and varying charge states. Here, we describe full density functional quantum mechanical (DFT) simulations of Mpro in complex with various ligands to obtain absolute ligand binding energies. Our calculations are enabled by a new cloud-native parallel DFT implementation running on computational resources from Amazon Web Services (AWS). The results we obtain are promising: the approach is quite capable of scoring a very diverse set of existing drug compounds for their affinities to M pro and suggest the DFT approach is potentially more broadly applicable to repurpose screening against this target. In addition, each DFT simulation required only ~ 1 h (wall clock time) per ligand. The fast turnaround time raises the practical possibility of a broad application of large-scale quantum mechanics in the drug discovery pipeline at stages where ligand diversity is essential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Atazanavir Sulfate/chemistry , Atazanavir Sulfate/metabolism , Binding Sites , Cloud Computing , Density Functional Theory , Hydrogen Bonding , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Conformation , Quantum Theory
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43696-43707, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392772

ABSTRACT

Graphene is a two-dimensional semiconducting material whose application for diagnostics has been a real game-changer in terms of sensitivity and response time, variables of paramount importance to stop the COVID-19 spreading. Nevertheless, strategies for the modification of docking recognition and antifouling elements to obtain covalent-like stability without the disruption of the graphene band structure are still needed. In this work, we conducted surface engineering of graphene through heterofunctional supramolecular-covalent scaffolds based on vinylsulfonated-polyamines (PA-VS). In these scaffolds, one side binds graphene through multivalent π-π interactions with pyrene groups, and the other side presents vinylsulfonated pending groups that can be used for covalent binding. The construction of PA-VS scaffolds was demonstrated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. The covalent binding of -SH, -NH2, or -OH groups was confirmed, and it evidenced great chemical versatility. After field-effect studies, we found that the PA-VS-based scaffolds do not disrupt the semiconducting properties of graphene. Moreover, the scaffolds were covalently modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which improved the resistance to nonspecific proteins by almost 7-fold compared to the widely used PEG-monopyrene approach. The attachment of recognition elements to PA-VS was optimized for concanavalin A (ConA), a model lectin with a high affinity to glycans. Lastly, the platform was implemented for the rapid, sensitive, and regenerable recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ferritin in lab-made samples. Those two are the target molecules of major importance for the rapid detection and monitoring of COVID-19-positive patients. For that purpose, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were bound to the scaffolds, resulting in a surface coverage of 436 ± 30 ng/cm2. KD affinity constants of 48.4 and 2.54 nM were obtained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ferritin binding on these supramolecular scaffolds, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Ethylenes/chemistry , Ferritins/immunology , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Polyamines/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Pyrenes/chemistry , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Semiconductors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(16): 4059-4066, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387120

ABSTRACT

The spike glycoprotein (S-protein) mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry via intermolecular interaction with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S-protein has been considered critical for this interaction and acts as the target of numerous neutralizing antibodies and antiviral peptides. This study used the fragment molecular orbital method to analyze the interactions between the RBD and antibodies/peptides and extracted crucial residues that can be used as epitopes. The interactions evaluated as interfragment interaction energy values between the RBD and 12 antibodies/peptides showed a fairly good correlation with the experimental activity pIC50 (R2 = 0.540). Nine residues (T415, K417, Y421, F456, A475, F486, N487, N501, and Y505) were confirmed as being crucial. Pair interaction energy decomposition analyses showed that hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and π-orbital interactions are important. Our results provide essential information for understanding SARS-CoV-2-antibody/peptide binding and may play roles in future antibody/antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Chemical , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Static Electricity
7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(17): 4195-4202, 2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387119

ABSTRACT

The catalytic reaction in SARS-CoV-2 main protease is activated by a proton transfer (PT) from Cys145 to His41. The same PT is likely also required for the covalent binding of some inhibitors. Here we use a multiscale computational approach to investigate the PT thermodynamics in the apo enzyme and in complex with two potent inhibitors, N3 and the α-ketoamide 13b. We show that with the inhibitors the free energy cost to reach the charge-separated state of the active-site dyad is lower, with N3 inducing the most significant reduction. We also show that a few key sites (including specific water molecules) significantly enhance or reduce the thermodynamic feasibility of the PT reaction, with selective desolvation of the active site playing a crucial role. The approach presented is a cost-effective procedure to identify the enzyme regions that control the activation of the catalytic reaction and is thus also useful to guide the design of inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Biocatalysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protons , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
8.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 43: 128079, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385131

ABSTRACT

In the current study, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 protein (A and B chains of nsp13) with different recently synthesized phenolic compounds (Sreenivasulu et al., Synthetic Communications, 2020, 112-122) has been studied. The interactions have been investigated by using molecular docking, quantum chemical and molecular dynamics simulations methods. The molecular structures of all the ligands are studied quantum chemically in terms of their optimized structures, 3-D orbital distributions, global chemical descriptors, molecular electrostatic potential plots and HOMO-LUMO orbital energies. All the ligands show reasonably good binding affinities with nsp-13 protein. The ligand L2 shows to have better binding affinities to Chain A and Chain B of nsp13 protein, which are -6.7 and -6.4 kcal/mol. The study of intermolecular interactions indicates that L2 shows different hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with both chains. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations of the nsp13-L2 complex are obtained over a time scale of 60 ns, which indicates its stability and flexibility behavior as assessed in terms of its RMSD and RMSF graphs. The ADMET analysis also shows no violation of Lipinski rule (RO5) by studied phenolic compounds. We believe that the current findings will be further confirmed by in vitro and in vivo studies of these recent phenolic compounds for their potential as inhibitors for SARS-Co-V-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , Phenols/chemistry , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9096-9099, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373453

ABSTRACT

We present a detailed computational analysis of the binding mode and reactivity of the novel oral inhibitor PF-07321332 developed against the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. Alchemical free energy calculations suggest that positions P3 and P4 could be susceptible to improvement in order to get a larger binding strength. QM/MM simulations unveil the reaction mechanism for covalent inhibition, showing that the nitrile warhead facilitates the recruitment of a water molecule for the proton transfer step.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nitriles/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Lactams/chemistry , Lactams/metabolism , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/metabolism , Nitriles/metabolism , Proline/chemistry , Proline/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359731

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a highly infectious zoonotic virus first reported into the human population in September 2012 on the Arabian Peninsula. The virus causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness in humans with an unusually high fatality rate. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of receptor-binding S1 subunit of coronavirus spike (S) proteins can recognize a variety of host protein and mediates entry into human host cells. Blocking the entry by targeting the S1-NTD of the virus can facilitate the development of effective antiviral drug candidates against the pathogen. Therefore, the study has been designed to identify effective antiviral drug candidates against the MERS-CoV by targeting S1-NTD. Initially, a structure-based pharmacophore model (SBPM) to the active site (AS) cavity of the S1-NTD has been generated, followed by pharmacophore-based virtual screening of 11,295 natural compounds. Hits generated through the pharmacophore-based virtual screening have re-ranked by molecular docking and further evaluated through the ADMET properties. The compounds with the best ADME and toxicity properties have been retrieved, and a quantum mechanical (QM) based density-functional theory (DFT) has been performed to optimize the geometry of the selected compounds. Three optimized natural compounds, namely Taiwanhomoflavone B (Amb23604132), 2,3-Dihydrohinokiflavone (Amb23604659), and Sophoricoside (Amb1153724), have exhibited substantial docking energy >-9.00 kcal/mol, where analysis of frontier molecular orbital (FMO) theory found the low chemical reactivity correspondence to the bioactivity of the compounds. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation confirmed the stability of the selected natural compound to the binding site of the protein. Additionally, molecular mechanics generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) predicted the good value of binding free energies (ΔG bind) of the compounds to the desired protein. Convincingly, all the results support the potentiality of the selected compounds as natural antiviral candidates against the MERS-CoV S1-NTD.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Quantum Theory , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , User-Computer Interface
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1361-1377, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352114

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a dreaded pandemic in lack of specific therapeutic agent. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, an essential factor in viral pathogenesis, is recognized as a prospective therapeutic target in drug discovery against SARS-CoV-2. To tackle this pandemic, Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are being screened against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro via in silico and in vitro methods to detect the best conceivable drug candidates. However, identification of natural compounds with anti-SARS-CoV-2 Mpro potential have been recommended as rapid and effective alternative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic development. Thereof, a total of 653 natural compounds were identified against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro from NP-lib database at MTi-OpenScreen webserver using virtual screening approach. Subsequently, top four potential compounds, i.e. 2,3-Dihydroamentoflavone (ZINC000043552589), Podocarpusflavon-B (ZINC000003594862), Rutin (ZINC000003947429) and Quercimeritrin 6"-O-L-arabinopyranoside (ZINC000070691536), and co-crystallized N3 inhibitor as reference ligand were considered for stringent molecular docking after geometry optimization by DFT method. Each compound exhibited substantial docking energy >-12 kcal/mol and molecular contacts with essential residues, including catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and substrate binding residues, in the active pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro against N3 inhibitor. The screened compounds were further scrutinized via absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion - toxicity (ADMET), quantum chemical calculations, combinatorial molecular simulations and hybrid QM/MM approaches. Convincingly, collected results support the potent compounds for druglikeness and strong binding affinity with the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Hence, selected compounds are advocated as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and can be utilized in drug development against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus M Proteins/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Quantum Theory
12.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1262-1270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349900

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 encodes the Mac1 domain within the large nonstructural protein 3 (Nsp3), which has an ADP-ribosylhydrolase activity conserved in other coronaviruses. The enzymatic activity of Mac1 makes it an essential virulence factor for the pathogenicity of coronavirus (CoV). They have a regulatory role in counteracting host-mediated antiviral ADP-ribosylation, which is unique part of host response towards viral infections. Mac1 shows highly conserved residues in the binding pocket for the mono and poly ADP-ribose. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 Mac1 enzyme is considered as an ideal drug target and inhibitors developed against them can possess a broad antiviral activity against CoV. ADP-ribose-1 phosphate bound closed form of Mac1 domain is considered for screening with large database of ZINC. XP docking and QPLD provides strong potential lead compounds, that perfectly fits inside the binding pocket. Quantum mechanical studies expose that, substrate and leads have similar electron donor ability in the head regions, that allocates tight binding inside the substrate-binding pocket. Molecular dynamics study confirms the substrate and new lead molecules presence of electron donor and acceptor makes the interactions tight inside the binding pocket. Overall binding phenomenon shows both substrate and lead molecules are well-adopt to bind with similar binding mode inside the closed form of Mac1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Domains , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , User-Computer Interface
13.
Biophys Chem ; 276: 106610, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252522

ABSTRACT

In the new millennium, the outbreak of new coronavirus has happened three times: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, we still have no pharmaceutical weapons against the diseases caused by these viruses. The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 reminds us the urgency to search new drugs with totally different mechanism that may target the weaknesses specific to coronaviruses. Herein, we disclose a computational evaluation of targeted oxidation strategy (TOS) for potential inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by disulfiram, a 70-year-old anti-alcoholism drug, and predict a multiple-target mechanism. A preliminary list of promising TOS drug candidates targeting the two thiol proteases of SARS-CoV-2 are proposed upon virtual screening of 32,143 disulfides.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Deterrents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Disulfiram/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Alcohol Deterrents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Gene Expression , Humans , Kinetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oxidation-Reduction , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Thermodynamics
14.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(6): 2641-2647, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241784

ABSTRACT

The growing quantity of public and private data sets focused on small molecules screened against biological targets or whole organisms provides a wealth of drug discovery relevant data. This is matched by the availability of machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN) that are computationally expensive to perform on very large data sets with thousands of molecular descriptors. Quantum computer (QC) algorithms have been proposed to offer an approach to accelerate quantum machine learning over classical computer (CC) algorithms, however with significant limitations. In the case of cheminformatics, which is widely used in drug discovery, one of the challenges to overcome is the need for compression of large numbers of molecular descriptors for use on a QC. Here, we show how to achieve compression with data sets using hundreds of molecules (SARS-CoV-2) to hundreds of thousands of molecules (whole cell screening data sets for plague and M. tuberculosis) with SVM and the data reuploading classifier (a DNN equivalent algorithm) on a QC benchmarked against CC and hybrid approaches. This study illustrates the steps needed in order to be "quantum computer ready" in order to apply quantum computing to drug discovery and to provide the foundation on which to build this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Discovery , Algorithms , Computing Methodologies , Humans , Machine Learning , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2 , Support Vector Machine
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 259: 119907, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228158

ABSTRACT

In this work novel antiviral compound 4-(Dimethylamino) Pyridinium 3, 5-dichlorosalicylate was synthesized and characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. Quantum chemical computations were carried out by Density functional theory methods at B3LYP level. Electronic stability of the compound arising from hyper conjugative interactions and charge delocalization is investigated using natural bond orbital analysis. Assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the aid of Normal coordinate analysis following the SQMFF methodology. TD-DFT approach was applied to assign the electronic transition observed in UV visible spectrum measured experimentally. Frontier molecular orbital energy gap affirms the bioactivity of the molecule and NCI analysis gives information about inter and intra non covalent interactions. ESP recognises the nucleophilic and electrophilic regions of molecule and the chemical implication of molecule was explained using ELF, LOL. The reactive sites of the compound were studied from the Fukui function calculations and chemical descriptors define the reactivity of the molecule. Molecular docking done with SARS and MERS proteins endorses the bioactivity of molecule and drug likeness factors were calculated to comprehend the biological assets of DADS.


Subject(s)
Quantum Theory , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Thermodynamics , Vibration
16.
Biophys Chem ; 275: 106608, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219972

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes natural drug candidate compounds for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the binding properties between the compounds in the Moringa oleifera plant and the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using molecular docking and ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Among the 12 compounds, niaziminin was found to bind the strongest to Mpro. We furthermore proposed novel compounds based on niaziminin and investigated their binding properties to Mpro. The results reveal that the introduction of a hydroxyl group into niaziminin enhances its binding affinity to Mpro. These niaziminin derivatives can be promising candidate drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Thiocarbamates/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Drug Discovery , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/classification , Protease Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics , Thiocarbamates/classification , Thiocarbamates/isolation & purification , Thiocarbamates/pharmacology
17.
Mol Pharm ; 18(5): 1970-1984, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164785

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical properties, in particular solubility and the associated bioavailability, are key factors in determining efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs, which constitute 40% of new drugs in the market, and improving them is an important challenge for modern pharmacy. A recent strategy to achieve this goal is formation of stable co-amorphous solid dispersions with co-formers of low molecular weight. Here, the amorphization strategy was applied for low-soluble anti-hypertensive valsartan (VAL), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and nicotinamide, which exhibits lung- and cardio-protective effects. Through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system, VAL may be used to treat both hypertension and the current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using mechanochemical and liquid- and solid-state approaches, solvated co-amorphous solid dispersions of VAL with nicotinamide were obtained. They were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray analyses. The density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and non-covalent interaction index calculations revealed the presence of two types of hydrogen bonds between VAL and NIC (i.e., N-H···O and O-H···O). One of them had a partially covalent character, which caused conformational changes in the flexible VAL molecule, restricting contribution of the tetrazolyl N-H donor and thus limiting the possibility of co-crystal formation. The recognized VAL/NIC1- and VAL/NIC2-type heterodimeric interactions were responsible for the excellent durability of the solid compositions and up to 24-fold better solubility than VAL alone. The synthesized dispersions constitute a new class of dually acting drugs, containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (VAL) and supporting nutraceutical (nicotinamide).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Niacinamide/chemistry , Valsartan/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quantum Theory , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
18.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 251: 119388, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142229

ABSTRACT

Prospective antiviral molecule (2E)-N-methyl-2-[(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylidene]-hydrazinecarbothioamide has been probed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), FT-Raman and quantum chemical computations. The geometry equilibrium and natural bond orbital analysis have been carried out with density functional theory employing Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr method with the 6-311G++(d,p) basis set. The vibrational assignments pertaining to different modes of vibrations have been augmented by normal coordinate analysis, force constant and potential energy distributions. Drug likeness and oral activity have been carried out based on Lipinski's rule of five. The inhibiting potency of 2(2E)-methyl-2-[(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylidene]-hydrazinecarbothioamide has been investigated by docking simulation against SARS-CoV-2 protein. The optimized geometry shows a planar structure between the chromone and the side chain. Differences in the geometries due to the substitution of the electronegative atom and intermolecular contacts due to the chromone and hydrazinecarbothioamide were analyzed. NBO analysis confirms the presence of two strong stable hydrogen bonded NH⋯O intermolecular interactions and two weak hydrogen bonded CH⋯O interactions. The red shift in NH stretching frequency exposed from IR substantiates the formation of NH⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bond and the blue shift in CH stretching frequency substantiates the formation of CH⋯O intermolecular hydrogen bond. Drug likeness, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity property gives an idea about the pharmacokinetic properties of the title molecule. The binding energy of the nonbonding interaction with Histidine 41 and Cysteine 145, present a clear view that 2(2E)-methyl-2-[(4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylidene]-hydrazinecarbothioamide can irreversibly interact with SARS-CoV-2 protease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromones , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drugs, Investigational , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiourea , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Chromones/analysis , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/chemistry , Chromones/pharmacokinetics , Computational Chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drugs, Investigational/analysis , Drugs, Investigational/chemical synthesis , Drugs, Investigational/chemistry , Drugs, Investigational/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Hydrazines/chemistry , Hydrogen/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Quantum Theory , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Thioamides/analysis , Thioamides/chemical synthesis , Thioamides/chemistry , Thioamides/pharmacokinetics , Thiourea/analysis , Thiourea/chemical synthesis , Thiourea/chemistry , Thiourea/pharmacokinetics , Vibration
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6746-6757, 2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132112

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus-SARS-CoV-2, has created a global health, social, and economic crisis. As of mid-January 2021, there are over 90 million confirmed cases and more than 2 million reported deaths due to COVID-19. Currently, there are very limited therapeutics for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. For this reason, it is important to find drug targets that will lead to the development of safe and effective therapeutics against the disease. The main protease (Mpro) of the virus is an attractive target for the development of effective antiviral therapeutics because it is required for proteolytic cleavage of viral polyproteins. Furthermore, the Mpro has no human homologues, so drugs designed to bind to this target directly have less risk for off-target effects. Recently, several high-resolution crystallographic structures of the Mpro in complex with inhibitors have been determined-to guide drug development and to spur efforts in structure-based drug design. One of the primary objectives of modern structure-based drug design is the accurate prediction of receptor-ligand binding affinities for rational drug design and discovery. Here, we perform rigorous alchemical absolute binding free energy calculations and QM/MM calculations to give insight into the total binding energy of two recently crystallized inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, namely, N3 and α-ketoamide 13b. The total binding energy consists of both covalent and non-covalent binding components since both compounds are covalent inhibitors of the Mpro. Our results indicate that the covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions of both inhibitors to the Mpro target differ significantly. The N3 inhibitor has more favourable non-covalent interactions, particularly hydrogen bonding, in the binding site of the Mpro than the α-ketoamide inhibitor. Also, the Gibbs energy of reaction for the Mpro-N3 covalent adduct is greater than the Gibbs reaction energy for the Mpro-α-ketoamide covalent adduct. These differences in the covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions for both inhibitors could be a plausible explanation for their in vitro differences in antiviral activity. Our findings are consistent with the reversible and irreversible character of both inhibitors as reported by experiment and highlight the importance of both covalent and non-covalent binding free energy contributions to the absolute binding affinity of a covalent inhibitor towards its target. This information could prove useful in the rational design, discovery, and evaluation of potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors for targeted antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Peptidomimetics/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Amides/chemistry , Amides/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Kinetics , Ligands , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptidomimetics/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
20.
J Mol Graph Model ; 104: 107851, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053559

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is causing COVID-19, an ongoing pandemic, with extraordinary global health, social, and political implications. Currently, extensive research and development efforts are aimed at producing a safe and effective vaccine. In the interim, small molecules are being widely investigated for antiviral effects. With respect to viral replication, the papain-like (PLpro) and main proteases (Mpro), are critical for processing viral replicase polypeptides. Further, the PLpro possesses deubiquitinating activity affecting key signalling pathways, including inhibition of interferon and innate immune antagonism. Therefore, inhibition of PLpro activity with small molecules is an important research direction. Our aim was to focus on identification of potential inhibitors of the protease activity of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. We investigated 300 small compounds derived predominantly from our OliveNet™ library (222 phenolics) and supplemented with synthetic and dietary compounds with reported antiviral activities. An initial docking screen, using the potent and selective noncovalent PLpro inhibitor, GRL-0617 as a control, enabled a selection of 30 compounds for further analyses. From further in silico analyses, including docking to scenes derived from a publicly available molecular dynamics simulation trajectory (100 µs PDB 6WX4; DESRES-ANTON-11441075), we identified lead compounds for further in vitro evaluation using an enzymatic inhibition assay measuring SARS-CoV-2 PLpro protease activity. Our findings indicate that hypericin possessed inhibition activity, and both rutin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of the PLpro, with activity in the micromolar range. Overall, hypericin, rutin, and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside can be considered lead compounds requiring further characterisation for potential antiviral effects in appropriate model systems.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Perylene/analogs & derivatives , Rutin/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anthracenes , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Enzyme Assays , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Perylene/chemistry , Perylene/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Quantum Theory , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Thermodynamics
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