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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261759, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643248

ABSTRACT

In the beginning of the COVID-19 US epidemic in March 2020, sweeping lockdowns and other aggressive measures were put in place and retained in many states until end of August of 2020; the ensuing economic downturn has led many to question the wisdom of the early COVID-19 policy measures in the US. This study's objective was to evaluate the cost and benefit of the US COVID-19-mitigating policy intervention during the first six month of the pandemic in terms of COVID-19 mortality potentially averted, versus mortality potentially attributable to the economic downturn. We conducted a synthesis-based retrospective cost-benefit analysis of the full complex of US federal, state, and local COVID-19-mitigating measures, including lockdowns and all other COVID-19-mitigating measures, against the counterfactual scenario involving no public health intervention. We derived parameter estimates from a rapid review and synthesis of recent epidemiologic studies and economic literature on regulation-attributable mortality. According to our estimates, the policy intervention saved 866,350-1,711,150 lives (4,886,214-9,650,886 quality-adjusted life-years), while mortality attributable to the economic downturn was 57,922-245,055 lives (2,093,811-8,858,444 life-years). We conclude that the number of lives saved by the spring-summer lockdowns and other COVID-19-mitigation was greater than the number of lives potentially lost due to the economic downturn. However, the net impact on quality-adjusted life expectancy is ambiguous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Public Health/economics , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Quarantine/economics , COVID-19/economics , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Quarantine/ethics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1052, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642020

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic provides a major opportunity to study fishing effort dynamics and to assess the response of the industry to standard and remedial actions. Knowing a fishing fleet's capacity to compensate for effort reduction (i.e., its resilience) allows differentiating governmental regulations by fleet, i.e., imposing stronger restrictions on the more resilient and weaker restrictions on the less resilient. In the present research, the response of the main fishing fleets of the Adriatic Sea to fishing hour reduction from 2015 to 2020 was measured. Fleet activity per gear type was inferred from monthly Automatic Identification System data. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to study the fishing effort trends and barycentres by gear. The beneficial effects of the lockdowns on Adriatic endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species were also estimated. Finally, fleet effort series were examined through a stock assessment model to demonstrate that every Adriatic fishing fleet generally behaves like a stock subject to significant stress, which was particularly highlighted by the pandemic. Our findings lend support to the notion that the Adriatic fleets can be compared to predators with medium-high resilience and a generally strong impact on ETP species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fisheries/economics , Models, Economic , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22855, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532103

ABSTRACT

Policymakers commonly employ non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the scale and severity of pandemics. Of non-pharmaceutical interventions, physical distancing policies-designed to reduce person-to-person pathogenic spread - have risen to recent prominence. In particular, stay-at-home policies of the sort widely implemented around the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have proven to be markedly effective at slowing pandemic growth. However, such blunt policy instruments, while effective, produce numerous unintended consequences, including potentially dramatic reductions in economic productivity. In this study, we develop methods to investigate the potential to simultaneously contain pandemic spread while also minimizing economic disruptions. We do so by incorporating both occupational and contact network information contained within an urban environment, information that is commonly excluded from typical pandemic control policy design. The results of our methods suggest that large gains in both economic productivity and pandemic control might be had by the incorporation and consideration of simple-to-measure characteristics of the occupational contact network. We find evidence that more sophisticated, and more privacy invasive, measures of this network do not drastically increase performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing/economics , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Occupations/classification , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Policy , Principal Component Analysis , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/methods , Quarantine/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21174, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493227

ABSTRACT

Lockdowns implemented to address the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted human mobility flows around the globe to an unprecedented extent and with economic consequences which are unevenly distributed across territories, firms and individuals. Here we study socioeconomic determinants of mobility disruption during both the lockdown and the recovery phases in Italy. For this purpose, we analyze a massive data set on Italian mobility from February to October 2020 and we combine it with detailed data on pre-existing local socioeconomic features of Italian administrative units. Using a set of unsupervised and supervised learning techniques, we reliably show that the least and the most affected areas persistently belong to two different clusters. Notably, the former cluster features significantly higher income per capita and lower income inequality than the latter. This distinction persists once the lockdown is lifted. The least affected areas display a swift (V-shaped) recovery in mobility patterns, while poorer, most affected areas experience a much slower (U-shaped) recovery: as of October 2020, their mobility was still significantly lower than pre-lockdown levels. These results are then detailed and confirmed with a quantile regression analysis. Our findings show that economic segregation has, thus, strengthened during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/economics , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Income , Italy/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Pandemics/economics , Poverty , Quarantine/economics , Regression Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , Travel
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257357, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Australia has maintained low rates of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, due to geographic location and strict public health restrictions. However, the financial and social impacts of these restrictions can negatively affect parents' and children's mental health. In an existing cohort of mothers recruited for their experience of adversity, this study examined: 1) families' experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic and public health restrictions in terms of clinical exposure, financial hardship family stress, and family resilience (termed 'COVID-19 impacts'); and 2) associations between COVID-19 impacts and maternal and child mental health. METHODS: Participants were mothers recruited during pregnancy (2013-14) across two Australian states (Victoria and Tasmania) for the 'right@home' trial. A COVID-19 survey was conducted from May-December 2020, when children were 5.9-7.2 years old. Mothers reported COVID-19 impacts, their own mental health (Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales short-form) and their child's mental health (CoRonavIruS Health and Impact Survey subscale). Associations between COVID-19 impacts and mental health were examined using regression models controlling for pre-COVID-19 characteristics. RESULTS: 319/406 (79%) mothers completed the COVID-19 survey. Only one reported having had COVID-19. Rates of self-quarantine (20%), job or income loss (27%) and family stress (e.g., difficulty managing children's at-home learning (40%)) were high. Many mothers also reported family resilience (e.g., family found good ways of coping (49%)). COVID-19 impacts associated with poorer mental health (standardised coefficients) included self-quarantine (mother: ß = 0.46, child: ß = 0.46), financial hardship (mother: ß = 0.27, child: ß = 0.37) and family stress (mother: ß = 0.49, child: ß = 0.74). Family resilience was associated with better mental health (mother: ß = -0.40, child: ß = -0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The financial and social impacts of Australia's public health restrictions have substantially affected families experiencing adversity, and their mental health. These impacts are likely to exacerbate inequities arising from adversity. To recover from COVID-19, policy investment should include income support and universal access to family health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Mothers/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Psychology, Child , Quarantine/economics , Resilience, Psychological
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 93, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377118

ABSTRACT

Widespread vaccination provides a means for countries to lift strict COVID-19 restrictions previously imposed to contain the spread of the disease. However, to date, Africa has secured enough COVID-19 vaccine doses for less than 5% of its population. With widespread vaccination not on the horizon for Africa, there is a strong emphasis on non-pharmaceutical interventions which include movement restrictions (lockdowns). This general COVID-19 pandemic response of imposing lockdowns, however, neglects to factor in non-fatal consequences leading to disruption socio-economic wellbeing of the society at large. The economy in most African countries can no longer sustain lockdown restrictions. Some studies have indicated that a hard lockdown statistical value of the extra lives saved would be dwarfed by its long-term cost. At the same time not responding to the threat of the pandemic will cost lives and disrupts the social fabric. This paper proffers ways to mitigate the both and advocate for better policymaking that addresses specific challenges in defined communities thus yield higher population welfare.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , Digital Technology , Health Policy , Africa , COVID-19/economics , Humans , Policy Making , Quarantine/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253944, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On February 26th 2020, a high alert was issued in Sweden in response to the diagnosis of the first few coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in the country. Subsequently, a decreased supply of essential goods, including medical products, was anticipated. We aimed to explore the weekly patterns of prescription dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication sales in Sweden in 2020 compared with previous years, to assess the influence of the government restrictions on medication sales, and to assess whether there is evidence of medication stockpiling in the population. METHODS: Aggregated data on the weekly volume of defined daily doses (DDDs) of prescription medication dispensed and OTC sales from 2015 to 2020 were examined. From 2015-2019 data, the predicted weekly volume of DDDs for 2020 was estimated and compared to the observed volume for each ATC anatomical main group and therapeutic subgroup. RESULTS: From mid-February to mid-March 2020, there were increases in the weekly volumes of dispensed medication, peaking in the second week of March with a 46% increase in the observed versus predicted number of DDDs dispensed (16,440 vs 11,260 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants). A similar pattern was found in all age groups, in both sexes, and across metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. In the same week in March, there was a 96% increase in the volume of OTC sold (2,504 vs 1,277 DDDs per 1000 inhabitants), specifically in ATC therapeutic subgroups including vitamins, antipyretics, painkillers, and nasal, throat, cough and cold preparations. CONCLUSION: Beginning in mid-February 2020, there were significant changes in the volume of prescription medication dispensed and OTC drugs sold. The weekly volume of DDDs quickly decreased following recommendations from public authorities. Overall, our findings suggest stockpiling behavior over a surge in new users of medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Nonprescription Drugs/economics , Prescription Drugs/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Nonprescription Drugs/supply & distribution , Prescription Drugs/supply & distribution , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/psychology , Sweden
8.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334773

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of COVID-19, many cities, states, and countries have 'locked down', restricting economic activities in non-essential sectors. Such lockdowns have substantially shrunk production in most countries. This study examines how the economic effects of lockdowns in different regions interact through supply chains, which are a network of firms for production, by simulating an agent-based model of production using supply-chain data for 1.6 million firms in Japan. We further investigate how the complex network structure affects the interactions between lockdown regions, emphasising the role of upstreamness and loops by decomposing supply-chain flows into potential and circular flow components. We find that a region's upstreamness, intensity of loops, and supplier substitutability in supply chains with other regions largely determine the economic effect of the lockdown in the region. In particular, when a region lifts its lockdown, its economic recovery substantially varies depending on whether it lifts the lockdown alone or together with another region closely linked through supply chains. These results indicate that the economic effect produced by exogenous shocks in a region can affect other regions and therefore this study proposes the need for inter-region policy coordination to reduce economic loss due to lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Industry/economics , Quarantine/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278182

ABSTRACT

This paper develops a methodology for the assessment of the short-run effects of lockdown policies on economic activity. The methodology combines labor market data with simulation of an agent-based model. We apply our methodology to the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. We recover the model parameters from observed data, taking into account the recurring policy adjustments that characterized the study window. The model is used to build counterfactual scenarios. We estimate an 8 percent output loss in the first 5 months of the pandemic from the policy that was put in place, achieving a 56 percent reduction in the total number of infections. During this period, with an output loss to 10.5 percent of GDP, the infection rate would have decreased 92 percent, significantly delaying the spread of COVID and spike in infections. Our methodology applied to real data provided results that could be valuable in guiding policies in other lockdown situations in times of disaster, pandemics or social upheaval.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Economic Development , Policy , Quarantine/economics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Government , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252423, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269919

ABSTRACT

Dynamic capabilities, resulting from activities that allow conscious and skillful modification of a firm's strategic potential, are seen as one of the key drivers of a firm's value creation, competitive advantage and above-average performance in changing environments. However, little is known about how dynamic capabilities can shape business survival and performance during crises. The research objective of this paper is twofold. First, through a literature review, we seek to identify which first-order dynamic capabilities-managerial decisions under uncertainty-are vital for rapid response to a crisis. Second, we present the results of research carried out among 151 small and medium-sized companies in Poland immediately after the beginning of the economic lockdown (April 2020). The survey that we developed identifies which dynamic capabilities were essential for businesses to survive during this unexpected black swan event. We also present dependence and regression analyses showing the links between the identified dynamic capabilities and value creation, understood as retaining employees and production levels, as well as value capture, understood as maintaining cash flow and current revenues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Entrepreneurship/organization & administration , Pandemics/economics , Quarantine/economics , Small Business/organization & administration , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Entrepreneurship/economics , Entrepreneurship/statistics & numerical data , Entrepreneurship/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , Quarantine/standards , Small Business/economics , Small Business/statistics & numerical data , Small Business/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Sustainable Development , Uncertainty
11.
Health Care Women Int ; 41(11-12): 1370-1383, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263586

ABSTRACT

Women are normally self-employed in businesses involving buying and selling of goods. Such businesses were severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic lock-down. The researchers explored the impact the of COVID-19 lockdown on self-employed women. The researchers used a qualitative approach. Interviews were used to collect data. Forty participants took part in the study. The data was thematically analyzed. The researchers found that participants were affected by Inadequate food supplies, Hopelessness to revive business, Poor access to health services, Psychological trauma, Defaulting medications, and Challenges of keeping children indoors. There is need to provide social and economic support to self-employed women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Developing Countries/economics , Employment/economics , Quarantine/economics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Young Adult , Zambia/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256045

ABSTRACT

This paper estimates the benefits and costs of state suppression policies to "bend the curve" during the initial outbreak of COVID-19 in the United States. We employ an approach that values benefits and costs in terms of additions or subtractions to total production. Relative to a baseline in which only the infected and at-risk populations mitigate the spread of coronavirus, we estimate that total benefits of suppression policies to economic output are between $632.5 billion and $765.0 billion from early March 2020 to August 1, 2020. Relative to private mitigation, output lost due to suppression policies is estimated to be between $214.2 billion and $331.5 billion. The cost estimate is based on the duration of nonessential business closures and stay-at-home orders, which were enforced between 42 and 65 days. Our results indicate that the net benefits of suppression policies to slow the spread of COVID-19 are positive and may be substantial. We discuss uncertainty surrounding several parameters and employ alternative methods for valuing mortality benefits, which also suggest that suppression measures had positive net benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Quarantine/economics , Commerce/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251715, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238765

ABSTRACT

This paper explores to what extent product and marketing channel diversification contributed to the economic success of small-scale agricultural producers involved in short food supply chains after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was conducted between April and July 2020 in four countries of the European Union-Estonia, Hungary, Portugal and Romania,-resulting in a relatively large sample of farmers (N = 421). The analysis was built on a semi-nonparametric approach. Approximately 19 percent of small-scale producers were able to increase sales during the first wave of the pandemic, although country-level variation was significant. Fruits and vegetables were by far the most popular products. The importance of specific channels varied across countries, but farm gate sales were among the most important marketing channels both before and during the first wave. The importance of channels that were based on digital resources and home delivery increased. Our evidence indicates that diversification was a strategy that paid off, both in terms of marketing channels and different product categories. However, the impact appears to be nonlinear; the initial advantage generated by diversification rapidly tapered off, either temporarily (in the case of products), or permanently (in the case of marketing channels). Later research may clarify whether these findings are generalizable in other socio-economic contexts, as well as in a non-COVID situation.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Economic , Quarantine/economics , Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , Europe , Farmers/psychology , Humans , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(7): 801-804, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220022

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, many governments have implemented national or regional lockdowns to slow the spread of infection. The widely anticipated negative impact these interventions would have on families, including on their mental health, were not included in decision models. The purpose of this editorial is, therefore, to stimulate debate by considering some of the barriers that have stopped governments setting the benefits of lockdown against, in particular, mental health costs during this process and so to make possible a more balanced approach going forward. First, evidence that lockdown causes mental health problems needs to be stronger. Natural experimental studies will play an essential role in providing such evidence. Second, innovative health economic approaches that allow the costs and benefits of lockdown to be compared directly are required. Third, we need to develop public health information strategies that allow more nuanced and complex messages that balance lockdown's costs and benefits to be communicated. These steps should be accompanied by a major public consultation/engagement campaign aimed at strengthening the publics' understanding of science and exploring beliefs about how to strike the appropriate balance between costs and benefits in public health intervention decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/economics , Quarantine/economics , Decision Making , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183652

ABSTRACT

The implementation of large-scale containment measures by governments to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in large impacts to the global economy. Here, we derive a new high-frequency indicator of economic activity using empirical vessel tracking data, and use it to estimate the global maritime trade losses during the first eight months of the pandemic. We go on to use this high-frequency dataset to infer the effect of individual non-pharmaceutical interventions on maritime exports, which we use as a proxy of economic activity. Our results show widespread port-level trade losses, with the largest absolute losses found for ports in China, the Middle-East and Western Europe, associated with the collapse of specific supply-chains (e.g. oil, vehicle manufacturing). In total, we estimate that global maritime trade reduced by -7.0% to -9.6% during the first eight months of 2020, which is equal to around 206-286 million tonnes in volume losses and up to 225-412 billion USD in value losses. We find large sectoral and geographical disparities in impacts. Manufacturing sectors are hit hardest, with losses up to 11.8%, whilst some small islands developing states and low-income economies suffered the largest relative trade losses. Moreover, we find a clear negative impact of COVID-19 related school and public transport closures on country-wide exports. Overall, we show how real-time indicators of economic activity can inform policy-makers about the impacts of individual policies on the economy, and can support economic recovery efforts by allocating funds to the hardest hit economies and sectors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Commerce/economics , Quarantine/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Economics , Europe/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ships/economics
17.
Milbank Q ; 99(2): 369-392, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169746

ABSTRACT

Policy Points Preventive measures such as the national lockdown in Italy have been effective in slowing the spread of COVID-19. However, they also had psychological and economic impacts on people's lives, which should not be neglected as they may reduce citizens' trust and compliance with future health mandates. Engaging citizens in their own health management and in the collaboration with health care professionals and authorities via the adoption of a collaborative approach to health policy development is fundamental to fostering such measures' effectiveness. Psychosocial analysis of citizens' concerns and emotional reactions to preventive policies is important in order to plan personalized health communication campaigns. CONTEXT: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, between February 23 and March 8, 2020, some areas of Italy were declared "red zones," with citizens asked to stay home and avoid unnecessary interpersonal contacts. Such measures were then extended, between March 10 and May 4, 2020, to the whole country. However, compliance with such behaviors had an important impact on citizens' personal, psychological, and economic well-being. This could result in reduced trust in authorities and lowered compliance. Keeping citizens engaged in their own health and in preventive behaviors is thus a key strategy for the success of such measures. This paper presents the results from a study conducted in Italy to monitor levels of people's health engagement, sentiment, trust in authorities, and perception of risk at two different time points. METHODS: Two independent samples (n = 968 and n = 1,004), weighted to be representative of the adult Italian population, were recruited in two waves corresponding to crucial moments of the Italian COVID-19 epidemic: between February 28 and March 4 (beginning of "phase 1," after the first regional lockdowns), and between May 12 and May 18 (beginning of "phase 2," after the national lockdown was partially dismissed). Respondents were asked to complete an online survey with a series of both validated measures and ad hoc items. A series of t-tests, general linear models, and contingency tables were carried out to assess if and how our measures changed over time in different social groups. FINDINGS: Although sense of self and social responsibility increased between the two waves, and trust toward authorities remained substantially the same, trust in science, consumer sentiment, and health engagement decreased. Our results showed that while both the level of general concern for the emergency and the perceived risk of infection increased between the two waves, in the second wave our participants reported being more concerned for the economic consequences of the pandemic than the health risk. CONCLUSIONS: The potentially disruptive psychological impact of lockdown may hamper citizens' compliance with, and hence the effectiveness of, behavioral preventive measures. This suggests that preventive measures should be accompanied by collaborative educational plans aimed at promoting people's health engagement by making citizens feel they are partners in the health preventive endeavor and involved in the development of health policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Participation/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Participation/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/economics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 53, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143826

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: the COVID-19 pandemic has devastated every sector leading to untold hardship, unplanned loss of jobs and drastic reductions in the income of families across the world. This survey assessed the knowledge of COVID-19 among Nigerian parents and its effect on their monthly income. METHODS: an online cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 9 - June 8, 2020, among parents/guardians with children/wards in the paediatric age-range during the lockdown stage of the outbreak in Nigeria. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 260 respondents. The questionnaire was administered on a Google doc form and distributed via the internet. Chi-square was used to test for differences, and statistical significance was set at p-value less than 0.05 and a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: the mean age was 39.6 years (SD = 7.3), comprising 105 (40.4%) males, 239 (91.9%) married, and 167 (64.2%) with tertiary education. Only 29 (11.2%) had good knowledge of COVID-19. Interestingly, low-income earners were more likely to have good knowledge of COVID-19 than middle/high-income earners. The monthly incomes of 191 (73.5%) respondents were affected. Females, those with secondary education and below, and low-income earners were more likely to have their incomes affected. CONCLUSION: parents/guardians have poor knowledge of COVID-19. Also, the monthly income of parents/guardians have been affected by the lockdown measures; most affected were females, those with a secondary level of education and below and low-income earners. Their poor knowledge and the impact on their income may further impair their preparedness to combat the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Income/statistics & numerical data , Parents/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Quarantine/economics , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05002, 2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Governments worldwide have implemented large-scale non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing or school closures, to prevent and control the growth of the COVID-19 pandemic. These strategies, implemented with varying stringency, have imposed substantial social and economic costs to society. As some countries begin to reopen and ease mobility restrictions, lockdowns in smaller geographic areas are increasingly considered an attractive policy intervention to mitigate societal costs while controlling epidemic growth. Nevertheless, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support these decisions. METHODS: Drawing from a rich data set of localized lockdowns in Chile, we used econometric methods to measure the reduction in local economic activity from lockdowns when applied to smaller or larger geographical areas. We measured economic activity by tax collection at the municipality-level. RESULTS: Our results show that lockdowns were associated with a 10%-15% drop in local economic activity, which is twice the reduction in local economic activity suffered by municipalities that were not under lockdown. A three-to-four-month lockdown had a similar effect on economic activity than a year of the 2009 great recession. We found costs are proportional to the population under lockdown, without differences when lockdowns were measured at the municipality or city-wide levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that localized lockdowns have a large effect on local economic activity, but these effects are proportional to the population under lockdown. Our results suggest that epidemiological criteria should guide decisions about the optimal size of lockdown areas since the proportional impact of lockdowns on the economy seems to be unchanged by scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Quarantine/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Public Policy
20.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247182, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088768

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery in the Hubei province of China, the global spread of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in millions of COVID-19 cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. The spread throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas has presented one of the greatest infectious disease threats in recent history and has tested the capacity of global health infrastructures. Since no effective vaccine is available, isolation techniques to prevent infection such as home quarantine and social distancing while in public have remained the cornerstone of public health interventions. While government and health officials were charged with implementing stay-at-home strategies, many of which had little guidance as to the consequences of how quickly to begin them. Moreover, as the local epidemic curves have been flattened, the same officials must wrestle with when to ease or cease such restrictions as to not impose economic turmoil. To evaluate the effects of quarantine strategies during the initial epidemic, an agent based modeling framework was created to take into account local spread based on geographic and population data with a corresponding interactive desktop and web-based application. Using the state of Massachusetts in the United States of America, we have illustrated the consequences of implementing quarantines at different time points after the initial seeding of the state with COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, we suggest that this application can be adapted to other states, small countries, or regions within a country to provide decision makers with critical information necessary to best protect human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Statistical , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Health/methods , Quarantine/economics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stochastic Processes
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