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1.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(2): 30, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616222

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the entire world. The effective implementation of vaccination strategy is critical to prevent the resurgence of the pandemic, especially during large-scale population migration. We establish a multiple patch coupled model based on the transportation network among the 31 provinces in China, under the combined strategies of vaccination and quarantine during large-scale population migration. Based on the model, we derive a critical quarantine rate to control the pandemic transmission and a vaccination rate to achieve herd immunity. Furthermore, we evaluate the influence of passenger flow on the effective reproduction number during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush. Meanwhile, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is investigated for different control strategies, viz. global control and local control. The impact of vaccine-related parameters, such as the number, the effectiveness and the immunity period of vaccine, are explored. It is believed that the articulated models as well as the presented simulation results could be beneficial to design of feasible strategies for preventing COVID-19 transmission during the Chinese-Spring-Festival travel rush or the other future events involving large-scale population migration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , China/epidemiology , Holidays , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Vaccination
2.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 50-59, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612730

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence rates are 2- to 5-fold higher among persons incarcerated in the United States than in the general population. PROGRAM OR POLICY: We describe an outbreak investigation of COVID-19 at a jail (jail A) in Alameda County during March 2020-March 2021. IMPLEMENTATION: To prevent COVID-19 cases among incarcerated persons and employees, staff at jail A and the county public health department worked to develop and recommend infection control measures implemented by jail A including, but not limited to, face covering use among incarcerated persons and staff; cohorting incarcerated persons at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 in dedicated housing units; quarantining all newly detained individuals for 14 days; and offering testing for all symptomatic incarcerated persons, newly incarcerated persons at day 2 and day 10, and all persons who resided in a housing unit where a COVID-19 case was detected. EVALUATION: A total of 571 COVID-19 cases were detected among incarcerated persons at jail A during March 2020-March 2021, which represented a total incidence of 280 per 1000 population, 5 times higher than the rate in Alameda County. Of the 571 cases among incarcerated persons, 557 (98%) were male; 415 (73%) were aged 18 to 40 years; 249 (44%) were Latino; and 180 (32%) were African American; 354 (62%) were not symptomatic; and 220 (39%) had no comorbidities. Less than 2% of infected incarcerated persons were hospitalized, and no deaths were reported. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 disproportionately impacted persons incarcerated at jail A, with higher numbers among Latinos and African Americans. Implementation of COVID-19 infection control and testing measures, and collaboration between public health, law enforcement, and health care providers may have, in part, led to reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 at jail A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Jails , California/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prisons , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751451, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606247

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, providing safe in-person schooling has been a dynamic process balancing evolving community disease burden, scientific information, and local regulatory requirements with the mandate for education. Considerations include the health risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its post-acute sequelae, the impact of remote learning or periods of quarantine on education and well-being of children, and the contribution of schools to viral circulation in the community. The risk for infections that may occur within schools is related to the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the local community. Thus, persistent suppression of viral circulation in the community through effective public health measures including vaccination is critical to in-person schooling. Evidence suggests that the likelihood of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within schools can be minimized if mitigation strategies are rationally combined. This article reviews evidence-based approaches and practices for the continual operation of in-person schooling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(47): e27948, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: South Korean studies on coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) treatment have described the use of community treatment centers (CTCs), which combine elements of the home and hospital, to isolate and treat mild COVID-19 patients. While the number of South Koreans diagnosed with COVID-19 cases has varied greatly by season, the number of confirmed cases in foreign nationals has shown no seasonality, with an average of around 25 to 30 per day. For foreign patients, accommodation arrangements and travel routes may be difficult; they may also have difficulty accessing medical care, so require careful management.We discuss our experience in operating and managing a CTC for foreign COVID-19 patients arriving in South Korea with mild symptoms. We also propose guidelines for efficient use of resources with respect to treating these patients in CTCs.We present the clinical findings of patients treated at the CTC between 7 October and 22 November 2020, and make some recommendations. We quarantined and treated foreign patients with mild symptoms of COVID-19 at the Ansan CTC. Discharge is determined based on clinical symptoms rather than polymerase chain reaction results. Medical and administrative staff use building A, while building B is used for isolating patients. Medical rounds are in the form of twice-daily video calls. Three kinds of foods with medication are served according to the patient's country of origin.In total, 315 patients were admitted to the Ansan CTC between 7 October and 22 November 2020; 145 of them were discharged from the CTC and 26 were transferred to other hospitals.To utilize medical resources efficiently during the pandemic, it is desirable to reserve CTCs exclusively for foreign patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Centers/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation/methods , Patient Transfer , Telemedicine/methods , Humans , Quarantine/methods , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7847-7857, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Islamic Republic of Iran has displayed one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world and the highest rate of mortality in the Middle East. Iran has used a stringent package of preventive health measures to mitigate the spread of infection, which however has negatively affected individuals' physical and psychological health. This study aimed at examining whether physical-activity (PA) behavior, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality changed in response to the COVID-19-related public health restrictions enforced in Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire was disseminated to adults residing in Iran from November 17, 2020, to February 13, 2021 (~88 days), during Iran's strictest public health restrictions. Main outcome measures included Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder-7, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: A total of 3,323 adults (mean age 30±11 years, 54.3% female) participated in the survey. Firstly, the restrictions generally reduced PA behavior: (a) among inactive participants (IPs), 60.6% became less active vs. 5.1% who became more active; and (b) among active participants (APs), 49.9% became less active vs. 22.8% who became more active. Secondly, PA behavior was associated with higher well-being and sleep quality during the restrictions: (a) APs reported higher (or lower) levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety) than did IPs; and (b) among IPs as well as among APs, the more active the participants, the greater (or lower) the levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial role of PA behavior for well-being, anxiety, and sleep quality during the COVID-19 restrictions, whereas such restrictions appeared to decrease PA participation. Active lifestyle should be then encouraged during the COVID-19 outbreak while taking precautions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1773-1777, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593939

ABSTRACT

On July 12, 2021, the California Department of Public Health updated COVID-19 school guidance, allowing a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy to increase access to in-person learning* (1). The TTS strategy enabled unvaccinated students, exposed in school to a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), to remain in school while under quarantine, if both the infected person and the exposed person wore masks correctly and consistently throughout the exposure. To stay in school during the quarantine period, the exposed student must remain asymptomatic, wear a mask at school, and undergo twice weekly testing for SARS-CoV-2. To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of TTS on transmission (2-4). This study evaluated a TTS strategy implemented by Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH). During September 20-October 31, 2021, among 78 school districts, one half permitted TTS; in total, 432 (21%) of 2,067 schools adopted TTS. TTS schools did not experience increases in COVID-19 incidence among students after TTS implementation, and in 20 identified outbreaks in TTS schools,† no tertiary transmission was identified. The ratio of student COVID-19 incidence in TTS districts to that in non-TTS districts was similar before and after TTS adoption (rate ratio = 0.5). Non-TTS schools lost an estimated 92,455 in-person school days during September 20-October 31 while students were in quarantine, compared with no lost days among quarantined students in TTS schools. Non-TTS schools cited resource-related reasons for not adopting TTS; 75% of these schools were in LAC's most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Preliminary data from LAC suggest that a school-based TTS strategy does not increase school transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and might greatly reduce loss of in-person school days; however, TTS might have barriers to implementation and require resources that are not available for some schools. Continued efforts to simplify school quarantine strategies might help to ensure that all students have access to safe in-person education. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for persons aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing students with a school exposure who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Masks
8.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(6): 1059-1078, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has spread globally and infected millions of people, thereby restricting their movement. Quarantine hotels play an important role in protecting people from COVID-19 and contribute to a better quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine the role of quarantine hotels in providing improved quality of life through both medical and hospitality services under one roof to address the COVID-19 situation in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study used a quantitative, cross-sectional research design. Data were collected from quarantine hotels in Saudi Arabia using a survey, and analyzed through Partial Least Square (PLS)-Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: Medical service quality, financial savings and convenience had a positive effect on people's attitudes and intention to use quarantine hotels. Similarly, attitude, intention, and hospitality products had a positive effect on health behavior, which favorably affected quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Medical service quality, financial savings, and convenience, as well as hospitality provided by quarantine hotels, have a positive role in promoting health behavior and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Health Behavior , Health Promotion , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2082-2087, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1600042

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases in Tianjin, and provide references for risk assessment and control of imported COVID-19 cases. Methods: The information of imported COVID-19 cases were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System of China CDC. The data of imported COVID-19 cases reported from Tianjin airport and epidemiological surveys by CDCs at all levels from March 15, 2020 to August 31, 2021 were collected and analyzed by using software Excel 2010, SPSS 25.0 and R. Results: From March 15, 2020 to August 31, 2021, a total of 606 imported cases of COVID-19 were reported in Tianjin, in which 552 cases were finally included in the analysis. The male to female ratio of the cases was 1.8∶1, the age of the cases ranged from 3 to 77 years, and the cases were mainly reported in age group 20-39 years (59.8%). The areas where the imported case sojourned within 14 days included Europe (242 cases, 43.8%), Africa (139 cases, 25.2%), Americas (85 cases, 15.4%) and Asia (86 cases, 15.6%). The proportion of confirmed cases in autumn and winter was relatively high. During the study period, the proportion of infected persons found in custom entry quarantine decreased, and the proportion of persons with personal health declaration and under medical isolation observation increased. The interval between entry and diagnosis of infected persons tended to increase. Conclusion: The proportion of imported COVID-19 cases detected on the first day of entry at Tianjin airport decreased, and the interval to detect the infected persons trended to increase, to which close attention must be paid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
10.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol ; 26: 464-478, 2021 Dec.
Article in English, Ukrainian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to assess the level of anxiety and characterize the quality of sleep in children living in radioactively con-taminated areas in comparison with children who were not affected by the Chornobyl-affected contingents that werequarantined in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The indicators of the level of anxiety were studied using the scale of self-assessment of thelevel of anxiety Ch.D. Spielberger, sleep quality was assessed using a standardized questionnaire for self-completionof PSQI and 137Cs content was measured in children. The main group consisted of 96 children who were quarantineddue to the COVID-19 pandemic and permanently lived in radioactively contaminated areas of Zhytomyr and Rivneregions with a soil contamination density of 137Cs from 18 kBq/m2 to 235 kBq/m2. The age of children ranged from10 to 17 years. Among them were 33 boys and 63 girls. The comparison group consisted of 52 children of similar age,including 26 boys and 26 girls. These children lived permanently in Kyiv and were not victims of the Chornobyl dis-aster. RESULTS: It was found that children who were quarantined for COVID-19 (both residents of radioactively contami-nated areas and children who do not belong to the contingents affected by the Chornobyl disaster) had an increasedlevel of reactive (RA) and personal anxiety (PA). The comparative analysis showed that children of the same sex ofthe main group and the comparison group did not differ in terms of PA and RA. At the same time, studies have shownthat girls, both in the main group and in the comparison group, were characterized by higher levels of PA and RAthan boys. It was determined that poor sleep quality was common in both children living in radioactively contami-nated areas (42.71 %) and children in the comparison group (42.44 %). Among the sleep disorders in children ofboth observation groups, «day dysfunction¼ was most often detected. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct correlation between the overall PSQI score and the level of reactive, personal anx-iety and the overall PSQI score. Using regression analysis, the presence of a linear association of the level of incorporated 137Cs (Bq) with the indicator of personal anxiety of children living in radioactively contaminated territory (b = -0.716, p < 0.001) was proved.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Radiation Exposure , Social Isolation/psychology , Adolescent , Chernobyl Nuclear Accident , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ukraine
11.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed) ; 13(2): 259-271, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599551

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to analyze the frequency of the spontaneous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in patients admitted to an Emergency Eye Department in Italy (EED) during the COVID-19 pandemic national lockdown in 2020 compared with the similar time period in 2019. In this retrospective observational study, patient records for ophthalmology EED patients in the month of April 2020 during the COVID-19 Italian national lockdown, were compared with those for an equivalent one-month period in 2019. Diagnoses, gender, and age were assessed. Unpaired Student t-tests were used for continuous variables. Poisson regression was used for count analysis to compare categorical variables. Chi-square test was applied to asses proportion differences. In comparison with the 2019 equivalent period, there was a significant decrease in the overall number of EED visits and in the number of patients presenting with a spontaneous PVD during the 2020 lockdown (-41.6% and -49%, respectively). During the 2020 lockdown, all diagnostic categories showed less patient admittance, however, the proportions remained stable when considering the entire cohort. The proportion of urgent visits was 90% in 2020 and 86% in 2019 (p = 0.66). The proportion of EED patients affected by spontaneous PVD was comparable between the two study periods (8.4% in 2020 vs. 9.6% in 2019, p = 0.34). Patients presenting with spontaneous PVD in both periods were significantly older when compared to patients with other pathologies (mean age of 63years in 2020 and 64years in 2019, p < 0.001). There was a significant bias in female gender (61.2% in 2019 and 60% in 2020, p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease of accesses to the EED during COVID-19 2020 lockdown. Patients affected by spontaneous PVD were about 50% less compared with the same period of 2019. Risk factors for the development of spontaneous PVD were older age and female gender. PVD represents a potentially visual function threatening condition because it can cause retinal ruptures and retinal detachment. Patients need to be educated to get urgent ophthalmic assessments in the presence of important acute signs and symptoms, like floaters and flashes, even in the presence of a lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Vitreous Detachment/diagnosis , Vitreous Detachment/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599330

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused two waves and spread to more than 90% of Canada's provinces since it was first reported more than a year ago. During the COVID-19 epidemic, Canadian provinces have implemented many Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs). However, the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic continues due to the complex dynamics of human mobility. We develop a meta-population network model to study the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. The model takes into account the heterogeneity of mitigation strategies in different provinces of Canada, such as the timing of implementing NPIs, the human mobility in retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residences due to work and recreation. To determine which activity is most closely related to the dynamics of COVID-19, we use the cross-correlation analysis to find that the positive correlation is the highest between the mobility data of parks and the weekly number of confirmed COVID-19 from February 15 to December 13, 2020. The average effective reproduction numbers in nine Canadian provinces are all greater than one during the time period, and NPIs have little impact on the dynamics of COVID-19 epidemics in Ontario and Saskatchewan. After November 20, 2020, the average infection probability in Alberta became the highest since the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Canada. We also observe that human activities around residences do not contribute much to the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. The simulation results indicate that social distancing and constricting human mobility is effective in mitigating COVID-19 transmission in Canada. Our findings can provide guidance for public health authorities in projecting the effectiveness of future NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1778-1781, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and reduction of in-person learning (1). In August 2021, the Lake County Health Department (LCHD) in Illinois introduced a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy, whereby unvaccinated students, teachers, and staff members with certain school-related COVID-19 exposures could remain in school and participate in school-related extracurricular activities. Eligibility to participate in TTS required the following conditions to be met: 1) the exposure occurred while both the person with COVID-19 (index patient) and the close contact were masked; 2) the close contact remained asymptomatic, practiced consistent mask wearing, and maintained physical distancing; and 3) the close contact underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after exposure to the index patient. LCHD permitted kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools in Lake County to implement TTS; 90 schools, representing 31 school districts in Lake County, implemented TTS during August 9-October 29, 2021. During the implementation period, 258 COVID-19 cases were reported. Among 1,035 students and staff members enrolled in TTS, the secondary attack risk (number of close contacts who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days after exposure to an index patient, divided by total number of close contacts) was 1.5% (16 of 1,035). Among the 16 secondary cases identified, all were in students, and none appeared to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to other school-based contacts. However, nine tertiary cases were identified among household contacts of the 16 secondary cases, and four of the nine were fully vaccinated. Assuming a maximum of 8 missed school days for every 10-day quarantine period, up to 8,152 in-person learning days were saved among TTS participants. Implementation of TTS with other concurrent prevention strategies, including masking and physical distancing, limited further spread of SARS-CoV-2 within K-12 schools and allowed students to safely sustain in-person learning. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for those aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing close contacts who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Masks
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24073, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585794

ABSTRACT

Mitigating the devastating effect of COVID-19 is necessary to control the infectivity and mortality rates. Hence, several strategies such as quarantine of exposed and infected individuals and restricting movement through lockdown of geographical regions have been implemented in most countries. On the other hand, standard SEIR based mathematical models have been developed to understand the disease dynamics of COVID-19, and the proper inclusion of these restrictions is the rate-limiting step for the success of these models. In this work, we have developed a hybrid Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Quarantined-Removed (SEIQR) model to explore the influence of quarantine and lockdown on disease propagation dynamics. The model is multi-compartmental, and it considers everyday variations in lockdown regulations, testing rate and quarantine individuals. Our model predicts a considerable difference in reported and actual recovered and deceased cases in qualitative agreement with recent reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine , Stochastic Processes
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24400, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585787

ABSTRACT

Coping style represents the cognitive and behavioral patterns to manage particular demands appraised as taxing the resources of individuals. Studies report associations between certain coping styles and levels of adjustment of anxious symptomatology and emotional distress. The main objective of this study was to analyze behavioral co-occurrent patterns and relationships in the coping strategies used to deal with psychological distress displayed by the Spanish adult population during the first State of Emergency and lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study that uses selective methodology complemented with an indirect observational methodology, with a nomothetic/punctual/unidimensional design. We collected 996 surveys from 19 out of the 22 autonomous regions in Spain. We focused the analysis on sociodemographic variables, cumulative incidence of the COVID-19 disease and psychological distress variables. We performed two different inferential analyses: Lag sequential analysis to define the participant coping patterns, and polar coordinate analysis to study the interrelationship of the focal behavior with conditioned behaviors. We found behavioral co-occurrent patterns of coping strategies with problem avoidance being found as the coping strategy most frequently engaged by participants. Interestingly, the problem avoidance strategy was not associated with lower anxious symptomatology. By contrast, emotion-focused strategies such as express emotions and social support were associated with higher anxious symptomatology. Our findings underscore the importance of furthering our understanding of coping as a way to aid psychological distress during global public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Support , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24434, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585783

ABSTRACT

To assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on dry-eye symptoms in a community-based population, a cross-sectional study was conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand. An online survey was distributed via social media between June and July 2020. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, dry-eye symptoms, use of visual display terminals, and mental health status. There were 535 respondents. Thirty-seven percent reported having been diagnosed with dry-eye disease (DED). During the lockdown, the mean dry-eye symptom score (DESS) of overall participants dropped significantly from 81.6 ± 15.9 to 79.8 ± 17.4 (P < 0.001). The mean, daily, visual display terminal (VDT) usage increased from 10.55 ± 5.16 to 13.08 ± 5.65 h (P < 0.001). A negative correlation between age and VDT usage was observed in both the normal and lockdown situations. One-quarter of all participants had an abnormal mental health status. The female gender (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.14-3.04) and increased VDT usage during the lockdown (OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.49-9.23) were independently associated with worsening dry-eye symptoms. The lockdown measures abruptly altered the behaviors and lifestyles of the overall population. Excessive exposure to VDTs were associated with deteriorated dry-eye symptoms, and it possibly contributed to the increased DED incidence in the surveyed population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Quarantine , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1262, 2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the characteristics of SARS-CoV2 with regard to transmission before the onset of symptoms and varying manifestation indices according to age, isolation and quarantine have limited efficacy in the current pandemic. Household quarantine in second degree contacts (Hh-Q2°) outside the case household has so far only been addressed by modellers. In the literature there is no publication based on field data. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study on real field data from a county health department (CHD), all PCR-confirmed cases and related contact persons put into quarantine were analysed. Hh-Q2° was used in our CHD from the onset of the pandemic. RESULTS: From 9 March to 8 December 2020, 353 PCR-confirmed cases were registered in the CHD Ploen, Northern Germany: 225 (63.7%) primary, 107 (30.3%) secondary and 21 (5.9%) tertiary cases. The 107 secondary cases resulted out of 470 (22.8%) close or 1°contacts and 21 tertiary cases out of 179 (11.7%) indirect or 2°contacts put into quarantine. The efficacy of Hh-Q2° was 51.5% (11.7%/22.8%) of that of quarantine in 1°contacts; 16.4% of all converted cases in quarantined persons were ascertained by Hh-Q2°. One in ten 1°contacts in households with tertiary cases remained asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: The impact of Hh-Q2° in preventing further spread of SARS-CoV2 was considerable. With half the conversion rate in 2°contacts compared to 1°contacts, the efficacy of Hh-Q2° is substantial. Hh-Q2° should definitely be used routinely to control the spread of SARS-CoV2 more efficiently and national authorities should include it in their guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 840, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented risk to the global population. Maternity care in the UK was subject to many iterations of guidance on how best to reconfigure services to keep women, their families and babies, and healthcare professionals safe. Parents who experience a pregnancy loss or perinatal death require particular care and support. PUDDLES is an international collaboration investigating the experiences of recently bereaved parents who suffered a late miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death during the global COVID-19 pandemic, in seven countries. In this study, we aim to present early findings from qualitative work undertaken with recently bereaved parents in the United Kingdom about how access to healthcare and support services was negotiated during the pandemic. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents (N = 24) who had suffered a late miscarriage (n = 5; all mothers), stillbirth (n = 16; 13 mothers, 1 father, 1 joint interview involving both parents), or neonatal death (n = 3; all mothers). Data were analysed using a template analysis with the aim of investigating bereaved parents' access to services, care, and networks of support, during the pandemic after their bereavement. RESULTS: All parents had experience of utilising reconfigured maternity and/or neonatal, and bereavement care services during the pandemic. The themes utilised in the template analysis were: 1) The Shock & Confusion Associated with Necessary Restrictions to Daily Life; 2) Fragmented Care and Far Away Families; 3) Keeping Safe by Staying Away; and 4) Impersonal Care and Support Through a Screen. Results suggest access to maternity, neonatal, and bereavement care services were all significantly reduced, and parents' experiences were notably affected by service reconfigurations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, whilst preliminary, are important to document now, to help inform care and service provision as the pandemic continues and to provide learning for ongoing and future health system shocks. We draw conclusions on how to enable development of safe and appropriate services during this pandemic and any future health crises, to best support parents who experience a pregnancy loss or whose babies die.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Grief , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Death , Stillbirth/psychology , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Female , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Preliminary Data , Psychosocial Support Systems , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260244, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581785

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought profound changes to all corners of society and affected people in every aspect of their lives. This survey-based study investigated how household food related matters such as food sourcing and consumption behaviors of 2,126 Chinese consumers in different age groups changed approximately two months into the COVID-19 quarantine. A new food sourcing mechanism, community-based online group grocery-ordering (CoGGO), was widely adopted by households, particularly among the youngest group studied (18-24 years of age). The same group showed a higher confidence in the food supply system during the quarantine and a greater propensity for weight gain while staying-at-home. The more mature age group (≥35 years of age) showed heightened vigilance and awareness, with fewer grocery-shopping trips, a higher tendency for purchasing extra food, and less tendency to waste food. Survey findings of the new food-sourcing mechanism, attitudes to food, and changes in behavior among different age groups provide valuable insights to guide policies and management interventions to address matters pertaining to food supply and distribution, food access and household food security, and food waste reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581766

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
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