Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 804
Filter
Add filters

Year range
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020047, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate time-variant reproductive number (Rt) of coronavirus disease 19 based on either number of daily confirmed cases or their onset date to monitor effectiveness of quarantine policies. METHODS: Using number of daily confirmed cases from January 23, 2020 to March 22, 2020 and their symptom onset date from the official website of the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the district office, we calculated Rt using program R's package "EpiEstim". For asymptomatic cases, their symptom onset date was considered as -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 days of confirmed date. RESULTS: Based on the information of 313 confirmed cases, the epidemic curve was shaped like 'propagated epidemic curve'. The daily Rt based on Rt_c peaked to 2.6 on February 20, 2020, then showed decreased trend and became <1.0 from March 3, 2020. Comparing both Rt from Rt_c and from the number of daily onset cases, we found that the pattern of changes was similar, although the variation of Rt was greater when using Rt_c. When we changed assumed onset date for asymptotic cases (-2 days to +2 days of the confirmed date), the results were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Rt can be estimated based on Rt_c which is available from daily report of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimation of Rt would be useful to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the quarantine policy at the city and province levels.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Policy , Quarantine , Seoul/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
5.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 18(3): 238-240, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749031

ABSTRACT

The Coronarovirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak strongly affected nursing and was responsible for a high mortality rate. During the pandemic of March-May 2020, 17 French nursing homes organized staff confinement periods with residents 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, to reduce the risk of entry of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into their facilities, in a context where visits to residents were prohibited. By means of a telephone survey of their directors, we observed that 16 nursing homes (94%) had no cases of COVID-19 among the residents, and that mortality from COVID-19 was very low compared to that recorded at the national level by Santé publique France (p<10-4). Moreover, the number of cases of Covid-19 among the staff of these nursing homes was also lower than that recorded by Santé publique France (p<10-4). These establishments experienced certain difficulties which the directors managed to overcome and the investment of these teams was widely appreciated by the families of the residents and through the press.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Female , France , Health Personnel , Humans
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1216-1220, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745359

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020.* Shortly thereafter, closures of 124,000 U.S. public and private schools affected at least 55.1 million students through the end of the 2019-20 school year.† During the summer of 2020, approximately 82% of 8,947 U.S. overnight camps did not operate.§ In Maine, only approximately 20% of 100 overnight camps opened.¶ An overnight camp in Georgia recently reported SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, transmission among campers and staff members when nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were not strictly followed (1); however, NPIs have been successfully used to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission among military basic trainees (2). During June-August 2020, four overnight camps in Maine implemented several NPIs to prevent and mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, including prearrival quarantine, pre- and postarrival testing and symptom screening, cohorting, use of face coverings, physical distancing, enhanced hygiene measures, cleaning and disinfecting, and maximal outdoor programming. During the camp sessions, testing and symptom screening enabled early and rapid identification and isolation of attendees with COVID-19. Among the 1,022 attendees (staff members and campers) from 41 states, one territory, and six international locations, 1,010 were tested before arrival; 12 attendees who had completed a period of isolation after receiving a diagnosis of COVID-19 2 months before arrival were not tested. Four (0.4%) asymptomatic attendees received positive SARS-CoV-2 test results before arrival; these persons delayed their arrival, completed 10 days of isolation at home, remained asymptomatic, and did not receive any further testing before arrival or for the duration of camp attendance. Approximately 1 week after camp arrival, all 1,006 attendees without a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were tested, and three asymptomatic cases were identified. Following isolation of these persons and quarantine of their contacts, no secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred. These findings can inform similar multilayered public health strategies to prevent and mitigate the introduction and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children, adolescents, and adults in congregate settings, such as overnight camps, residential schools, and colleges.


Subject(s)
Camping , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Maine/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Young Adult
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Sep 03.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Covid-19 pandemic is testing the resistance of health systems, the preservation of health professionals is a priority in processes of this type. The professionals' exposure to suspicious contacts often requires their confinement. The objective was to know the epidemiological characteristics of the primary care professionals who required confinement. METHODS: The research was carried out in the North Metropolitan Primary Care Area of Barcelona, from February 17 to May 3, 2020. 1,418 professionals who required confinement due to the epidemic by Covid-19 participated. The reasons for confinement, symptomatology, the confinement time and the results of PCR tests results were recorded. Univariate descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: 78.8% of the professionals were women and the mean age was 45.2 years. 67.8% were doctors and nurses, in the remaining 32.2% there were different healthcare and non-care professionals. 64.1% of the sample presented symptoms compatible with Covid-19. Participants described multiple symptoms during confinement. 1,050 diagnostic RT- PCR tests were performed, being positive in 323 cases, of which 33 were in asymptomatic people. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the epidemic by Covid-19 is anticipated in health personnel compared to the general population. The distribution of symptoms in healthcare professionals is similar to that of other studies in the general population. Of the total number of professionals requiring isolation, 22.7% confirmed the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Quarantine , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743513

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Affect , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Coronavirus , Croatia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201173, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742024

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Southeast Asia was the first region to be affected outside China, and although COVID-19 cases have been reported in all countries of Southeast Asia, both the policies and epidemic trajectories differ substantially, potentially due to marked differences in social distancing measures that have been implemented by governments in the region. This paper studies the across-country relationships between social distancing and each population's response to policy, the subsequent effects of these responses to the transmissibility and epidemic trajectories of SARS-CoV-2. The analysis couples COVID-19 case counts with real-time mobility data across Southeast Asia to estimate the effects of host population response to social distancing policy and the subsequent effects on the transmissibility and epidemic trajectories of SARS-CoV-2. A novel inference strategy for the time-varying reproduction number is developed to allow explicit inference of the effects of social distancing on the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 through a regression structure. This framework replicates the observed epidemic trajectories across most Southeast Asian countries, provides estimates of the effects of social distancing on the transmissibility of disease and can simulate epidemic histories conditional on changes in the degree of intervention scenarios and compliance within Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/legislation & jurisprudence
11.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100745, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 originated from China and spread across every corner of the world. The scientific interest on COVID-19 increased after WHO declared it a pandemic in the early February of 2020. In fact, this pandemic has had a worldwide impact on economy, health, and lifestyle like no other in the last 100 years. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Coronaviridae family and causes the deadliest clinical manifestations when compared to other viruses in the family. COVID-19 is an emerging zoonotic disease that has resulted in over 383,000 deaths around the world. Scientists are scrambling for ideas to develop treatment and prevention strategies to thwart the disease condition. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the latest information on the virus, disease, prevention, and treatment strategies. The future looks promising.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ataxia/diagnosis , Ataxia/physiopathology , Ataxia/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Nausea/diagnosis , Nausea/physiopathology , Nausea/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/physiopathology , Vomiting/virology
12.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(2): 195-202, 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740608

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the probability of controlling the outbreak of COVID-19 in Peru, in a pre- and post-quarantine scenario using mathematical simulation models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outbreak si mulations for the COVID-19 pandemic are performed, using stochastic equations under the following assumptions: a pre-quarantine population R0 of 2.7 or 3.5, a post-quarantine R0 of 1.5, 2 or 2.7, 18% or 40%, of asymptomatic positives and a maximum response capacity of 50 or 150 patients in the intensive care units. The success of isolation and contact tracing is evaluated, no other mitigation measures are included. RESULTS: In the pre-quarantine stage, success in controlling more than 80% of the simulations occurred only if the isolation of positive cases was implemented from the first case, after which there was less than 40% probability of success. In post-quarantine, with 60 positive cases it is necessary to isolate them early, track all of their contacts and decrease the R0 to 1.5 for outbreak control to be successful in more than 80% of cases. Other scenarios have a low probability of success. CONCLUSIONS: The control of the outbreak in Peru during pre-quarantine stage demanded requirements that were difficult to comply with, therefore quarantine was necessary; to successfully suspend it would require a significant reduction in the spread of the disease, early isolation of positives and follow-up of all contacts of positive patients.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peru/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probability , Quarantine
13.
J Biol Dyn ; 14(1): 730-747, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740143

ABSTRACT

In this study, we estimate the severity of the COVID-19 outbreak in Pakistan prior to and after lockdown restrictions were eased. We also project the epidemic curve considering realistic quarantine, social distancing and possible medication scenarios. The pre-lock down value of R 0 is estimated to be 1.07 and the post lock down value is estimated to be 1.86. Using this analysis, we project the epidemic curve. We note that if no substantial efforts are made to contain the epidemic, it will peak in mid-September, 2020, with the maximum projected active cases being close to 700, 000. In a realistic, best case scenario, we project that the epidemic peaks in early to mid-July, 2020, with the maximum active cases being around 120, 000. We note that social distancing measures and medication will help flatten the curve; however, without the reintroduction of further lock down, it would be very difficult to make R 0 < 1 .


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Biostatistics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Epidemics , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data
14.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949077, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737978

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019 has resulted in over 20 million cases and 741,808 deaths globally, affecting more than 200 countries. COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is limited information on COVID-19, and treatment has so far focused on supportive care and use of repurposed drugs. COVID-19 can be transmitted via person-to-person contact through droplet spread. Some of the recommended precautionary measures to reduce the rate of disease spread include social distancing, good hygiene practices, and avoidance of crowded areas. These measures are effective because the droplets are heavy and can only travel approximately 1 meter in the air, settling quickly on fixed surfaces. Promising strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2 include discovery of therapeutic targets/drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of COVID-19. We also address the mechanisms of action of approved repurposed drugs for therapeutic management of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Incidence , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Social Distance , Survival Analysis
16.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736738

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice-to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , Diet Surveys , Female , Humans , Male , Poland
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(34): e314, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736660

ABSTRACT

A 14-day quarantine is implemented in many countries in response to the coronavirus disease pandemic. Korea implemented a mandatory quarantine for those who had close contact with infected patients and those returning from abroad. The present study explored the implications of mandatory coronavirus disease 2019 testing before releasing individuals from the 14-day quarantine in Incheon, Korea. From February 11 to July 5, 2020, 19,296 people were self-quarantined, and 56 (0.3%) of them were confirmed cases of COVID-19. Twenty (35.7%) were identified through the reporting of symptoms during quarantine, and 32 (57.1%) were identified using mandatory pre-release RT-PCR tests. Among the 32, 14 (25%) individuals reported mild symptoms and 18 (32.1%) were asymptomatic. It is suggested that mandatory diagnostic testing prior to release and the symptom-based surveillance after the 14-day quarantine may help control delayed or asymptomatic COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Young Adult
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 399, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the association between SARS-CoV-2 and secondary bacterial infections. Such an association was described for flu and invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). We aimed exploring such a correlation between COVID-19 and IMD as well as the impact of the lockdown on IMD. RESULTS: We compared IMD cases received at the French National Reference Centre for meningococci and Haemophilus influenzae that are sent as part of the mandatory reporting of IMD. We compared these data during the period 01 January-15 May 2020 to those from the same period in 2018 and 2019. IMD cases that were associated with respiratory presentations significantly increased in 2020 compared to 2018 (P = 0.029) and 2019 (P = 0.002), involved elderly and were due to unusual isolates. However, IMD cases due to hyperinvasive isolates decreased during the lockdown. Enhancing IMD surveillance and anti-meningococcal vaccination in elderly should be addressed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Meningococcal Infections/complications , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL